John J. Tobin - Leiden/NRAO

John J. Tobin
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Name
John J. Tobin
Affiliation
Leiden/NRAO
City
Leiden
Country
Netherlands

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Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (42)
 
Astrophysics of Galaxies (32)
 
Earth and Planetary Astrophysics (3)
 
Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics (3)

Publications Authored By John J. Tobin

The Herschel Orion Protostar Survey obtained well-sampled 1.2 - 870 micron spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of over 300 protostars in the Orion molecular clouds, home to most of the young stellar objects (YSOs) in the nearest 500 pc. We plot the bolometric luminosities and temperatures for 330 Orion YSOs, 315 of which have bolometric temperatures characteristic of protostars. Read More

Context: Understanding how accretion proceeds is a key question of star formation, with important implications for both the physical and chemical evolution of young stellar objects. In particular, very little is known about the accretion variability in the earliest stages of star formation. Aims: To characterise protostellar accretion histories towards individual sources by utilising sublimation and freeze-out chemistry of CO. Read More

We carried out multiwavelength (0.7-5 cm), multiepoch (1994-2015) Very Large Array (VLA) observations toward the region enclosing the bright far-IR sources FIR 3 (HOPS 370) and FIR 4 (HOPS 108) in OMC-2. We report the detection of 10 radio sources, seven of them identified as young stellar objects. Read More

Compact substructure is expected to arise in a starless core as mass becomes concentrated in the central region likely to form a protostar. Additionally, multiple peaks may form if fragmentation occurs. We present ALMA Cycle 2 observations of 60 starless and protostellar cores in the Ophiuchus molecular cloud. Read More

2017Feb
Affiliations: 1Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, 2Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, 3Western Washington University, 4University of Oxford, 5Yale, 6Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, 7Leiden Observatory, 8Steward Observatory, 9University of Michigan, 10University of Michigan, 11Vanderbilt University, 12University of Virginia, 13Wesleyan University, 14University of Virginia, 15University of Virginia, 16University of Virginia

The kinematics and dynamics of young stellar populations tests theories of their formation. With this aim, we continue our analysis of the SDSS-III/APOGEE INfrared Spectra of Young Nebulous Clusters (IN-SYNC) survey, a high resolution near infrared spectroscopic survey of young clusters. We focus on the Orion A star-forming region, for which IN-SYNC obtained spectra of ~2700 stars. Read More

We present the first results of the Gould's Belt Distances Survey (GOBELINS), a project aimed at measuring the proper motion and trigonometric parallax of a large sample of young stars in nearby regions using multi-epoch Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) radio observations. Enough VLBA detections have now been obtained for 16 stellar systems in Ophiuchus to derive their parallax and proper motion. This leads to distance determinations for individual stars with an accuracy of 0. Read More

Using multi-epoch VLA observations, covering a time baseline of 29.1 years, we have measured the proper motions of 88 young stars with compact radio emission in the core of the Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC) and the neighboring BN/KL region. Our work increases the number of young stars with measured proper motion at radio frequencies by a factor of 2. Read More

As part of an ALMA survey to study the origin of episodic accretion in young eruptive variables, we have observed the circumstellar environment of the star V2775 Ori. This object is a very young, pre-main sequence object which displays a large amplitude outburst characteristic of the FUor class. We present Cycle-2 band 6 observations of V2775 Ori with a continuum and CO (2-1) isotopologue resolution of 0. Read More

2016Oct
Affiliations: 1Oklahoma/Leiden, 2Arizona, 3Onsala, 4Illinois, 5SUNY-Fredonia, 6Illinois, 7Virginia, 8NRAO, 9MPIA, 10Illinois, 11UCSD, 12MPIfR

Binary and multiple star systems are a frequent outcome of the star formation process, and as a result, almost half of all sun-like stars have at least one companion star. Theoretical studies indicate that there are two main pathways that can operate concurrently to form binary/multiple star systems: large scale fragmentation of turbulent gas cores and filaments or smaller scale fragmentation of a massive protostellar disk due to gravitational instability. Observational evidence for turbulent fragmentation on scales of $>$1000~AU has recently emerged. Read More

We report on new distances and proper motions to seven stars across the Serpens/Aquila complex. The observations were obtained as part of the Gould's Belt Distances Survey (GOBELINS) project between September 2013 and April 2016 with the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA). One of our targets is the proto-Herbig AeBe object EC 95, which is a binary system embedded in the Serpens Core. Read More

We present the results of the Gould's Belt Distances Survey (GOBELINS) of young star forming regions towards the Orion Molecular Cloud Complex. We detected 36 YSOs with the Very Large Baseline Array (VLBA), 27 of which have been observed in at least 3 epochs over the course of 2 years. At least half of these YSOs belong to multiple systems. Read More

A snow-line is the region of a protoplanetary disk at which a major volatile, such as water or carbon monoxide, reaches its condensation temperature. Snow-lines play a crucial role in disk evolution by promoting the rapid growth of ice-covered grains. Signatures of the carbon monoxide snow-line (at temperatures of around 20 kelvin) have recently been imaged in the disks surrounding the pre-main-sequence stars TW Hydra and HD163296, at distances of about 30 astronomical units (au) from the star. Read More

There is substantial evidence for disk formation taking place during the early stages of star formation and for most stars being born in multiple systems; however, protostellar multiplicity and disk searches have been hampered by low resolution, sample bias, and variable sensitivity. We have conducted an unbiased, high-sensitivity Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) survey toward all known protostars (n = 94) in the Perseus molecular cloud (d~230 pc), with a resolution of ~15 AU (0. Read More

We present CARMA CO (J=1-0) observations and Herschel PACS spectroscopy, characterizing the outflow properties toward extremely young and deeply embedded protostars in the Orion molecular clouds. The sample comprises a subset of the Orion protostars known as the PACS Bright Red Sources (PBRS) (Stutz et al. 2013). Read More

We present a 3 mm spectral line and continuum survey of L1451 in the Perseus Molecular Cloud. These observations are from the CARMA Large Area Star Formation Survey (CLASSy), which also imaged Barnard 1, NGC 1333, Serpens Main and Serpens South. L1451 is the survey region with the lowest level of star formation activity---it contains no confirmed protostars. Read More

Multiplicity is common in field stars and among protostellar systems. Models suggest two paths of formation: turbulent fragmentation and protostellar disk fragmentation. We attempt to find whether or not the coevality frequency of multiple protostellar systems can help to better understand their formation mechanism. Read More

We present an Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) 106 GHz (Band 3) continuum survey of the complete population of dense cores in the Chamaeleon I molecular cloud. We detect a total of 24 continuum sources in 19 different target fields. All previously known Class 0 and Class I protostars in Chamaeleon I are detected, whereas all of the 56 starless cores in our sample are undetected. Read More

Dust polarization in millimeter (and centimeter) has been mapped in disks around an increasing number of young stellar objects. It is usually thought to come from emission by magnetically aligned (non-spherical) grains, but can also be produced by dust scattering. We present a semi-analytic theory of disk polarization that includes both the direction emission and scattering, with an emphasis on their relative importance and how they are affected by the disk inclination. Read More

We investigate the alignment between outflow axes in nine of the youngest binary/multiple systems in the Perseus Molecular Cloud. These systems have typical member spacing larger than 1000 AU. For outflow identification, we use 12CO(2-1) and 12CO(3-2) data from a large survey with the Sub- millimeter Array: Mass Assembly of Stellar Systems and their Evolution with the SMA (MASSES). Read More

We examine the spectroscopic binary population for two massive nearby regions of clustered star formation, the Orion Nebula Cluster and NGC 2264, supplementing the data presented by Tobin et al. (2009, 2015) with more recent observations and more extensive analysis. The inferred multiplicity fraction up to 10 AU based on these observations is $5. Read More

We present the first dust emission results toward a sample of seven protostellar disk candidates around Class 0 and I sources in the Perseus molecular cloud from the VLA Nascent Disk and Multiplicity (VANDAM) survey with ~0.05'' or 12 AU resolution. To examine the surface brightness profiles of these sources, we fit the Ka-band 8 mm dust-continuum data in the u,v-plane to a simple, parametrized model based on the Shakura-Sunyaev disk model. Read More

We present a multiplicity study of all known protostars (94) in the Perseus molecular cloud from a Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) survey at Ka-band (8 mm and 1 cm) and C-band (4 cm and 6.6 cm). Read More

We present deep radio continuum observations of the star-forming core of the Serpens South Infrared Dark Cloud with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA). Observations were conducted in two bands centered at 7. Read More

We present multi-epoch, large-scale ($\sim$ 2000 arcmin${}^2$), fairly deep ($\sim$ 16 $\mu$Jy), high-resolution ($\sim$ 1") radio observations of the Perseus star-forming complex obtained with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array at frequencies of 4.5 GHz and 7. Read More

We have surveyed 84 Class 0, Class I, and flat-spectrum protostars in mid-infrared [Si II], [Fe II] and [S I] line emission, and 11 of these in far-infrared [O I] emission. We use the results to derive their mass outflow rates. Thereby we observe a strong correlation of mass outflow rates with bolometric luminosity, and with the inferred mass accretion rates of the central objects, which continues through the Class 0 range the trend observed in Class II young stellar objects. Read More

2015Nov
Affiliations: 1Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, 2Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, 3Western Washington University, 4University of Oxford, 5Yale, 6Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, 7Leiden Observatory, 8Steward Observatory, 9ETH Zurich, 10University of Michigan, 11Vanderbilt University, 12University of Virginia, 13Wesleyan University, 14University of Virginia, 15University of Virginia, 16University of Virginia, 17Apache Point Observatory and New Mexico State University

We present the results of the SDSS APOGEE INfrared Spectroscopy of Young Nebulous Clusters program (IN-SYNC) survey of the Orion A molecular cloud. This survey obtained high resolution near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy of about 2700 young pre-main sequence stars throughout the region, acquired across five distinct fields spanning 6deg field of view (FOV). With these spectra, we have measured accurate stellar parameters (T_eff, log g, v sin i) and extinctions, and placed the sources in the Hertzsprung-Russel Diagram (HRD). Read More

We present continuum and molecular line observations at 230 GHz and 345 GHz from the Sub-millimeter Array (SMA) toward three protostars in the Perseus L1448N region. The data are from the large project "Mass Assembly of Stellar Systems and their Evolution with the SMA" (MASSES). Three dust continuum sources, Source B, Source NW, and Source A, are detected at both frequencies. Read More

Magnetic fields can regulate disk formation, accretion and jet launching. Until recently, it has been difficult to obtain high resolution observations of the magnetic fields of the youngest protostars in the critical region near the protostar. The VANDAM survey is observing all known protostars in the Perseus Molecular Cloud. Read More

This paper discusses compelling science cases for a future long-baseline interferometer operating at millimeter and centimeter wavelengths, like the proposed Next Generation Vary Large Array (ngVLA). We report on the activities of the Cradle of Life science working group, which focused on the formation of low- and high-mass stars, the formation of planets and evolution of protoplanetary disks, the physical and compositional study of Solar System bodies, and the possible detection of radio signals from extraterrestrial civilizations. We propose 19 scientific projects based on the current specification of the ngVLA. Read More

Azimuthally asymmetric dust distributions observed with ALMA in transition disks have been interpreted as dust traps. We present VLA Ka band (34 GHz or 0.9 cm) and ALMA Cycle 2 Band 9 (680 GHz or 0. Read More

We present a CARMA 1.3 mm continuum survey toward 9 Class 0 protostars in the Perseus molecular cloud at $\sim$0.3$^{\prime\prime}$ (70 AU) resolution. Read More

We present deep ($\sim 17~\mu$Jy) radio continuum observations of the Serpens molecular cloud, the Serpens south cluster, and the W40 region obtained using the Very Large Array in its A configuration. We detect a total of 146 sources, 29 of which are young stellar objects (YSOs), 2 are BV stars and 5 more are associated with phenomena related to YSOs. Based on their radio variability and spectral index, we propose that about 16 of the remaining 110 unclassified sources are also YSOs. Read More

2015Jan
Affiliations: 1Leiden/NRAO, 2Michigan, 3Harvard-CfA, 4Michigan, 5Michigan

We present an expanded kinematic study of the young cluster NGC 2264 based upon optical radial velocities measured using multi-fiber echelle spectroscopy at the 6.5 meter MMT and Magellan telescopes. We report radial velocities for 695 stars, of which approximately 407 stars are confirmed or very likely members. Read More

We report the dramatic mid-infrared brightening between 2004 and 2006 of HOPS 383, a deeply embedded protostar adjacent to NGC 1977 in Orion. By 2008, the source became a factor of 35 brighter at 24 microns with a brightness increase also apparent at 4.5 microns. Read More

We present subarcsecond (~0.35") resolved observations of the 1.3 mm dust polarization from the edge-on circumstellar disk around the Class 0 protostar L1527. Read More

We present CARMA 2.9 mm dust continuum emission observations of a sample of 14 Herschel-detected Class 0 protostars in the Orion A and B molecular clouds, drawn from the PACS Bright Red Sources (PBRS) sample (Stutz et al.). Read More

We are conducting a Jansky VLA Ka-band (8 mm and 1 cm) and C-band (4 cm and 6.4 cm) survey of all known protostars in the Perseus Molecular Cloud, providing resolution down to $\sim$0.06'' and $\sim$0. Read More

We present observations of N2H+(1-0), HCO+(1-0), and HCN(1-0) toward the Serpens Main molecular cloud from the CARMA Large Area Star Formation Survey (CLASSy). We mapped 150 square arcminutes of Serpens Main with an angular resolution of 7 arcsecs. The gas emission is concentrated in two subclusters (the NW and SE subclusters). Read More

We present results from a high-sensitivity (60 $\mu$Jy), large-scale (2.26 square degree) survey obtained with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array as part of the Gould's Belt Survey program. Read More

Stars form from the gravitational collapse of dense molecular cloud cores. In the protostellar phase, mass accretes from the core onto a protostar, likely through an accretion disk, and it is during this phase that the initial masses of stars and the initial conditions for planet formation are set. Over the past decade, new observational capabilities provided by the Spitzer Space Telescope and Herschel Space Observatory have enabled wide-field surveys of entire star-forming clouds with unprecedented sensitivity, resolution, and infrared wavelength coverage. Read More

Edge-on protostars are valuable for understanding the disk and envelope properties of embedded young stellar objects, since the disk, envelope, and envelope cavities are all distinctly visible in resolved images and well constrained in modeling. Comparing 2MASS, WISE, Spitzer, Herschel, APEX, and IRAM photometry and limits from 1.25 to 1200 microns, Spitzer spectroscopy from 5 to 40 microns, and high-resolution Hubble imaging at 1. Read More

We present observations of three Class 0/I protostars (L1157-mm, CB230 IRS1, and L1165-SMM1) using the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) and observations of two (L1165-SMM1 and CB230 IRS1) with the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA). The VLA observations were taken at wavelengths of $\lambda = 7. Read More

We present large-scale ($\sim$ 2000 square arcminutes), deep ($\sim$ 20 $\mu$Jy), high-resolution ($\sim$ 1$''$) radio observations of the Ophiuchus star-forming complex obtained with the Karl G.\ Jansky Very Large Array at $\lambda$ = 4 and 6 cm. In total, 189 sources were detected, 56 of them associated with known young stellar sources, and 4 with known extragalactic objects; the other 129 remain unclassified, but most of them are most probably background quasars. Read More

2013May

We present high-resolution sub/millimeter interferometric imaging of the Class 0 protostar L1527 IRS (IRAS 04368+2557) at 870 micron and 3.4 mm from the Submillimeter Array (SMA) and Combined Array for Research in Millimeter Astronomy (CARMA). We detect the signature of an edge-on disk surrounding the protostar with an observed diameter of 180 AU in the sub/millimeter images. Read More

We perform a census of the reddest, and potentially youngest, protostars in the Orion molecular clouds using data obtained with the PACS instrument onboard the Herschel Space Observatory and the LABOCA and SABOCA instruments on APEX as part of the Herschel Orion Protostar Survey (HOPS). A total of 55 new protostar candidates are detected at 70 um and 160 um that are either too faint (m24 > 7 mag) to be reliably classified as protostars or undetected in the Spitzer/MIPS 24 um band. We find that the 11 reddest protostar candidates with log (lambda F_lambda 70) / (lambda F_lambda 24) > 1. Read More

We present a study on the spatial distribution of N2D+ and N2H+ in thirteen protostellar systems. Eight of thirteen objects observed with the IRAM 30m telescope show relative offsets between the peak N2D+ (J=2-1) and N2H+ (J=1-0) emission. We highlight the case of L1157 using interferometric observations from the Submillimeter Array and Plateau de Bure Interferometer of the N2D+ (J=3-2) and N2H+ (J=1-0) transitions respectively. Read More

Surveys with the Spitzer and Herschel space observatories are now enabling the discovery and characterization of large samples of protostars in nearby molecular clouds, providing the observational basis for a detailed understanding of star formation in diverse environments. We are pursuing this goal with the Herschel Orion Protostar Survey (HOPS), which targets 328 Spitzer-identified protostars in the Orion molecular clouds, the largest star-forming region in the nearest 500 pc. The sample encompasses all phases of protostellar evolution and a wide range of formation environments, from dense clusters to relative isolation. Read More

We extend our previous study of the stellar population of L1641, the lower-density star-forming region of the Orion A cloud south of the dense Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC), with the goal of testing whether there is a statistically significant deficiency of high-mass stars in low-density regions. Previously, we compared the observed ratio of low-mass stars to high-mass stars with theoretical models of the stellar initial mass function (IMF) to infer a deficiency of the highest-mass stars in L1641. We expand our population study to identify the intermediate mass (late B to G) L1641 members in an attempt to make a more direct comparison with the mass function of the nearby ONC. Read More