Johannes M. Richter - Otto-von-Guericke-Universitaet Magdeburg, Germany

Johannes M. Richter
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Johannes M. Richter
Otto-von-Guericke-Universitaet Magdeburg, Germany

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Physics - Strongly Correlated Electrons (44)
Physics - Statistical Mechanics (16)
Physics - Materials Science (3)
Quantum Physics (1)
Physics - Other (1)
Computer Science - Information Theory (1)
Mathematics - Information Theory (1)

Publications Authored By Johannes M. Richter

The existence of a spin-liquid ground state of the $s=1/2$ Heisenberg kagome antiferromagnet (KAFM) is well established. Meanwhile, also for the $s=1$ Heisenberg KAFM evidence for the absence of magnetic long-range order (LRO) was found. Magnetic LRO in Heisenberg KAFMs can emerge by increasing the spin quantum number $s$ to $s>1$ and for $s=1$ by an easy-plane anisotropy. Read More

The spin-1/2 Heisenberg octahedral chain with regularly alternating monomeric and square-plaquette sites is investigated using various analytical and numerical methods: variational technique, localized-magnon approach, exact diagonalization (ED) and density-matrix renormalization group (DMRG) method. The model belongs to the class of flat-band systems and it has a rich ground-state phase diagram including phases with spontaneously broken translational symmetry. Moreover, it exhibits an anomalous low-temperature thermodynamics close to continuous or discontinuous field-driven quantum phase transitions between three quantum ferrimagnetic phases, tetramer-hexamer phase, monomer-tetramer phase, localized-magnon phase and two different spin-liquid phases. Read More

The high temperature expansion (HTE) of the specific heat of a spin system fails at low temperatures, even if it is combined with a Pad\'e approximation. On the other hand we often have information about the low temperature asymptotics (LTA) of the system. Interpolation methods combine both kind of information, HTE and LTA, in order to obtain an approximation of the specific heat that holds for the whole temperature range. Read More

We consider the spin-1/2 antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model on a bilayer honeycomb lattice including interlayer frustration in the presence of an external magnetic field. In the vicinity of the saturation field, we map the low-energy states of this quantum system onto the spatial configurations of hard hexagons on a honeycomb lattice. As a result, we can construct effective classical models (lattice-gas as well as Ising models) on the honeycomb lattice to calculate the properties of the frustrated quantum Heisenberg spin system in the low-temperature regime. Read More

In band-like semiconductors, charge carriers form a thermal energy distribution rapidly after optical excitation. In hybrid lead halide perovskites, the cooling of such thermal distributions has been reported to occur on timescales of ~300 fs via carrier-phonon scattering. However, the initial step of build-up of a thermal Boltzmann distribution proved difficult to resolve with conventional pump-probe techniques due to the requirement of high resolution both in time and in energy. Read More

To illustrate a simple mean-field-like approach for examining quantum phase transitions we consider the $J-J^\prime$ quantum Heisenberg antiferromagnet on a square lattice. The exchange couplings $J$ and $J^\prime$ are competing with each other. The ratio $J^\prime/J$ is the control parameter and its change drives the transition. Read More

We present the high-temperature expansion up to 11th order for the specific heat $C$ and the uniform susceptibility $\chi_0$ and up to 9th order for the structure factor $S_{\bf Q}$ of the frustrated spin-half $J_1$-$J_2$ Heisenberg model on the BCC lattice. We consider ferromagnetic as well as antiferromagnetic nearest-neighbor exchange $J_1$ and frustrating antiferromagnetic next-nearest-neighbor exchange $J_2$. We discuss the influence of frustration on the temperature dependence of these quantities. Read More

We use the coupled cluster method (CCM) to study the ground-state properties and lowest-lying triplet excited state of the spin-half {\it XXZ} antiferromagnet on the square lattice. The CCM is applied to it to high orders of approximation by using an efficient computer code that has been written by us and which has been implemented to run on massively parallelized computer platforms. We are able therefore to present precise data for the basic quantities of this model over a wide range of values for the anisotropy parameter $\Delta$ in the range $-1 \leq \Delta < \infty$ of interest, including both the easy-plane $(-1 < \Delta < 1)$ and easy-axis $(\Delta > 1)$ regimes, where $\Delta \rightarrow \infty$ represents the Ising limit. Read More

We consider the standard repulsive Hubbard model with a flat lowest-energy band for two one-dimensional lattices (diamond chain and ladder) as well as for a two-dimensional lattice (bilayer) at half filling of the flat band. The considered models do not fall in the class of Mielke-Tasaki flat-band ferromagnets, since they do not obey the connectivity conditions. However, the ground-state ferromagnetism can emerge, if the flat band becomes dispersive. Read More

While the existence of a spin-liquid ground state of the spin-1/2 kagome Heisenberg antiferromagnet (KHAF) is well established, the discussion of the effect of an interlayer coupling (ILC) by controlled theoretical approaches is still lacking. Here we study this problem by using the coupled-cluster method to high orders of approximation. We consider a stacked KHAF with a perpendicular ILC $J_\perp$, where we study ferro- as well as antiferromagnetic $J_\perp$. Read More

In this review we recapitulate the basic features of the flat-band spin systems and briefly summarize earlier studies in the field. Main emphasis is made on recent developments which include results for both spin and electron flat-band models. In particular, for flat-band spin systems we highlight field-driven phase transitions for frustrated quantum Heisenberg antiferromagnets at low temperatures, chiral flat-band states, as well as the effect of a slight dispersion of a previously strictly flat band due to nonideal lattice geometry. Read More

We consider the antiferromagnetic spin-1/2 $XXZ$ Heisenberg model on a frustrated diamond-chain lattice in a $z$- or $x$-aligned external magnetic field. We use the strong-coupling approach to elaborate an effective description in the low-temperature strong-field regime. The obtained effective models are spin-1/2 $XY$ chains which are exactly solvable through the Jordan-Wigner fermionization. Read More

We investigate the antiferromagnetic canting instability of the spin-1/2 kagome ferromagnet, as realized in the layered cuprates Cu$_3$Bi(SeO$_3)_2$O$_2$X (X=Br, Cl, and I). While the local canting can be explained in terms of competing exchange interactions, the direction of the ferrimagnetic order parameter fluctuates strongly even at short distances on account of frustration which gives rise to an infinite ground state degeneracy at the classical level. In analogy with the kagome antiferromagnet, the accidental degeneracy is fully lifted only by non-linear 1/S corrections, rendering the selected uniform canted phase very fragile even for spins-1/2, as shown explicitly by coupled-cluster calculations. Read More

We investigate the problem of secure communications in a Gaussian multi-way relay channel applying the compute-and-forward scheme using nested lattice codes. All nodes employ half-duplex operation and can exchange confidential messages only via an untrusted relay. The relay is assumed to be honest but curious, i. Read More

We investigate a mechanism to establish ground-state ferromagnetism in flat-band Hubbard systems based on a kind of {\it order-from-disorder} effect driven by dispersion. As a paradigm we consider a frustrated diamond chain, where for ideal diamond geometry the lowest one-electron band is flat, but the ground state remains paramagnetic for arbitrary on-site repulsion $U$. We focus on half filling of the flat band. Read More

We consider the spin-1/2 antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model on the two-dimensional square-kagome lattice with almost dispersionless lowest magnon band. For a general exchange coupling geometry we elaborate low-energy effective Hamiltonians which emerge at high magnetic fields. The effective model to describe the low-energy degrees of freedom of the initial frustrated quantum spin model is the (unfrustrated) square-lattice spin-1/2 $XXZ$ model in a $z$-aligned magnetic field. Read More

We present the high-temperature expansion (HTE) up to 10th order of the specific heat C and the uniform susceptibility \chi for Heisenberg models with arbitrary exchange patterns and arbitrary spin quantum number s. We encode the algorithm in a C++ program which allows to get explicitly the HTE series for concrete Heisenberg models. We apply our algorithm to pyrochlore ferromagnets and kagome antiferromagnets using several Pad\'e approximants for the HTE series. Read More

We clarify the existence of several magnetization plateaux for the kagome $S=1/2$ antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model in a magnetic field. Using approximate or exact localized magnon eigenstates, we are able to describe in a similar manner the plateau states that occur for magnetization per site $m=1/3$, $5/9$, and $7/9$ of the saturation value. These results are confirmed using large-scale Exact Diagonalization on lattices up to 63 sites. Read More

We consider the spin-1/2 antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model on three frustrated lattices (the diamond chain, the dimer-plaquette chain and the two-dimensional square-kagome lattice) with almost dispersionless lowest magnon band. Eliminating high-energy degrees of freedom at high magnetic fields, we construct low-energy effective Hamiltonians which are much simpler than the initial ones. These effective Hamiltonians allow a more extended analytical and numerical analysis. Read More

We consider the antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model on a distorted diamond chain and use the localized-magnon picture adapted to a distorted geometry to discuss some of its high-field low-temperature properties. More specifically, in our study we assume that the partition function for a slightly distorted geometry has the same form as for ideal geometry, though with slightly dispersive one-magnon energies. We also discuss the relevance of such a description to azurite. Read More

We report a comprehensive experimental and theoretical study of the quasi-one-dimensional quantum magnet CuNCN. Based on magnetization measurements above room temperature as well as muon spin rotation and electron spin resonance measurements, we unequivocally establish the localized Cu+2-based magnetism and the magnetic transition around 70 K, both controversially discussed in the previous literature. Thermodynamic data conform to the uniform-spin-chain model with a nearest-neighbor intrachain coupling of about 2300 K, in remarkable agreement with the microscopic magnetic model based on density functional theory band-structure calculations. Read More

We consider a two-dimensional geometrically frustrated integer-spin Heisenberg system that admits an exact ground state. The system corresponds to a decorated square lattice with two coupling constants J1 and J2, and it can be understood as a generalized Shastry-Sutherland model. Main elements of the spin model are suitably coupled antiferromagnetic spin trimers with integer spin quantum numbers s and their ground state Phi will be the product state of the local singlet ground states of the trimers. Read More

We explicitly calculate the moments $t_n$ of general Heisenberg Hamiltonians up to eighth order. They have the form of finite sums of products of two factors. The first factor is represented by a (multi-)graph which has to be evaluated for each particular system under consideration. Read More

We consider the antiferromagnetic Heisenberg and the repulsive Hubbard model on two $N$-site one-dimensional lattices, which support dispersionless one-particle states corresponding to localized states on triangular trapping cells. We calculate the degeneracy of the ground states in the subspaces with $n\le n_{\max}$, $n_{\max}\propto N$ magnons or electrons as well as the contribution of these states (independent localized states) to thermodynamic quantities. Moreover, we discuss another class of low-lying eigenstates (so-called interacting localized states) and calculate their contribution to the partition function. Read More

For the 1D-frustrated ferromagnetic J_1-J_2 model with interchain coupling added, we analyze the dynamical and static structure factor S(k,omega), the pitch angle phi of the magnetic structure, the magnetization curve of edge-shared chain cuprates, and focus on LiCuVO4 for which neither a perturbed spinon nor a spin wave approach can be applied. phi is found to be most sensitive to the interplay of frustration and quantum fluctuations. For LiVCuO4 the obtained exchange parameters J are in accord with the results for a realistic 5-band extended Hubbard model and LSDA + U predictions yielding alpha=J_2/|J_1| about 0. Read More

The spin-1/2 XXZ diamond chain is considered within the Jordan-Wigner fermionization. The fermionized Hamiltonian contains the interacting terms which are treated within the Hartree-Fock approximation. We obtain the ground-state magnetization curve of the model for some particular cases and compare the results with the exact diagonalization data for finite chains of 30 spins and known exact results. Read More

Using a lattice-gas description of the low-energy degrees of freedom of the quantum Heisenberg antiferromagnet on the frustrated two-leg ladder and bilayer lattices we examine the magnetization process at low temperatures for these spin models. In both cases the emergent discrete degrees of freedom implicate a close relation of the frustrated quantum Heisenberg antiferromagnet to the classical lattice gas with finite nearest-neighbor repulsion or, equivalently, to the Ising antiferromagnet in a uniform magnetic field. Using this relation we obtain analytical results for thermodynamically large systems in the one-dimensional case. Read More

The natural mineral azurite Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2 is an interesting spin-1/2 quantum antiferromagnet. Recently, a generalised diamond chain model has been established as a good description of the magnetic properties of azurite with parameters placing it in a highly frustrated parameter regime. Here we explore further properties of this model for azurite. Read More

We explicitly calculate the moments t_n of general Heisenberg Hamiltonians up to sixth order. They have the form of finite sums of products of two factors, the first factor being represented by a multigraph and the second factor being a polynomial in the variable s(s + 1), where s denotes the individual spin quantum number. As an application we determine the corresponding coefficients of the expansion of the free energy and the zero field susceptibility in powers of the inverse temperature. Read More

We present exact results for the ground-state and thermodynamic properties of the spin-1/2 $XX$ chain with three-site interactions in a random (Lorentzian) transverse field. We discuss the influence of randomness on the quantum critical behavior known to be present in the nonrandom model. We find that at zero temperature the characteristic features of the quantum phase transition, such as kinks in the magnetization versus field curve, are smeared out by randomness. Read More

The natural mineral azurite Cu$_3$(CO$_3$)$_2$(OH)$_2$ is a frustrated magnet displaying unusual and controversially discussed magnetic behavior. Motivated by the lack of a unified description for this system, we perform a theoretical study based on density functional theory as well as state-of-the-art numerical many-body calculations. We propose an effective generalized spin-1/2 diamond chain model which provides a consistent description of experiments: low-temperature magnetization, inelastic neutron scattering, nuclear magnetic resonance measurements, magnetic susceptibility as well as new specific heat measurements. Read More

We present results of a complementary analysis of the frustrated planar J_1-J_2-J_3 spin-1/2 quantum-antiferromagnet. Using dynamical functional renormalization group, high-order coupled cluster calculations, and series expansion based on the flow equation method, we have calculated generalized momentum resolved susceptibilities, the ground state energy, the magnetic order parameter, and the elementary excitation gap. From these we determine a quantum phase diagram which shows a large window of a quantum paramagnetic phase situated between the Neel, spiral and collinear states, which are present already in the classical J_1-J_2-J_3 antiferromagnet. Read More

Based on exact diagonalization data for finite quantum Heisenberg antiferromagnets on two frustrated lattices (two-leg ladder and bilayer) and analytical arguments we map low-energy degrees of freedom of the spin models in a magnetic field on classical lattice-gas models. Further we use transfer-matrix calculations and classical Monte Carlo simulations to give a quantitative description of low-temperature thermodynamics of the quantum spin models. The classical lattice-gas model yields an excellent description of the quantum spin models up to quite large temperatures. Read More

We apply density functional theory band structure calculations, the coupled-cluster method, and exact diagonalization to investigate the microscopic magnetic model of the spin-1/2 compound Cu2GeO4. The model is quasi-two-dimensional, with uniform spin chains along one direction and frustrated spin chains along the other direction. The coupling along the uniform chains is antiferromagnetic, J 130 K. Read More

We consider a class of geometrically frustrated Heisenberg spin systems which admit exact ground states. The systems consist of suitably coupled antiferromagnetic spin trimers with integer spin quantum numbers $s$ and their ground state $\Phi$ will be the product state of the local singlet ground states of the trimers. We provide linear equations for the inter-trimer coupling constants which are equivalent to $\Phi$ being an eigenstate of the corresponding Heisenberg Hamiltonian and sufficient conditions for $\Phi$ being a ground state. Read More

The Jordan-Wigner transformation is applied to study magnetic properties of the quantum spin-1/2 $XX$ model on the diamond chain. Generally, the Hamiltonian of this quantum spin system can be represented in terms of spinless fermions in the presence of a gauge field and different gauge-invariant ways of assigning the spin-fermion transformation are considered. Additionally, we analyze general properties of a free-fermion chain, where all gauge terms are neglected and discuss their relevance for the quantum spin system. Read More

We investigate the influence of an inter-chain coupling on the spiral ground state correlations of a spin-1/2 Heisenberg model consisting of a two-dimensional array of coupled chains with nearest (J1) and frustrating next-nearest neighbor (J2) in-chain exchange couplings. Using the coupled-cluster method we calculate the transition point between the commensurate and the incommensurate (spiral) ground state as well as the quantum pitch angle of the spiral ground state. In addition, we provide a simple empirical formula which describes the relation between the quantum pitch angle and the frustration parameter J2/J1. Read More

We study the repulsive Hubbard model both analytically and numerically on a family of highly frustrated lattices which have one-electron states localized on isolated trapping cells. We construct and count exact many-electron ground states for a wide range of electron densities and obtain closed-form expressions for the low-temperature thermodynamic quantities. Furthermore, we find that saturated ferromagnetism is obtained only for sufficiently high electron densities and large Hubbard repulsion $U$ while there is no finite average moment in the ground states at lower densities. Read More

We investigate the ground-state magnetic long-range order of quasi-one-dimensional quantum Heisenberg antiferromagnets for spin quantum numbers s=1/2 and s=1. We use the coupled cluster method to calculate the sublattice magnetization in dependence on the inter-chain coupling. We find that for the unfrustrated spin-1/2 system an infinitesimal inter-chain coupling is sufficient to stabilize magnetic long-range order, which is in agreement with results obtained by some other methods. Read More

The repulsive Hubbard model on a sawtooth chain exhibits a lowest single-electron band which is completely dispersionless (flat) for a specific choice of the hopping parameters. We construct exact many-electron ground states for electron fillings up to 1/4. We map the low-energy degrees of freedom of the electron model to a model of classical hard dimers on a chain and, as a result, obtain the ground-state degeneracy as well as closed-form expressions for the low-temperature thermodynamic quantities around a particular value of the chemical potential. Read More

The purpose of the present paper is two-fold. On the one hand, we review some recent studies on the low-temperature strong-field thermodynamic properties of frustrated quantum spin antiferromagnets which admit the so-called localized-magnon eigenstates. One the other hand, we provide some complementary new results. Read More

We present an analysis of the entanglement characteristics in the Majumdar-Ghosh (MG) or $J_{1}$-$J_{2}$ Heisenberg model. For a system consisting of up to 28 spins, there is a deviation from the scaling behaviour of the entanglement entropy characterizing the unfrustrated Heisenberg chain as soon as $J_{2} >0.25$. Read More

We investigate the thermodynamic properties of the frustrated bilayer quantum Heisenberg antiferromagnet at low temperatures in the vicinity of the saturation magnetic field. The low-energy degrees of freedom of the spin model are mapped onto a hard-square gas on a square lattice. We use exact diagonalization data for finite spin systems to check the validity of such a description. Read More

At the magnetic saturation field, certain frustrated lattices have a class of states known as "localized multi-magnon states" as exact ground states. The number of these states scales exponentially with the number $N$ of spins and hence they have a finite entropy also in the thermodynamic limit $N\to \infty$ provided they are sufficiently linearly independent. In this article we present rigorous results concerning the linear dependence or independence of localized magnon states and investigate special examples. Read More

We study the low-temperature thermodynamic properties of a number of frustrated quantum antiferromagnets which support localized magnon states in the vicinity of the saturation field. For this purpose we use 1) a mapping of the low-energy degrees of freedom of spin systems onto the hard-core object lattice gases and 2) an exact diagonalization of finite spin systems of up to N=30 sites. The considered spin systems exhibit universal behavior which is determined by a specific hard-core object lattice gas representing the independent localized magnon states. Read More

We study the stability of some strongly frustrated antiferromagnetic spin lattices in high magnetic fields against lattice distortions. In particular, we consider a spin-s anisotropic Heisenberg antiferromagnet on the square-kagom\'{e} and kagom\'{e} lattices. The independent localized magnons embedded in a ferromagnetic environment, which are the ground state at the saturation field, imply lattice instabilities for appropriate lattice distortions fitting to the structure of the localized magnons. Read More

We consider the quantum spin-$s$ $XXZ$ Heisenberg antiferromagnet on the two- and three-dimensional pyrochlore lattices and examine a spin-Peierls mechanism of lowering the total energy by a lattice distortion in a high magnetic field. For the exact eigenstates consisting of several independent localized magnons in a ferromagnetic environment we show the existence of a spin-Peierls instability by rigorous analytical calculations. In addition we report on exact diagonalization data for finite two-dimensional pyrochlore lattices up to N=64 sites. Read More

Using the Jordan-Wigner transformation and continued fractions we calculate rigorously the thermodynamic quantities for the spin-1/2 transverse Ising chain with periodically varying intersite interactions and/or on-site fields. We consider in detail the properties of the chains having a period of the transverse field modulation equal to 3. The regularly alternating transverse Ising chain exhibits several quantum phase transition points, where the number of transition points for a given period of alternation strongly depends on the specific set of the Hamiltonian parameters. Read More

For a class of highly frustrated antiferromagnetic quantum spin lattices the ground state exhibits a huge degeneracy in high magnetic fields due to the existence of localized magnon states. For some of these spin lattices (in particular, the 1D dimer-plaquette, sawtooth and kagom\'{e}-like chains as well as the 2D kagom\'{e} lattice) we calculate rigorously the ground-state entropy at the saturation field. We find that the ground-state entropy per site remains finite at saturation. Read More

We investigate an antiferromagnetic s=1/2 quantum spin system with anisotropic spin exchange on a fractal lattice, the Sierpinski gasket. We introduce a novel approximative numerical method, the configuration selective diagonalization (CSD) and apply this method to the Sierpinski gasket with N=42. Using this and other methods we calculate ground state energies, spin gap, spin-spin correlations and specific heat data and conclude that the s=1/2 quantum antiferromagnet on the Sierpinski gasket shows a disordered magnetic ground state with a very short correlation length of about 1 and an, albeit very small, spin gap. Read More