Jose Santiago

Jose Santiago
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Jose Santiago

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High Energy Physics - Phenomenology (45)
High Energy Physics - Experiment (14)
High Energy Physics - Theory (11)
General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (7)
Astrophysics (6)
Physics - General Physics (1)
Physics - Soft Condensed Matter (1)
Mathematical Physics (1)
Mathematics - Mathematical Physics (1)

Publications Authored By Jose Santiago

Extensions of the Standard Model Higgs sector with electroweak charged scalars can possess exotic `Higgs' bosons with vanishing or suppressed couplings to Standard Model fermions. These `fermiophobic' scalars, which cannot be produced via gluon fusion, are constrained by LHC measurements of the 125 GeV Higgs boson to have a small vacuum expectation value. This implies that vector boson fusion and associated vector boson production are in general suppressed rendering conventional Higgs searches insensitive. Read More

We discuss the limitations of the covariant derivative expansion prescription advocated to compute the one-loop Standard Model (SM) effective lagrangian when the heavy fields couple linearly to the SM. In particular, one-loop contributions resulting from the exchange of both heavy and light fields must be explicitly taken into account through matching because the proposed functional approach alone does not account for them. We review a simple case with a heavy scalar singlet of charge $-1$ to illustrate the argument. Read More

We consider the possibility that the recently observed diphoton excess at $\sim 750$ GeV can be explained by the decay of a scalar particle ($\varphi$) to photons. If the scalar is the remnant of a symmetry-breaking sector of some new gauge symmetry, its coupling to photons can be generated by loops of the charged massive vectors of the broken symmetry. If these new $W^\prime$ vector bosons carry color, they can also generate an effective coupling to gluons. Read More

Pair production of new vector-like quarks in $pp$ collisions is considered model independent as it is usually dominated by QCD production. Nonetheless, the presence of a new massive color octet (heavy gluon) in some composite Higgs models may modify the pair production rate of vector-like quarks. This scenario is considered and the possible differences between the usual QCD production and the production mediated via heavy gluons is studied. Read More

We examine the `diboson' excess at $\sim 2$ TeV seen by the LHC experiments in various channels. We provide a comparison of the excess significances as a function of the mass of the tentative resonance and give the signal cross sections needed to explain the excesses. We also present a survey of available theoretical explanations of the resonance, classified in three main approaches. Read More

A UFO model describing general top quark Flavour Changing Neutral Currents is presented. We use it to study t$\gamma$, tH and tZ production via FCNCs anomalous couplings at the Large Hadron Collider, in particular how the distributions of physical observables depend on the anomalous couplings. A sensitivity study of the Large Hadron Collider experiments to tZ production via FCNC in its second stage of operation is also performed. Read More

Pair production of new vector-like quarks in pp collisions is considered model independent as it is usually dominated by QCD production. We discuss the interpretation of vector-like quark searches in the case that QCD is not the only relevant production mechanism for the new quarks. In particular we consider the effect of a new massive color octet vector boson with sizeable decay branching ratio into the new quarks. Read More

We show that the recently reported excess in resonant diboson production can be explained in the context of non-custodial composite Higgs models. Dibosons are generated via the s-channel exchange of massive vector bosons present in these models. We discuss the compatibility of the signal excess with other diboson experimental searches. Read More

Anomalous interactions involving the top quark contribute to some of the most difficult observables to directly access experimentally. They can give however a sizeable correction to very precisely measured observables at the loop level. Using a model-independent effective Lagrangian approach, we present the leading indirect constraints on dimension-six effective operators involving the top quark from electroweak precision data. Read More

Many Standard Model extensions can contribute to four-lepton signals at large colliders. We review the particular case of leptophilic interactions eventually observable at the LHC and the ILC, paying special attention to the addition of a new vector boson coupled to muon minus tau lepton number, $Z'_{\mu - \tau}$, and emphasizing the prospects at a very large hadron collider with $\sqrt s =$ 100 TeV. We also discuss in this case the new contribution to two-lepton (Drell-Yan) production when the new leptophilic interaction has a non-vanishing kinetic mixing with the SM. Read More

We classify all possible new scalar particles that can have renormalizable linear couplings to Standard Model fields and therefore be singly produced at colliders. We show that this classification exhausts the list of heavy scalar particles that contribute at the tree level to the Standard Model effective Lagrangian to dimension six. We compute this effective Lagrangian for a general scenario with an arbitrary number of new scalar particles and obtain flavor-preserving constraints on their couplings and masses. Read More

Leptophilic interactions can only be observed at the LHC in four-lepton final states. If these interactions are mediated by a resonance in the di-leptonic channel with renormalizable couplings, the mediator must have spin 1. We study the LHC reach for such a vector boson allowing for arbitrary couplings. Read More

We study the phenomenology of vector resonances in the context of natural composite Higgs models. A mild hierarchy between the fermionic partners and the vector resonances can be expected in these models based on the following arguments. Both direct and indirect (electroweak and flavor precision) constraints on fermionic partners are milder than the ones on spin one resonances. Read More

We define a lepton-based asymmetry in semi-leptonic ttbar production at the LHC. We show that the ratio of this lepton-based asymmetry and the ttbar charge asymmetry, measured as a function of the lepton transverse momentum or the ttbar invariant mass is a robust observable in the Standard Model. It is stable against higher order corrections and mis-modeling effects. Read More

The Large Hadron Collider can do precision physics at a level that is competitive with electroweak precision constraints when probing physics beyond the Standard Model. We present a simple yet general parameterization of the effect of an arbitrary number of lepton-quark contact interactions on any di-lepton observable at hadron colliders. This parameterization can be easily adopted by the experimental collaborations to put bounds on arbitrary combinations of lepton-quark contact interactions. Read More

New vector-like quarks with electric charge 2/3 and -1/3 can be singly produced at hadron colliders through the exchange of a color octet vector resonance in models of strong electroweak symmetry breaking. We show that electroweak symmetry breaking effects can have a significant impact on the decay pattern of these new quarks. In particular, single production of charge -1/3 fermion resonances, mediated by a color octet vector resonance, typically results in an $H b\bar{b}$ final state with a sizeable cross section and very distinctive kinematics. Read More

We discuss some aspects of the interplay between the top quark and the Higgs boson at the LHC. First we describe what indirect information on the top Yukawa coupling can be extracted from measurements in the Higgs sector. We then show that the study of processes involving $Ht\bar{t}$ and $Hb\bar{b}$ final states can give us information on the spectrum in models of strong electroweak symmetry breaking. Read More

New vector-like quarks can mix sizably with first generation Standard Model quarks without conflicting with current experimental constraints. Searches for such new quarks have been performed in pair production and electroweak single production channels with subsequent decays into electroweak gauge bosons. To fully explore the underlying structure of the theory the channels with heavy quark decays into Higgs bosons are crucial and in this article we consider for the first time the LHC reach for such channels. Read More

The bending energy of any freely deformable closed surface is quadratic in its curvature. In the absence of constraints, it will be minimized when the surface adopts the form of a round sphere. If the surface is confined within a hypersurface of smaller size, however, this spherical state becomes inaccessible. Read More

Composite Higgs models are only now starting to be probed at the Large Hadron Collider by Higgs searches. We point out that new resonances, abundant in these models, can mediate new production mechanisms for the composite Higgs. The new channels involve the exchange of a massive color octet and single production of new fermion resonances with subsequent decays into the Higgs and a Standard Model quark. Read More

New colour octet vectors below the TeV scale could explain the anomalous t tbar forward-backward asymmetry observed at the Tevatron experiments, while being consistent with the current LHC data. These models generally lead to four-top final states at the LHC at observable levels. We compute the four-top production cross section at the LHC in a model with a massive colour octet vector as a function its mass, its width and its coupling to the top quark. Read More

A general action for particles faster than light is presented. It is demonstrated that this action is invariant under reparametrizations. For several cases, it is shown that in the high velocity regime the action is invariant under anisotropic space-time transformation and at quantum level the system has fractal behavior. Read More

A gluon resonance G of mass below 1 TeV could be the origin of the t\bar{t} forward-backward asymmetry observed at the Tevatron provided that new decay modes G->\bar{q}Q, with q a standard quark and Q its massive excitation, make G broad enough. We consider all the different cases, with q the top, the bottom or a light quark and dominant decay modes Q->Wq' or Q->Zq. We show that current experimental searches are unable to probe the model, but that minimal departures from these analyses can explore a large region of its parameter space for the current LHC luminosity. Read More

We compute the dimension 6 effective Lagrangian arising from the tree level integration of an arbitrary number of bulk fermions in models with warped extra dimensions. The coefficients of the effective operators are written in terms of simple integrals of the metric and are valid for arbitrary warp factors, with or without an infrared brane, and for a general Higgs profile. All relevant tree level fermion effects in electroweak and flavor observables can be computed using this effective Lagrangian. Read More

We study the effect of bulk fermions on electroweak precision observables in a recently proposed model with warped extra dimensions and no custodial symmetry. We find that the top-quark mass, together with the corrections to the Zbb vertex and the one-loop contribution to the T parameter, which is finite, impose important constraints that single out a well defined region of parameter space. New massive vector bosons can be as light as 1. Read More

We find that a heavy gluon G of mass 800-900 GeV with small, mostly axial-vector couplings to the light quarks and relatively large vector and axial-vector couplings to the top quark can explain the t \bar{t} forward-backward asymmetry observed at the Tevatron with no conflict with other top-quark or dijet data. The key ingredient is a complete treatment of energy-dependent width effects and a new decay mode G->qQ, where q is a standard quark and Q a vector-like quark of mass 400--600 GeV. We show that this new decay channel makes the heavy gluon invisible in the t\bar{t} mass invariant distribution and discuss its implications at the Tevatron and the LHC. Read More

We argue that a relatively light massive gluon with mass <= 1 TeV, small purely axial couplings to light quarks and sizable vector and axial couplings to the top quark can reproduce the large forward-backward asymmetry observed at the Tevatron without conflicting with the t tbar and the dijet invariant mass distributions measured at the Tevatron and the LHC. We show that realistic Higgsless models with warped extra dimensions naturally fulfil all the necessary ingredients to realize this scenario. While current data is unable to discover or exclude these heavy gluons with masses 850 GeV, they should be observed at the (7 TeV) LHC with a luminosity of the order of 300 pb^{-1}. Read More

Models with warped extra dimensions, and their strongly coupled duals, offer a nice solution to the hierarchy problem and a very appealing realisation of flavour. Compatibility with the very stringent electroweak and flavour tests have made a generic picture emerge, with a composite Higgs, partial compositeness and custodial symmetry as the main ingredients. We review the main features of this picture and discuss how -and when- models with warped extra dimensions could be discovered at the Large Hadron Collider. Read More

New vector-like quarks can have sizable couplings to first generation quarks without conflicting with current experimental constraints. The coupling with valence quarks and unique kinematics make single production the optimal discovery process. We perform a model-independent analysis of the discovery reach at the Large Hadron Collider for new vector-like quarks considering single production and subsequent decays via electroweak interactions. Read More

The tau lepton can be more composite than naively expected in models of strong electroweak symmetry breaking with tri-bimaximal lepton mixing. New leptonic resonances required by custodial symmetry, the tau custodians, can then be the first signal of this lepton flavor realization. Tau custodians can be very light, decaying almost exclusively into taus. Read More

We briefly summarise the current status of neutrino masses and mixing, paying special attention to the prospects for observing new leptonic interactions. Read More

We show that holographic composite Higgs Models with a discrete A4 symmetry naturally predict hierarchical charged lepton masses and an approximate tri-bimaximal lepton mixing with the correct scale of neutrino masses. They also satisfy current constraints from electroweak precision tests, lepton flavor violation and lepton mixing in a large region of parameter space. Two phenomenologically relevant features arise in these models. Read More

We discuss the implementation of bulk fermions in soft wall models. The introduction of a position dependent bulk mass allows for a well defined Kaluza-Klein expansion for bulk fermions. The realization of flavor and the contribution to electroweak precision observables are shown to be very similar to the hard wall case. Read More

Warped 5-dimensional models, based on the original Randall-Sundrum geometry, have been extended beyond their initial purpose of resolving the gauge hierarchy problem. Over the past decade, various ingredients have been added to their basic structure in order to provide natural and predictive models of flavor and also to address existing constraints from precision data. In this review, we examine the theoretical and experimental status of realistic models that accommodate current data, while addressing the hierarchy and flavor puzzles of the Standard Model. Read More

We study bulk fermions in models with warped extra dimensions in the presence of a soft wall. Fermions can acquire a position dependent bulk Dirac mass that shields them from the deep infrared, allowing for a systematic expansion in which electroweak symmetry breaking effects are treated perturbatively. Using this expansion, we analyze properties of bulk fermions in the soft wall background. Read More

We study the role of fermionic resonances in realistic composite Higgs models. We consider the low energy effective description of a model in which the Higgs arises as the pseudo-Goldstone boson of an SO(5)/SO(4) global symmetry breaking pattern. Assuming that only fermionic resonances are present below the cut-off of our effective theory, we perform a detailed analysis of the electroweak constraints on such a model. Read More

Recent developments in models with warped extra dimensions have opened new possibilities for vector-like quark studies at hadron colliders. These new vector-like quarks can mix sizably with light Standard Model quarks without violating low energy constraints. We perform a model-independent analysis to determine the Tevatron reach in the search for new quarks. Read More

We propose a new flavor paradigm for models with warped extra dimensions. The idea is to impose the minimal amount of flavor protection to make warped models compatible with all current flavor and electroweak precision constraints. We discuss a particular realization of this minimal flavor protection in the quark sector, by means of a flavor symmetry acting on the right handed down sector. Read More

We show that a discrete exchange symmetry can give rise to realistic dark matter candidates in models with warped extra dimensions. We show how to realize our construction in a variety of models with warped extra dimensions and study in detail a realistic model of Gauge-Higgs Unification/composite Higgs in which the observed amount of dark matter is naturally reproduced. In this model, a realistic pattern of electroweak symmetry breaking typically occurs in a region of parameter space in which the fit to the electroweak precision observables improves, the Higgs is heavier than the experimental bound and new light quark resonances are predicted. Read More

It has been recently argued that realistic models with warped extra dimensions can have Kaluza-Klein particles accessible at the Large Hadron Collider if a custodial symmetry, SU(2)_V \times P_{LR}, is used to protect the T parameter and the coupling of the left-handed bottom quark to the Z gauge boson. In this article we emphasize that such a symmetry implies that the loop corrections to both the T parameter and the Z b_L \bar{b}_L coupling are calculable. In general, these corrections are correlated, can be sizable, and should be considered to determine the allowed parameter space region in models with warped extra dimensions and custodial symmetry, including Randall-Sundrum models with a fundamental Higgs, models of gauge-Higgs unification and Higgsless models. Read More

Braneworld models with induced gravity have the potential to replace dark energy as the explanation for the current accelerating expansion of the Universe. The original model of Dvali, Gabadadze and Porrati (DGP) demonstrated the existence of a ``self--accelerating'' branch of background solutions, but suffered from the presence of ghosts. We present a new large class of braneworld models which generalize the DGP model. Read More

We consider Randall-Sundrum scenarios based on SU(2)_L x SU(2)_R and a discrete parity exchanging L with R. The custodial and parity symmetries can be used to make the tree level contribution to the T parameter and the anomalous couplings of the bottom quark to the Z very small. We show that the resulting quantum numbers typically induce a negative T parameter at one loop that, together with the positive value of the S parameter, restrict considerably these models. Read More

We study how theories defined in (extra-dimensional) spaces with localized defects can be described perturbatively by effective field theories in which the width of the defects vanishes. These effective theories must incorporate a ``classical'' renormalization, and we propose a renormalization prescription a la dimensional regularization for codimension 1, which can be easily used in phenomenological applications. As a check of the validity of this setting, we compare some general predictions of the renormalized effective theory with those obtained in a particular ultraviolet completion based on deconstruction. Read More

Gravity in five-dimensional braneworld backgrounds often exhibits problematic features, including kinetic ghosts, strong coupling, and the vDVZ discontinuity. These problems are an obstacle to producing and analyzing braneworld models with interesting and potentially observable modifications of 4d gravity. We examine these problems in a general AdS_5/AdS_4 setup with two branes and localized curvature from arbitrary brane kinetic terms. Read More

We show that the current accelerated expansion of the Universe can be explained without resorting to dark energy. Models of generalized modified gravity, with inverse powers of the curvature can have late time accelerating attractors without conflicting with solar system experiments. We have solved the Friedman equations for the full dynamical range of the evolution of the Universe. Read More

We consider the cosmology of a thick codimension 1 brane. We obtain the matching conditions leading to the cosmological evolution equations and show that when one includes matter with a pressure component along the extra dimension in the brane energy-momentum tensor, the cosmology is of non-standard type. In particular one can get acceleration when a dust of non-relativistic matter particles is the only source for the (modified) Friedman equation. Read More

We compute the matching conditions for a general thick codimension 2 brane, a necessary previous step towards the investigation of gravitational phenomena in codimension 2 braneworlds. We show that, provided the brane is weakly curved, they are specified by the integral in the extra dimensions of the brane energy-momentum, independently of its detailed internal structure. These general matching conditions can then be used as boundary conditions for the bulk solution. Read More

We investigate the behaviour of 5d models with general brane kinetic terms by discretising the extra dimension. We show that in the continuum limit the Kaluza-Klein masses and wave functions are in general nonanalytic in the coefficients of brane terms. Read More

We review the very stringent lower bounds on the string scale that arise from flavor considerations in models with intersecting branes. Despite the absence of a realistic flavor structure at tree level, flavor changing interactions induce a non-trivial pattern of fermion masses and mixing angles when quantum corrections are taken into account. The resulting realistic theory of flavor allows us to constrain, in an unambiguous way, the string scale up to levels difficult to reconcile non-supersymmetric models. Read More

We study the dynamics of the size of an extra-dimensional manifold stabilised by fluxes. Inspecting the potential for the 4D field associated with this size (the radion), we obtain the conditions under which it can be stabilised and show that stable compactifications on hyperbolic manifolds necessarily have a negative four-dimensional cosmological constant, in contradiction with experimental observations. Assuming compactification on a positively curved (spherical) manifold we find that the radion has a mass of the order of the compactification scale, M_c, and Planck suppressed couplings. Read More