# Jorge Noronha - Sao Paulo University & Columbia University

## Contact Details

NameJorge Noronha |
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AffiliationSao Paulo University & Columbia University |
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CitySão Paulo |
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CountryBrazil |
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## Pubs By Year |
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## External Links |
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## Pub CategoriesNuclear Theory (47) High Energy Physics - Phenomenology (46) High Energy Physics - Theory (25) Nuclear Experiment (14) High Energy Physics - Lattice (4) Physics - Statistical Mechanics (2) Physics - Fluid Dynamics (2) High Energy Physics - Experiment (1) General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (1) Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (1) |

## Publications Authored By Jorge Noronha

**Authors:**Romulo Rougemont

^{1}, Renato Critelli

^{2}, Jacquelyn Noronha-Hostler

^{3}, Jorge Noronha

^{4}, Claudia Ratti

^{5}

**Affiliations:**

^{1}IIP, Brazil,

^{2}Sao Paulo U.,

^{3}Houston U.,

^{4}Sao Paulo U.,

^{5}Houston U.

We employ an Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton (EMD) holographic model, which is known to be in good agreement with lattice results for the QCD equation of state with $(2+1)$ flavors and physical quark masses, to investigate the temperature and baryon chemical potential dependence of the susceptibilities, conductivities, and diffusion coefficients associated with baryon, electric, and strangeness conserved charges. We also determine how the bulk and shear viscosities of the plasma vary with increasing baryon density. The diffusion of conserved charges and the hydrodynamic viscosities in a baryon rich quark-gluon plasma are found to be suppressed with respect to the zero net baryon case. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}Sao Paulo U.,

^{2}Niteroi, Fluminense U.

In this proceedings we discuss recent findings regarding the large order behavior of the Chapman-Enskog expansion in relativistic kinetic theory. It is shown that this series in powers of the Knudsen number has zero radius of convergence in the case of a Bjorken expanding fluid described by the Boltzmann equation in the relaxation time approximation. This divergence stems from the presence of non-hydrodynamic modes, which give non-perturbative contributions to the Knudsen series. Read More

Combining event-by-event hydrodynamics with heavy quark energy loss we compute correlations between the heavy and soft sectors for elliptic and triangular flow harmonics $v_2$ and $v_3$ of D$^0$ mesons in PbPb collisions at $2.76$ TeV and $5.02$ TeV. Read More

Event-by-event viscous hydrodynamics is combined with heavy quark energy loss models to compute heavy flavor flow cumulants $v_2\{2\}$, $v_3\{2\}$, and $v_2\{4\}$ as well as the nuclear modification factors of $D^0$ and $B^0$ mesons in PbPb collisions at 2.76 TeV. Our results indicate that bottom quarks can flow as much as charm quarks in the $p_T$ range 8--30 GeV. Read More

In this paper heavy quark energy loss models are embedded in full event-by-event viscous hydrodynamic simulations to investigate the nuclear suppression factor and flow harmonics of heavy flavor mesons in PbPb collisions at 2.76 TeV in the $p_T$ range 8-30 GeV. In our model calculations, the $R_\text{AA}$ of D$^0$ and B$^0$ mesons are nearly identical and this approximate flavor independence is carried over to the flow harmonics. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}Sao Paulo U.

In this proceedings I briefly review the recent progress achieved on the calculation of $v_n$ at high $p_T$ via the coupling of a jet energy loss model with full event-by-event viscous hydrodynamics. It is shown that that this framework can simultaneously describe experimental data for $R_{AA}$, $v_2$, and $v_3$ at high $p_T$. High $p_T$ $v_2$ is found to be approximately linearly correlated with the soft $v_2$ on an event-by-event basis, which opens up a new way to correlate soft and hard observables in heavy ion collisions. Read More

**Authors:**Stefano I. Finazzo

^{1}, Romulo Rougemont

^{2}, Maicon Zaniboni

^{3}, Renato Critelli

^{4}, Jorge Noronha

^{5}

**Affiliations:**

^{1}Sao Paulo, IFT,

^{2}Sao Paulo U.,

^{3}Sao Paulo U.,

^{4}Sao Paulo U.,

^{5}Sao Paulo U.

We study the behavior of quasinormal modes in a top-down holographic dual corresponding to a strongly coupled $\mathcal{N} = 4$ super Yang-Mills plasma charged under a $U(1)$ subgroup of the global $SU(4)$ R-symmetry. In particular, we analyze the spectra of quasinormal modes in the external scalar and vector diffusion channels near the critical point and obtain the behavior of the characteristic equilibration times of the plasma as the system evolves towards the critical point of its phase diagram. Except close to the critical point, we observe that by increasing the chemical potential one generally increases the damping rate of the quasinormal modes, which leads to a reduction of the characteristic equilibration times in the dual strongly coupled plasma. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}Rio de Janeiro Federal U.,

^{2}Sao Paulo, IFT,

^{3}Sao Paulo U.

We investigate the perturbative expansion in $SU(3)$ Yang-Mills theory compactified on $\mathbb{R}^2\times \mathbb{T}^2$ where the compact space is a torus $\mathbb{T}^2= S^1_{\beta}\times S^1_{L}$, with $S^1_{\beta}$ being a thermal circle with period $\beta=1/T$ ($T$ is the temperature) while $S^1_L$ is a circle with finite length $L=1/M$, where $M$ is an energy scale. A Linde-type analysis indicates that perturbative calculations for the pressure in this theory break down already at order $\mathcal{O}(g^2)$ due to the presence of a non-perturbative scale $\sim g \sqrt{TM}$. We conjecture that a similar result should hold if the torus is replaced by any other compact surface of genus one. Read More

Recently it has been shown that a realistic description of the medium via event-by-event viscous hydrodynamics plays an important role in the long-standing $R_\text{AA}$ vs. $v_2$ puzzle at high $p_T$. In this proceedings we begin to extend this approach to the heavy flavor sector by investigating the effects of full event-by-event fluctuating hydrodynamic backgrounds on the nuclear suppression factor and $v_2\{2\}$ of heavy flavor mesons and non-photonic electrons at intermediate to high $p_T$. Read More

Event-by-event fluctuations caused by quantum mechanical fluctuations in the wave function of colliding nuclei in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions were recently shown to be necessary for the simultaneous description of $R_{AA}$ as well as the elliptic and triangular flow harmonics at high $p_T$ in PbPb collisions at the Large Hadron Collider. In fact, the presence of a finite triangular flow as well as cumulants of the flow harmonic distribution that differ from the mean are only possible when these event-by-event fluctuations are considered. In this paper we combine event-by-event viscous hydrodynamics and jet quenching to make predictions for high $p_T$ $R_{AA}$, $v_2\{2\}$, $v_3\{2\}$, and $v_2\{4\}$ in PbPb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}=5. Read More

In this letter we show for the first time that the relativistic Chapman-Enskog series for a massless gas undergoing Bjorken expansion diverges. In order to fix this problem, we propose a novel type of expansion that includes non-perturbative contributions in the Knudsen number that are not considered in Chapman-Enskog theory. This approach is in good agreement with exact solutions of the Boltzmann equation for a wide range of values of Knudsen number and does not display the clear signs of divergence exhibited by the Chapman-Enskog series. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}Sao Paulo U.,

^{2}Sao Paulo U.,

^{3}Sao Paulo, IFT,

^{4}Sao Paulo U.

We investigate the temperature and magnetic field dependence of the Polyakov loop and heavy quark entropy in a bottom-up Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton (EMD) holographic model for the strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma (QGP) that quantitatively matches lattice data for the $(2+1)$-flavor QCD equation of state at finite magnetic field and physical quark masses. We compare the holographic EMD model results for the Polyakov loop at zero and nonzero magnetic fields and the heavy quark entropy at vanishing magnetic field with the latest lattice data available for these observables and find good agreement for temperatures $T\gtrsim 150$ MeV and magnetic fields $eB\lesssim 1$ GeV$^2$. Predictions for the behavior of the heavy quark entropy at nonzero magnetic fields are made that could be readily tested on the lattice. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}Sao Paulo, IFT,

^{2}Sao Paulo U.,

^{3}Sao Paulo U.,

^{4}Sao Paulo U.

We present a holographic perspective on momentum transport in strongly coupled, anisotropic non-Abelian plasmas in the presence of strong magnetic fields. We compute the anisotropic heavy quark drag forces and Langevin diffusion coefficients and also the anisotropic shear viscosities for two different holographic models, namely, a top-down deformation of strongly coupled $\mathcal{N} = 4$ Super-Yang-Mills (SYM) theory triggered by an external Abelian magnetic field, and a bottom-up Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton (EMD) model which is able to provide a quantitative description of lattice QCD thermodynamics with $(2+1)$-flavors at both zero and nonzero magnetic fields. We find that, in general, energy loss and momentum diffusion through strongly coupled anisotropic plasmas are enhanced by a magnetic field being larger in transverse directions than in the direction parallel to the magnetic field. Read More

Microseconds after the Big Bang quarks and gluons formed a strongly-coupled non-conformal liquid driven out-of-equilibrium by the expansion of the Universe. We use holography to determine the non-equilibrium behavior of this liquid in a Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker Universe and develop an expansion for the corresponding entropy production in terms of the derivatives of the cosmological scale factor. We show that the resulting series has zero radius of convergence and we discuss its resurgent properties. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}Houston U.,

^{2}Frankfurt U.,

^{3}Sao Paulo U.,

^{4}LBNL, NSD and Columbia U. and CCNU, Wuhan, Inst. Part. Phys.

High $p_T > 10$ GeV elliptic flow, which is experimentally measured via the correlation between soft and hard hadrons, receives competing contributions from event-by-event fluctuations of the low $p_T$ elliptic flow and event plane angle fluctuations in the soft sector. In this paper, a proper account of these event-by-event fluctuations in the soft sector, modeled via viscous hydrodynamics, is combined with a jet energy loss model to reveal that the positive contribution from low $p_T$ $v_2$ fluctuations overwhelms the negative contributions from event plane fluctuations. This leads to an enhancement of high $p_T > 10$ GeV elliptic flow in comparison to previous calculations and provides a natural solution to the decade long high $p_T$ $R_{AA} \otimes v_2$ puzzle. Read More

Event-by-event hydrodynamic simulations of AA and pA collisions involve initial energy densities with large spatial gradients. This is associated with the presence of large Knudsen numbers ($K_n\approx 1$) at early times, which may lead one to question the validity of the hydrodynamic approach in these rapidly evolving, largely inhomogeneous systems. A new procedure to smooth out the initial energy densities is employed to show that the initial spatial eccentricities, $\varepsilon_n$, are remarkably robust with respect to variations in the underlying scale of initial energy density spatial gradients, $\lambda$. Read More

In this work we investigate how event-by-event hydrodynamics fluctuations affect the nuclear suppression factor and elliptic flow of heavy flavor mesons and non-photonic electrons. We use a 2D+1 Lagrangian ideal hydrodynamic code on an event-by-event basis in order to compute local temperature and flow profiles. Using a strong coupling inspired energy loss parametrization on top of the evolving space-time energy density distributions we are able to propagate the heavy quarks inside the medium until the freeze-out temperature is reached and a Pythia modeling of hadronization takes place. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}Columbia U.,

^{2}Sao Paulo U. & Columbia U.,

^{3}Columbia U.

In this paper a new procedure to smooth out the initial energy densities of hydrodynamics is employed to show that the initial spatial eccentricities $\varepsilon_{m,n}$, which drive the final state flow harmonics $v_n$, are remarkably robust with respect to variations of the underlying scale of initial energy density spatial gradients, $\lambda$, in nucleus-nucleus collisions. For $\sqrt{s}=2.76$ TeV Pb+Pb collisions, the $\varepsilon_{m,n}$'s (across centrality classes) change by less than $10\%$ if the scale of fluctuations is varied from $0. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}Sao Paulo U.,

^{2}Sao Paulo U. & Columbia U.,

^{3}Columbia U.

Five dimensional black hole solutions that describe the QCD crossover transition seen in $(2+1)$-flavor lattice QCD calculations at zero and nonzero baryon densities are used to obtain predictions for the baryon susceptibility, baryon conductivity, baryon diffusion constant, and thermal conductivity of the strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma in the range of temperatures $130\,\textrm{MeV}\le T\le 300\,\textrm{MeV}$ and baryon chemical potentials $0\le \mu_B \le 400\,\textrm{MeV}$. Diffusive transport is predicted to be suppressed in this region of the QCD phase diagram, which is consistent with the existence of a critical end point at larger baryon densities. We also calculate the fourth-order baryon susceptibility at zero baryon chemical potential and find quantitative agreement with recent lattice results. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}Sao Paulo U.,

^{2}Oxford U., Theor. Phys.,

^{3}Sao Paulo U. & Sao Paulo, IFT,

^{4}Sao Paulo U. & Columbia U.

Lattice data for the QCD equation of state and the baryon susceptibility near the crossover phase transition (at zero baryon density) are used to determine the input parameters of a 5-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton holographic model that provides a consistent holographic framework to study both equilibrium and out-of-equilibrium properties of a hot and {\it baryon rich} strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma (QGP). We compare our holographic equation of state computed at nonzero baryon chemical potential, $\mu_B$, with recent lattice calculations and find quantitative agreement for the pressure and the speed of sound for $\mu_B \leq 400$ MeV. This holographic model is used to obtain holographic predictions for the temperature and $\mu_B$ dependence of the drag force and the Langevin diffusion coefficients associated with heavy quark jet propagation as well as the jet quenching parameter $\hat{q}$ and the shooting string energy loss of light quarks in the baryon dense plasma. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}Sao Paulo U.,

^{2}Sao Paulo U.,

^{3}Sao Paulo U. and Columbia U.

Lattice data for the QCD equation of state and the magnetic susceptibility computed near the crossover transition at zero magnetic field are used to determine the input parameters of a five dimensional Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton holographic model. Once the model parameters are fixed at zero magnetic field, one can use this holographic construction to study the effects of a magnetic field on the equilibrium and transport properties of the quark-gluon plasma. In this paper we use this model to study the dependence of the crossover temperature with an external magnetic field. Read More

**Authors:**Romulo Rougemont

^{1}, Jorge Noronha

^{2}, Carlos A. D. Zarro

^{3}, Clovis Wotzasek

^{4}, Marcelo S. Guimaraes

^{5}, Diego R. Granado

^{6}

**Affiliations:**

^{1}Sao Paulo U.,

^{2}Columbia U. & Sao Paulo U.,

^{3}Rio de Janeiro Federal U.,

^{4}Rio de Janeiro Federal U.,

^{5}Rio de Janeiro State U.,

^{6}Rio de Janeiro State U.

We show how to obtain a vanishing DC conductivity in 3-dimensional strongly coupled QFT's using a massive 2-form field in the bulk that satisfies a special kind of boundary condition. The real and imaginary parts of the AC conductivity are evaluated in this holographic setup and we show that the DC conductivity identically vanishes even for an arbitrarily small (though nonzero) value of the 2-form mass in the bulk. We identify the bulk action of the massive 2-form with an effective theory describing a phase in which magnetic monopoles have condensed in the bulk. Read More

In this paper we obtain an analytical solution of the relativistic Boltzmann equation under the relaxation time approximation that describes the out-of-equilibrium dynamics of a radially expanding massless gas. This solution is found by mapping this expanding system in flat spacetime to a static flow in the curved spacetime $\mathrm{AdS}_{2}\otimes \mathrm{S}_{2}$. We further derive explicit analytic expressions for the momentum dependence of the single particle distribution function as well as for the spatial dependence of its moments. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}Sao Paulo U.,

^{2}Sao Paulo U.,

^{3}Sao Paulo U.,

^{4}Sao Paulo U.

In this paper we obtain holographic formulas for the transport coefficients $\kappa$ and $\tau_\pi$ present in the second-order derivative expansion of relativistic hydrodynamics in curved spacetime associated with a non-conformal strongly coupled plasma described holographically by an Einstein+Scalar action in the bulk. We compute these coefficients as functions of the temperature in a bottom-up non-conformal model that is tuned to reproduce lattice QCD thermodynamics at zero baryon chemical potential. We directly compute, besides the speed of sound, 6 other transport coefficients that appear at second-order in the derivative expansion. Read More

**Authors:**Gabriel S. Denicol

^{1}, Ulrich W. Heinz

^{2}, Mauricio Martinez

^{3}, Jorge Noronha

^{4}, Michael Strickland

^{5}

**Affiliations:**

^{1}McGill,

^{2}Ohio State,

^{3}Ohio State,

^{4}Univ. Sao Paulo,

^{5}Kent State

We present an exact solution to the Boltzmann equation which describes a system undergoing boost-invariant longitudinal and azimuthally symmetric radial expansion for arbitrary shear viscosity to entropy density ratio. This new solution is constructed by considering the conformal map between Minkowski space and the direct product of three dimensional de Sitter space with a line. The resulting solution respects SO(3)_q x SO(1,1) x Z_2 symmetry. Read More

**Authors:**Gabriel S. Denicol

^{1}, Ulrich W. Heinz

^{2}, Mauricio Martinez

^{3}, Jorge Noronha

^{4}, Michael Strickland

^{5}

**Affiliations:**

^{1}McGill,

^{2}Ohio State,

^{3}Ohio State,

^{4}Univ. Sao Paulo,

^{5}Kent State

We present an exact solution of the relativistic Boltzmann equation for a system undergoing boost-invariant longitudinal and azimuthally symmetric transverse flow ("Gubser flow"). The resulting exact non-equilibrium dynamics is compared to 1st- and 2nd-order relativistic hydrodynamic approximations for various shear viscosity to entropy density ratios. This novel solution can be used to test the validity and accuracy of different hydrodynamic approximations in conditions similar to those generated in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. Read More

Based on a viscous hydrodynamic model with anisotropically perturbed Gubser flow and isothermal Cooper-Frye freezeout at early times, we analytically compute the flow harmonics $v_n(p_T)$ and study how they scale with the harmonic number $n$ and transverse momentum, as well as the system size, shear and bulk viscosity coefficients, and collision energy. In particular, we find that the magnitude of shear viscous corrections grows linearly with $n$. The mixing between different harmonics is also discussed. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}Sao Paulo U.,

^{2}Sao Paulo U.

The imaginary part of the heavy quark-antiquark potential experienced by moving heavy quarkonia in strongly coupled plasmas dual to theories of gravity is computed by considering thermal worldsheet fluctuations of the holographic Nambu-Goto string. General results for a wide class of gravity duals are presented and an explicit formula for $\mathrm{Im} \, V_{Q\bar{Q}}$ is found in the case where the axis of the moving $\bar{Q}Q$ pair has an arbitrary orientation with respect to its velocity in the plasma. These results are applied to the study of heavy quarkonia propagating through a strongly coupled $\mathcal{N} = 4$ SYM plasma. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}ABC Federal U.,

^{2}Sao Paulo U.,

^{3}McGill U.

In this article we investigate how the energy and momentum deposited by partonic dijets in the quark-gluon plasma may perturb the geometry-induced hydrodynamic expansion of the bulk nuclear matter created in heavy ion collisions at RHIC. The coupling between the jets and the medium is done through a source term in the energy-momentum conservation equations for ideal hydrodynamics. We concentrate our attention at mid-rapidity and solve the equations event-by-event imposing boost-invariance. Read More

In this paper we present the details of our previous work on exact solutions in second-order conformal hydrodynamics together with a number of new solutions found by mapping Minkowski space onto various curved spacetimes such as anti-de Sitter space and hyperbolic space. We analytically show how the solutions of ideal hydrodynamics are modified by the second-order effects including vorticity. We also find novel boost-invariant exact solutions which exist only in second-order hydrodynamics and have an unusual dependence on the proper time. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}Sao Paulo U.,

^{2}Sao Paulo U.,

^{3}McGill U.

In this paper we investigate how the energy and momentum deposited by partonic dijets in the quark-gluon plasma may affect the direct, elliptic and triangular flow of low (and intermediate) $p_T$ hadrons in central Au+Au collisions at RHIC. The dijets are modeled as external sources in the energy-momentum conservation equations for hydrodynamics, which are solved on an event-by-event basis within the ideal fluid approximation. We focus our investigation at mid-rapidity and solve the hydrodynamic equations imposing boost invariance. Read More

We present some exact solutions of relativistic second-order hydrodynamic equations in theories with conformal symmetry. Starting from a spherically expanding solution in ideal hydrodynamics, we take into account general conformal second-order corrections, and construct, for the first time, fully analytical axisymmetric exact solutions including the case with nonzero vorticity. These solutions are time-reversible despite having a nonvanishing shear stress tensor and provide a useful quantitative measure of the second-order effects in relativistic hydrodynamics. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}Sao Paulo U.,

^{2}Baruch Coll. & CUNY, Graduate School - U. Ctr.

Large azimuthal quadrupole and octupole asymmetries have recently been found in p+Pb collisions at the LHC. We argue that these might arise from a projectile dipole scattering off fluctuations in the target with a size on the order of the dipole. In a holographic scenario, parity even angular moments $v_{2n}$ are generated by the real part of the light-like Wilson loop due to the contribution from the background metric to the Nambu-Goto action. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}Sao Paulo U.,

^{2}Sao Paulo U.

The frequency dependent conductivity $\sigma(\omega)$ of the strongly coupled Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP) is estimated using a bottom up holographic model that can adequately describe recent lattice data for QCD thermodynamics at zero chemical potential. Different choices for the coupling between the bulk gauge field and the other bulk fields that define the background (the metric and a scalar field) are used in order to fit the lattice data for the electric charge susceptibility $\chi_2^Q/T^2$. The ratio $\sigma_{DC}/T$ is found to vary near the deconfinement transition in a way that is similar to recent lattice results. Read More

We investigate the effects of finite baryon chemical potential on the transport properties of a hadron resonance gas. We find that a hadron resonance gas with large baryon number density is closer to the ideal fluid limit than the corresponding gas with zero baryon number. This suggests that the system created at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at lower collision energies may behave as a fluid, with an effective fluidity close to the one found at RHIC's highest energy near phase transition. Read More

We use symmetry arguments developed by Gubser to construct the first radially-expanding explicit solutions of the Israel-Stewart formulation of hydrodynamics. Along with a general semi-analytical solution, an exact analytical solution is given which is valid in the cold plasma limit where viscous effects from shear viscosity and the relaxation time coefficient are important. The radially expanding solutions presented in this paper can be used as nontrivial checks of numerical algorithms employed in hydrodynamic simulations of the quark-gluon plasma formed in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions. Read More

In this paper we extend the well known QCD sum rules used in the calculation of the mass of heavy mesons to estimate the modification of the charged B meson mass, m_B, in the presence of an external Abelian magnetic field, eB. Two simplifying limits were considered: the weak field limit in which the external field satisfies eB << m^2 (with m being any of the masses involved) and the strong field limit in which the field strength is small in comparison to the bottom quark mass (or the B meson mass) squared but it is large compared to the mass of the light quarks, i.e. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}Sao Paulo U.,

^{2}Sao Paulo U.

The gauge/gravity duality is used to investigate the imaginary part of the heavy quark potential (defined via the rectangular Wilson loop) in strongly coupled plasmas. This quantity can be used to estimate the width of heavy quarkonia in a plasma at strong coupling. In this paper the thermal worldsheet fluctuation method, proposed in [J. Read More

Bulk viscosity effects on the collective flow harmonics in heavy ion collisions are investigated, on an event by event basis, using a newly developed 2+1 Lagrangian hydrodynamic code named v-USPhydro which implements the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) algorithm for viscous hydrodynamics. A new formula for the bulk viscous corrections present in the distribution function at freeze-out is derived starting from the Boltzmann equation for multi-hadron species. Bulk viscosity is shown to enhance the collective flow Fourier coefficients from $v_2(p_T)$ to $v_5(p_T)$ when $% p_{T}\sim 1-3$ GeV even when the bulk viscosity to entropy density ratio, $% \zeta/s$, is significantly smaller than $1/(4\pi)$. Read More

Hadron resonance gas models provide a good description of the equation of state of quantum chromodynamics determined by lattice QCD calculations at temperatures $T \sim 100-155$ MeV. In this paper we investigate the effects of an exponentially increasing hadron mass spectrum (Hagedorn spectrum) on the azimuthal anisotropy of the rapidly expanding matter formed in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions. If the temperature at which the conversion from fluid degrees of freedom to hadrons is sufficiently close to the Hagedorn temperature, the production of Hagedorn resonances suppresses the differential elliptic flow of all hadron species. Read More

Peripheral one-tube model has shown to be a nice tool for dynamically understanding several aspects of ridge structures in long-range two-particle correlations, observed experimentally and obtained also in our model calculations using NexSPheRIO code. Here, we study an extension of the model, to initial configurations with several peripheral tubes distributed randomly in azimuth. We show that the two-particle correlation is almost independent of the number of tubes, although the flow distribution becomes indeed strongly event dependent. Read More

We explore phenomenological signatures of light quark jet quenching within the AdS/CFT correspondence. Numerical studies of the instantaneous energy loss of light quarks, modeled as falling strings, suggest a linear path dependence. We propose a phenomenological model for the energy loss and use it to compute the nuclear modification factor $R_{AA}$ for light quarks in an expanding plasma with Glauber initial conditions. Read More

We investigate the effect of a homogeneous magnetic field on the thermal deconfinement transition of QCD in the large $N_c$ limit. First we discuss how the critical temperature decreases due to the inclusion of $N_f \ll N_c$ flavors of massless quarks. Then we study the equivalent correction in the presence of an external Abelian magnetic field. Read More

Lattice calculations of the QCD trace anomaly at temperatures $T<160$ MeV have been shown to match hadron resonance gas model calculations, which include an exponentially rising hadron mass spectrum. In this paper we perform a more detailed comparison of the model calculations to lattice data that confirms the need for an exponentially increasing density of hadronic states. Also, we find that the lattice data is compatible with a hadron density of states that goes as $\rho(m) \sim m^{-a}\exp(m/T_H) $ at large $m$ with $a> 5/2$ (where $T_H \sim 167$ MeV). Read More

We use our non-conformal holographic bottom-up model for QCD described in 1012.0116 to further study the effect of the QCD trace anomaly on the energy loss of both light and heavy quarks in a strongly coupled plasma. We compute the nuclear modification factor $R_{AA}$ for bottom and charm quarks in an expanding plasma with Glauber initial conditions. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}Frankfurt U.,

^{2}FIAS, Sao Paulo U,

^{3}Sao Paulo U.

In recent years, Hagedorn states have been used to explain the equilibrium and transport properties of a hadron gas close to the QCD critical temperature. These massive resonances are shown to lower $\eta/s$ to near the AdS/CFT limit close to the phase transition. A comparison of the Hagedorn model to recent lattice results is made and it is found that the hadrons can reach chemical equilibrium almost immediately, well before the chemical freeze-out temperatures found in thermal fits for a hadron gas without Hagedorn states. Read More

We argue, using the AdS/CFT correspondence, that the transient dynamics of the shear stress tensor in a strongly coupled $\mathcal{N}=4$ SYM plasma is not described by relaxation-type, fluid dynamical equations: at long times the equations of motion should contain a \textit{second-order} comoving derivative of the shear stress tensor. This occurs because in this strongly-coupled system the lowest "non-hydrodynamical" quasinormal modes associated with shear stress possess a nonzero real part at zero wavenumber. We use Weyl invariance to obtain the most general equations of motion containing 2 comoving derivatives of the shear stress tensor in the transient regime that are compatible with the symmetries. Read More

After reviewing the evidence that QCD matter at ultrarelativistic energies behaves as a very good fluid, we describe the connection of QCD fluidity to heavy quark observables. We review the way in which heavy quark spectra can place tighter limits on the viscosity of QCD matter. Finally, we show that correlations between flow observables and the event-by-event charm quark abundance ("flavoring") can shed light on the system's equation of state. Read More

We develop a holographic (bottom-up) gravity model for QCD to understand the connection between the peak in the trace anomaly and the magnitude of heavy quark energy loss in a strongly-coupled plasma. The potential of the scalar field on the gravity side is constructed to reproduce some properties of QCD at finite temperature and its parameters are constrained by fitting lattice gauge theory results. The energy loss of heavy quarks (as predicted by the holographic model) is found to be strongly sensitive to the medium properties. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}Columbia U.,

^{2}Columbia U.,

^{3}Frankfurt U., FIAS

We show that the ``perfect fluid'' elliptic flow of the bulk hadrons and the unexpectedly strong quenching of heavy quark jet fragments in Au+Au reactions at 200 AGeV can be simultaneously accounted for within leading order AdS/CFT holography with a common large t'Hooft coupling $\lambda=g^2_{YM} N_c \sim 30$. In contrast, weakly coupled quark-gluon plasma models have so far failed to describe the observed correlation between these soft and hard observables even for couplings extrapolated to $\alpha_s\sim 0.5$. Read More