Jelena Vuckovic

Jelena Vuckovic
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Jelena Vuckovic

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Physics - Optics (35)
Physics - Mesoscopic Systems and Quantum Hall Effect (29)
Quantum Physics (27)
Physics - Materials Science (4)
Mathematics - Mathematical Physics (1)
Mathematical Physics (1)

Publications Authored By Jelena Vuckovic

Arrays of identical and individually addressable qubits lay the foundation for the creation of scalable quantum hardware such as quantum processors and repeaters. Silicon vacancy centers in diamond (SiV) offer excellent physical properties such as low inhomogeneous broadening, fast photon emission, and a large Debye-Waller factor, while the possibility for all-optical ultrafast manipulation and techniques to extend the spin coherence times make them very promising candidates for qubits. Here, we have developed arrays of nanopillars containing single SiV centers with high yield, and we demonstrate ultrafast all-optical complete coherent control of the state of a single SiV center. Read More

In this chapter, we present the state-of-the-art in the generation of nonclassical states of light using semiconductor cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED) platforms. Our focus is on the photon blockade effects that enable the generation of indistinguishable photon streams with high purity and efficiency. Starting with the leading platform of InGaAs quantum dots in optical nanocavities, we review the physics of a single quantum emitter strongly coupled to a cavity. Read More

We study n-photon generation in multi-emitter cavity systems with small inhomogeneous broadening, characteristic of color center systems. We focus on the case of N = 2 nonidentical quasi-atoms strongly coupled to a nanoresonator in the bad cavity regime. Using the quantum master equation in an extended Tavis-Cummings model, we discover a new interference effect resulting in high quality single-photon generation that is robust to emitter property variations. Read More

A major difficulty in applying computational design methods to nanophotonic devices is ensuring that the resulting designs are fabricable. Here, we describe a general inverse design algorithm for nanophotonic devices that directly incorporates fabrication constraints. To demonstrate the capabilities of our method, we designed a spatial-mode demultiplexer, wavelength demultiplexer, and directional coupler. Read More

Silicon carbide is a promising platform for single photon sources, quantum bits (qubits) and nanoscale sensors based on individual color centers. Towards this goal, we develop a scalable array of nanopillars incorporating single silicon vacancy centers in 4H-SiC, readily available for efficient interfacing with free-space objective and lensed-fibers. A commercially obtained substrate is irradiated with 2 MeV electron beams to create vacancies. Read More

In the last decade, there has been remarkable progress on the practical integration of on-chip quantum photonic devices yet quantum state generators remain an outstanding challenge. Simultaneously, the quantum-dot photonic-crystal-resonator platform has demonstrated a versatility for creating nonclassical light with tunable quantum statistics, thanks to a newly discovered self-homodyning interferometric effect that preferentially selects the quantum light over the classical light when using an optimally tuned Fano resonance. In this work, we propose a general structure for the cavity quantum electrodynamical generation of quantum states from a waveguide-integrated version of the quantum-dot photonic-crystal-resonator platform, which is specifically tailored for preferential quantum state transmission. Read More

We develop hybrid silicon carbide-nanodiamond microresonators that incorporate diamond's SiV and Cr-related color centers. Our systems are realized on a silicon wafer where 3C-SiC layer is grown and lithographically fabricated into microdisks, followed by the chemical vapor deposition of diamondoid-seeded color center-rich nanoparticles. The microdisk geometry facilitates preferential positioning of nanodiamonds relative to the whispering gallery mode field distribution. Read More

We investigate the dynamics of single- and multi-photon emission from detuned strongly coupled systems based on the quantum-dot-photonic-crystal resonator platform. Transmitting light through such systems can generate a range of non-classical states of light with tunable photon counting statistics due to the nonlinear ladder of hybridized light-matter states. By controlling the detuning between emitter and resonator, the transmission can be tuned to strongly enhance either single- or two-photon emission processes. Read More

Single-photon sources are at the heart of quantum-optical networks, with their uniquely quantum emission and phenomenon of two-photon interference allowing for the generation and transfer of nonclassical states. Although a few analytical methods have been briefly investigated for describing pulsed single-photon sources, these methods apply only to either perfectly ideal or at least extremely idealized sources. Here, we present the first complete picture of pulsed single-photon sources by elaborating how to numerically and fully characterize non-ideal single-photon sources operating in a pulsed regime. Read More

Strongly coupled quantum dot-cavity systems provide a non-linear configuration of hybridized light-matter states with promising quantum-optical applications. Here, we investigate the coherent interaction between strong laser pulses and quantum dot-cavity polaritons. Resonant excitation of polaritonic states and their interaction with phonons allow us to observe coherent Rabi oscillations and Ramsey fringes. Read More

The rapid generation of non-classical light serves as the foundation for exploring quantum optics and developing applications such as secure communication or generation of NOON-states. While strongly coupled quantum dot-photonic crystal resonator systems have great potential as non-classical light sources due to their promise of tailored output statistics, the generation of indistinguishable photons has been obscured due to the strongly dissipative nature of such systems. Here, we demonstrate that the recently discovered self-homodyne suppression technique can be used to overcome this limitation and tune the quantum statistics of transmitted light, achieving indistinguishable photon emission competitive with state-of-the-art metrics. Read More

The study of light-matter interaction at the quantum scale has been enabled by the cavity quantum electrodynamics (CQED) architecture, in which a quantum two-level system strongly couples to a single cavity mode. Originally implemented with atoms in optical cavities, CQED effects are now also observed with artificial atoms in solid-state environments. Such realizations of these systems exhibit fast dynamics, which makes them attractive candidates for devices including modulators and sources in high-throughput communications. Read More

We present germanium microdisk optical resonators under a large biaxial tensile strain using a CMOS-compatible fabrication process. Biaxial tensile strain of ~0.7% is achieved by means of a stress concentration technique that allows the strain level to be customized by carefully selecting certain lithographic dimensions. Read More

We demonstrate a new approach for engineering group IV semiconductor-based quantum photonic structures containing negatively charged silicon-vacancy (SiV$^-$) color centers in diamond as quantum emitters. Hybrid SiC/diamond structures are realized by combining the growth of nanoand micro-diamonds on silicon carbide (3C or 4H polytype) substrates, with the subsequent use of these diamond crystals as a hard mask for pattern transfer. SiV$^-$ color centers are incorporated in diamond during its synthesis from molecular diamond seeds (diamondoids), with no need for ionimplantation or annealing. Read More

A silicon-compatible light source is the final missing piece for completing high-speed, low-power on-chip optical interconnects. In this paper, we present a germanium-based light emitter that encompasses all the aspects of potential low-threshold lasers: highly strained germanium gain medium, strain-induced pseudo-heterostructure, and high-Q optical cavity. Our light emitting structure presents greatly enhanced photoluminescence into cavity modes with measured quality factors of up to 2,000. Read More

Integrated photonic devices are poised to play a key role in a wide variety of applications, ranging from optical interconnects and sensors to quantum computing. However, only a small library of semi-analytically designed devices are currently known. In this paper, we demonstrate the use of an inverse design method that explores the full design space of fabricable devices and allows us to design devices with previously unattainable functionality, higher performance and robustness, and smaller footprints compared to conventional devices. Read More

We investigate the influence of exciton-phonon coupling on the dynamics of a strongly coupled quantum dot-photonic crystal cavity system and explore the effects of this interaction on different schemes for non-classical light generation. By performing time-resolved measurements, we map out the detuning-dependent polariton lifetime and extract the spectrum of the polariton-to-phonon coupling with unprecedented precision. Photon-blockade experiments for different pulse-length and detuning conditions (supported by quantum optical simulations) reveal that achieving high-fidelity photon blockade requires an intricate understanding of the phonons' influence on the system dynamics. Read More

We fabricate an integrated photonic circuit with emitter, waveguide and detector on one chip, based on a hybrid superconductor-semiconductor system. We detect photoluminescence from self-assembled InGaAs quantum dots on-chip using NbN superconducting nanowire single photon detectors. Using the fast temporal response of these detectors we perform time-resolved studies of non-resonantly excited quantum dots. Read More

Engineering the electromagnetic environment of a nanoscale light emitter by a photonic cavity can significantly enhance its spontaneous emission rate through cavity quantum electrodynamics in the Purcell regime. This effect can greatly reduce the lasing threshold of the emitter, providing the ultimate low-threshold laser system with small footprint, low power consumption and ultrafast modulation. A state-of-the-art ultra-low threshold nanolaser has been successfully developed though embedding quantum dots into photonic crystal cavity (PhCC). Read More

We present the design, fabrication and characterization of cubic (3C) silicon carbide microdisk resonators with high quality factor modes at visible and near infrared wavelengths (600 - 950 nm). Whispering gallery modes with quality factors as high as 2,300 and corresponding mode volumes V ~ 2 ({\lambda}/n)^3 are measured using laser scanning confocal microscopy at room temperature. We obtain excellent correspondence between transverse-magnetic (TM) and transverse-electric (TE) polarized resonances simulated using Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method and those observed in experiment. Read More

A fault-tolerant quantum repeater or quantum computer using solid-state spin-based quantum bits will likely require a physical implementation with many spins arranged in a grid. Self-assembled quantum dots (QDs) have been established as attractive candidates for building spin-based quantum information processing devices, but such QDs are randomly positioned, which makes them unsuitable for constructing large-scale processors. Recent efforts have shown that quantum dots embedded in nanowires can be deterministically positioned in regular arrays, can store single charges, and have excellent optical properties, but so far there have been no demonstrations of spin qubit operations using nanowire quantum dots. Read More

We demonstrate the design, fabrication and characterization of nanobeam cavities with multiple higher order modes. Designs with two high Q modes with frequency separations of an octave are introduced, and we fabricate such cavities exhibiting resonances with wavelength separations of up to 740 nm. Read More

The on-chip generation of non-classical states of light is a key-requirement for future optical quantum hardware. In solid-state cavity quantum electrodynamics, such non-classical light can be generated from self-assembled quantum dots strongly coupled to photonic crystal cavities. Their anharmonic strong light-matter interaction results in large optical nonlinearities at the single photon level, where the admission of a single photon into the cavity may enhance (photon-tunnelling) or diminish (photon-blockade) the probability for a second photon to enter the cavity. Read More

Semiconductor based photonic information technologies are rapidly being pushed to the quantum limit where non-classical states of light can be generated, manipulated and exploited in prototypical quantum optical circuits. Here, we report the on-chip generation of quantum light from individual, resonantly excited self-assembled InGaAs quantum dots, efficient routing over length scales $\geq 1$ mm via GaAs ridge waveguides and in-situ detection using evanescently coupled integrated NbN superconducting single photon detectors fabricated on the same chip. By temporally filtering the time-resolved luminescence signal stemming from single, resonantly excited quantum dots we use the prototypical quantum optical circuit to perform time-resolved excitation spectroscopy on single dots and demonstrate resonant fluorescence with a line-width of $10 \pm 1 \ \mu$eV; key elements needed for the use of single photons in prototypical quantum photonic circuits. Read More

We have grown high quality p-type {\delta}-doped InAs quantum dots and have demonstrated coherent spin pumping and repumping of a hole spin in a positively charged quantum dot by means of a single-laser driving scheme under a high magnetic field in the Voigt configuration. Modeling of our system shows excellent qualitative agreement with the experimental findings and further explores the performance of the single-laser scheme for spin pumping and re-pumping. Read More

We demonstrate the design, fabrication and characterization of nanobeam photonic crystal cavities in (111)-GaAs with multiple high quality factor modes, with large frequency separations (up to 740 nm in experiment, i.e., a factor of 1. Read More

Despite tremendous advances in the fundamentals and applications of cavity quantum electrodynamics (CQED), investigations in this field have primarily been limited to optical cavities composed of purely dielectric materials. Here, we demonstrate a hybrid metal-dielectric nanocavity design and realize it in the InAs/GaAs quantum photonics platform utilizing angled rotational metal evaporation. Key features of our nanometallic light-matter interface include: (i) order of magnitude reduction in mode volume compared to that of leading photonic crystal CQED systems; (ii) surface-emitting nanoscale cylindrical geometry and therefore good collection efficiency; and finally (iii) strong and broadband spontaneous emission rate enhancement (Purcell factor ~ 8) of single photons. Read More

Nanophotonics has emerged as a powerful tool for manipulating light on chips. Almost all of today's devices, however, have been designed using slow and ineffective brute-force search methods, leading in many cases to limited device performance. In this article, we provide a complete demonstration of our recently proposed inverse design technique, wherein the user specifies design constraints in the form of target fields rather than a dielectric constant profile, and in particular we use this method to demonstrate a new demultiplexing grating. Read More

We demonstrate second harmonic generation in photonic crystal cavities in (001) and (111)B oriented GaAs. The fundamental resonance is at 1800 nm, leading to second harmonic below the GaAs bandgap. Below-bandgap operation minimizes absorption of the second harmonic and two photon absorption of the pump. Read More

This chapter will primarily focus on the studies of quantum optics with semiconductor, epitaxially grown quantum dots embedded in photonic crystal cavities. We will start by giving brief introductions into photonic crystals and quantum dots, then proceed with the introduction to cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED) effects, with a particular emphasis on the demonstration of these effects on the quantum dot-photonic crystal platform. Finally, we will focus on the applications of such cavity QED effects. Read More

We demonstrate a new photo-induced oxidation technique for tuning GaAs photonic crystal cavities using a $390~\mathrm{nm}$ pulsed laser with an average power of $10~\mathrm{\mu W}$. The laser oxidizes a small $\left(\sim 500~\mathrm{nm}\right)$ diameter spot, reducing the local index of refraction and blueshifting the cavity. The tuning progress can be actively monitored in real time. Read More

Monolayers of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) have emerged as new optoelectronic materials in the two dimensional (2D) limit, exhibiting rich spin-valley interplays, tunable excitonic effects, and strong light-matter interactions. An essential yet undeveloped ingredient for many photonic applications is the manipulation of its light emission. Here we demonstrate the control of excitonic light emission from monolayer tungsten diselenide (WSe2) in an integrated photonic structure, achieved by transferring one monolayer onto a photonic crystal (PhC) with a cavity. Read More

We present the design, fabrication, and characterization of high quality factor and small mode volume planar photonic crystal cavities from cubic (3C) thin films (thickness ~ 200 nm) of silicon carbide (SiC) grown epitaxially on a silicon substrate. We demonstrate cavity resonances across the telecommunications band, with wavelengths from 1,250 - 1,600 nm. Finally, we discuss possible applications in nonlinear optics, optical interconnects, and quantum information science. Read More

We demonstrate second harmonic generation at telecommunications wavelengths in L3 photonic crystal cavities in (111)-oriented GaAs. The second harmonic power from photonic crystal cavities fabricated in (111)-oriented GaAs is significantly increased compared to those fabricated in conventional (001)-oriented GaAs. Read More

We demonstrate a novel method for deterministic charging of InAs quantum dots embedded in photonic crystal nanoresonators using a unique vertical p-n-i-n junction within the photonic crystal membrane. Charging is confirmed by the observation of Zeeman splitting for magnetic fields applied in the Voigt configuration. Spectrally resolved photoluminescence measurements are complemented by polarization resolved studies that show the precise structure of the Zeeman quadruplet. Read More

We use the third- and fourth-order autocorrelation functions $g^{(3)}(\tau_1,\tau_2)$ and $g^{(4)}(\tau_1,\tau_2, \tau_3)$ to detect the non-classical character of the light transmitted through a photonic-crystal nanocavity containing a strongly-coupled quantum dot probed with a train of coherent light pulses. We contrast the value of $g^{(3)}(0, 0)$ with the conventionally used $g^{(2)}(0)$ and demonstrate that in addition to being necessary for detecting two-photon states emitted by a low-intensity source, $g^{(3)}$ provides a more clear indication of the non-classical character of a light source. We also present preliminary data that demonstrates bunching in the fourth-order autocorrelation function $g^{(4)}(\tau_1,\tau_2, \tau_3)$ as the first step toward detecting three-photon states. Read More

In contrast to designing nanophotonic devices by tuning a handful of device parameters, we have developed a computational method which utilizes the full parameter space to design linear nanophotonic devices. We show that our method may indeed be capable of designing any linear nanophotonic device by demonstrating designed structures which are fully three-dimensional and multi-modal, exhibit novel functionality, have very compact footprints, exhibit high efficiency, and are manufacturable. In addition, we also demonstrate the ability to produce structures which are strongly robust to wavelength and temperature shift, as well as fabrication error. Read More

We propose a scheme to efficiently couple a single quantum dot electron spin to an optical nano-cavity, which enables us to simultaneously benefit from a cavity as an efficient photonic interface, as well as to perform high fidelity (nearly 100%) spin initialization and manipulation achievable in bulk semiconductors. Moreover, the presence of the cavity speeds up the spin initialization process beyond GHz. Read More

Efficient conversion of electrical signal to optical signal in nano-photonics enables solid state integration of electronics and photonics. Combination of graphene with photonic crystals is promising for electro-optic modulation. In this paper, we demonstrate that by electrostatic gating a single layer of graphene on top of a photonic crystal cavity, the cavity resonance can be changed significantly. Read More

Fast, high efficiency, and low error single photon sources are required for implementation of a number of quantum information processing applications. The fastest triggered single photon sources to date have been demonstrated using epitaxially grown semiconductor quantum dots (QDs), which can be conveniently integrated with optical microcavities. Recent advances in QD technology, including demonstrations of high temperature and telecommunications wavelength single photon emission, have made QD single photon sources more practical. Read More

Indistinguishable single photons are necessary for quantum information processing applications. Resonant or quasiresonant excitation of single quantum dots provides greater single photon indistinguishability than incoherent pumping, but is also more challenging experimentally. Here, we demonstrate high signal to noise quasiresonant excitation of InP/InGaP quantum dots. Read More

We performed an experimental study of coupled optical cavity arrays in a photonic crystal platform. We find that the coupling between the cavities is significantly larger than the fabrication-induced disorder in the cavity frequencies. Satisfying this condition is necessary for using such cavity arrays to generate strongly correlated photons, which has potential application to the quantum simulation of many-body systems. Read More

We introduce an "objective-first" strategy for designing nanophotonic devices, and we demonstrate the design of nanophotonic coupler, cloak, and mimic devices. Read More

We present a sensor capable of detecting solution-based nanoparticles using an optical fiber tip functionalized with a photonic crystal cavity. When sensor tips are retracted from a nanoparticle solution after being submerged, we find that a combination of convective fluid forces and optically-induced trapping cause an aggregation of nanoparticles to form directly on cavity surfaces. A simple readout of quantum dot photoluminescence coupled to the optical fiber shows that nanoparticle presence and concentration can be detected through modified cavity properties. Read More

We demonstrate the effects of cavity quantum electrodynamics for a quantum dot coupled to a photonic molecule, consisting of a pair of coupled photonic crystal cavities. We show anti-crossing between the quantum dot and the two super-modes of the photonic molecule, signifying achievement of the strong coupling regime. From the anti-crossing data, we estimate the contributions of both mode-coupling and intrinsic detuning to the total detuning between the super-modes. Read More

We demonstrate room temperature visible wavelength photoluminescence from In0.5Ga0.5As quantum dots embedded in a GaP membrane. Read More

Interest in photonic crystal nanocavities is fueled by advances in device performance, particularly in the development of low-threshold laser sources. Effective electrical control of high performance photonic crystal lasers has thus far remained elusive due to the complexities associated with current injection into cavities. A fabrication procedure for electrically pumping photonic crystal membrane devices using a lateral p-i-n junction has been developed and is described in this work. Read More

We present experimental results showing phonon-mediated coupling between two quantum dots embedded inside a photonic crystal microcavity. With only one of the dots being spectrally close to the cavity, we observe both frequency up-conversion and down-conversion of the pump light via a $\sim1.2$ THz phonon. Read More

We propose an implementation of a source of strongly sub-Poissonian light in a system consisting of a quantum dot coupled to both modes of a lossy bimodal optical cavity. When one mode of the cavity is resonantly driven with coherent light, the system will act as an efficient photon number filter, and the transmitted light will have a strongly sub-Poissonian character. In addition to numerical simulations demonstrating this effect, we present a physical explanation of the underlying mechanism. Read More

We theoretically analyze and simulate the temporal dynamics of strongly coupled quantum dot-cavity system driven by a resonant laser pulse. We observe the signature of Rabi oscillation in the time resolved response of the system (i.e. Read More