John Wardle - Brandeis University

John Wardle
Are you John Wardle?

Claim your profile, edit publications, add additional information:

Contact Details

John Wardle
Brandeis University
United States

Pubs By Year

External Links

Pub Categories

Astrophysics (9)
High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (9)
Astrophysics of Galaxies (8)
Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics (7)
Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (6)
Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (2)

Publications Authored By John Wardle

Originally developed to image the shadow region of the central black hole in Sagittarius A* and in the nearby galaxy M87, the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) provides deep, very high angular resolution data on other AGN sources too. The challenges of working with EHT data have spurred the development of new image reconstruction algorithms. This work briefly reviews the status of the EHT and its utility for observing AGN sources, with emphasis on novel imaging techniques that offer the promise of better reconstructions at 1. Read More

Images of the linear polarization of synchrotron radiation around Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) identify their projected magnetic field lines and provide key data for understanding the physics of accretion and outflow from supermassive black holes. The highest resolution polarimetric images of AGN are produced with Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI). Because VLBI incompletely samples the Fourier transform of the source image, any image reconstruction that fills in unmeasured spatial frequencies will not be unique and reconstruction algorithms are required. Read More

The Galactic Center black hole Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*) is a prime observing target for the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT), which can resolve the 1.3 mm emission from this source on angular scales comparable to that of the general relativistic shadow. Previous EHT observations have used visibility amplitudes to infer the morphology of the millimeter-wavelength emission. Read More

Near a black hole, differential rotation of a magnetized accretion disk is thought to produce an instability that amplifies weak magnetic fields, driving accretion and outflow. These magnetic fields would naturally give rise to the observed synchrotron emission in galaxy cores and to the formation of relativistic jets, but no observations to date have been able to resolve the expected horizon-scale magnetic-field structure. We report interferometric observations at 1. Read More

Radio core dominance, the rest-frame ratio of core to lobe luminosity, has been widely used as a measure of Doppler boosting of a quasar's radio jets and hence of the inclination of the central engine's spin axis to the line of sight. However, the use of the radio lobe luminosity in the denominator (essentially to try and factor out the intrinsic power of the central engine) has been criticized and other proxies for the intrinsic engine power have been proposed. These include the optical continuum luminosity, and the luminosity of the narrow-line region. Read More

Relativistic jets in active galactic nuclei (AGN) are among the most powerful astrophysical objects discovered to date. Indeed, jetted AGN studies have been considered a prominent science case for SKA, and were included in several different chapters of the previous SKA Science Book (Carilli & Rawlings 2004). Most of the fundamental questions about the physics of relativistic jets still remain unanswered, and await high-sensitivity radio instruments such as SKA to solve them. Read More

We demonstrate that polarimetric interferometry can be used to extract precise spatial information about compact polarized flares of Sgr A*. We show that, for a faint dynamical component, a single interferometric baseline suffices to determine both its polarization and projected displacement from the quiescent intensity centroid. A second baseline enables two-dimensional reconstruction of the displacement, and additional baselines can self-calibrate using the flare, enhancing synthesis imaging of the quiescent emission. Read More

We present high resolution (arcsecond or better) observations made with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array of 123 radio-loud quasars with redshifts in the range $2.5 \leq z \leq 5. Read More

An international consortium is presently constructing a beamformer for the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) in Chile that will be available as a facility instrument. The beamformer will aggregate the entire collecting area of the array into a single, very large aperture. The extraordinary sensitivity of phased ALMA, combined with the extremely fine angular resolution available on baselines to the Northern Hemisphere, will enable transformational new very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations in Bands 6 and 7 (1. Read More

Deep Very Large Array imaging of the quasar 3C\,345 at 4.86 and 8.44 GHz has been used to study the structure and linear polarization of its radio jet on scales ranging from 2 to 30 kpc. Read More

In this paper we use radio polarimetric observations of the jet of the nearby bright quasar 3C\,345 to estimate the fluid velocity on kiloparsec scales. The jet is highly polarized, and surprisingly, the electric vector position angles in the jet are ``twisted'' with respect to the jet axis. Simple models of magnetized jets are investigated in order to study various possible origins of the electric vector distribution. Read More

We present a sequence of five deep observations of SS433 made over the summer of 2007 using the VLA in the A configuration at 5 and 8 GHz. In this paper we study the brightness profiles of the jets and their time evolution. We also examine the spectral index distribution in the source. Read More

Deep Very Large Array imaging of the binary X-ray source SS 433, sometimes classified as a microquasar, has been used to study the intrinsic brightness distribution and evolution of its radio jets. The intrinsic brightness of the jets as a function of age at emission of the jet material tau is recovered by removal of the Doppler boosting and projection effects. We find that intrinsically the two jets are remarkably similar when compared for equal tau, and that they are best described by Doppler boosting of the form D^{2+alpha}, as expected for continuous jets. Read More

Affiliations: 1Brandeis University, 2Brandeis University, 3Brandeis University, 4Brandeis University, 5Brandeis University
Category: Astrophysics

The Very Large Array has been used at five frequencies to study the structure and linear polarization of SS433 on scales as small as ~0.1" ~ 500 AU. Each jet consists of a sharp, curving ridge-line at the leading edge, plus significant trailing off-jet emission, showing that they are enveloped by diffuse relativistic plasma. Read More

Affiliations: 1Haystack Observatory, 2Brandeis University, 3Denison University
Category: Astrophysics

We present sub-milliarcsecond resolution total intensity and linear polarization VLBI images of 3C273, using concurrent 43 and 86 GHz data taken with the Very Long Baseline Array in May 2002. The structure seen in the innermost jet suggest that we have fortuitously caught the jet in the act of changing direction. The polarization images confirm that the core is unpolarized (fractional polarization m < 1 %) at 86 GHz, but also show well ordered magnetic fields (m ~ 15 %) in the inner jet, at a projected distance of 2. Read More

We discuss the production of circular polarization in compact radio sources both by the intrinsic mechanism and by Faraday conversion. We pay particular attention to the magnetic field structure, considering partially ordered fiel ds and Laing sheets, and distinguishing between uniform and unidirectional fields. (The latter can be constrained b y flux conservation arguments. Read More

Affiliations: 1National Radio Astronomy Obs, 2Brandeis Univ
Category: Astrophysics

High resolution studies of circular polarization allow us see where it arises in a jet, study its local fractional level and spectrum, and compare these results to local measures of linear polarization and Faraday rotation. Here we not only review past results from Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) circular polarization studies, but we also present preliminary new results on two quasars. In the core of PKS 0607-157, we find strong circular polarization at 8 GHz and much weaker levels at 15 GHz. Read More

Affiliations: 1NRAO, 2Brandeis University, 3Brandeis University, 4Brandeis University, 5MIT Haystack Observatory
Category: Astrophysics

The gamma-ray blazar PKS 1510-089 has a highly superluminal milli-arcsecond jet at a position angle (PA) of -28 degrees and an arcsecond jet with an initial PA of 155 degrees. With a PA difference of 177 degrees between the arcsecond and milli-arcsecond jets, PKS 1510-089 is perhaps the most highly misaligned radio jet ever observed and serves as a graphic example of projection effects in a highly beamed relativistic jet. Here we present the results of observations designed to bridge the gap between the milli-arcsecond and arcsecond scales. Read More

We present analysis of the flux and polarization variability of parsec scale radio jets from a dual-frequency, six-epoch, VLBA polarization experiment monitoring 12 blazars. The observations were made at 15 and 22 GHz at bimonthly intervals over 1996. Here we analyze the flux, fractional polarization, and polarization position angle behavior of core regions and jet features, considering both the linear trends of these quantities with time and more rapid fluctuations about the linear trends. Read More

Affiliations: 1Brandeis University, 2MIT Haystack Observatory, 3Brandeis University
Category: Astrophysics

We present circular polarization results from a 5 GHz survey of the parsec-scale polarization properties of 40 AGN made with the VLBA. We find 11 circular polarization detections at the 3 sigma level or higher. This nearly quadruples the number of sources detected in circular polarization at VLBI resolution. Read More

We review recent observations of circularly polarized radiation from AGN made with the VLBA and with the ATCA. We also discuss briefly the detections of the Galactic sources Sag A* and SS433. The origin of the circular polarization is still an open question in most cases, and we discuss four possible mechanisms. Read More

Affiliations: 1Brandeis University, 2Brandeis University, 3Brandeis University
Category: Astrophysics

As part of our study of the magnetic fields of AGN we have recently observed a large sample of blazars with the Very Long Baseline Array. Here we report the discovery of a striking two-component jet in the source 1055+018, consisting of an inner spine with a transverse magnetic field, and a fragmentary but distinct boundary layer with a longitudinal magnetic field. The polarization distribution in the spine strongly supports shocked-jet models while that in the boundary layer suggests interaction with the surrounding medium. Read More