Janusz Gil - J.Kepler Institute of Astronomy, University of Zielona Góra, Poland

Janusz Gil
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Name
Janusz Gil
Affiliation
J.Kepler Institute of Astronomy, University of Zielona Góra, Poland
City
Zielona Góra
Country
Poland

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Astrophysics (22)
 
High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (8)
 
Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (5)
 
Astrophysics of Galaxies (4)

Publications Authored By Janusz Gil

We constrain the X-ray properties of the nearby $(360\,{\rm pc})$, old ($5\,{\rm Myr}$) pulsar B1133+16 with $\sim 100\,{\rm ks}$ effective exposure time by {\it XMM-Newton}. The observed pulsar flux in the 0.2-3 keV energy range is $\sim 10^{-14} \, {\rm erg \, cm}^{-2} \, {\rm s}^{-1}$, which results in the recording of $\sim 600$ source counts with the EPIC pn and MOS detectors. Read More

We review a physical model where the high brightness temperature of 10$^{25}-10^{30}$ K observed in pulsar radio emission is explained by coherent curvature radiation excited in the relativistic electron-positron plasma in the pulsar magnetosphere. Read More

Magnetars are the most magnetized objects in the known universe. Powered by the magnetic energy, and not by the rotational energy as in the case of radio pulsars, they have long been regarded as a completely different class of neutron stars. The discovery of pulsed radio emission from a few magnetars weakened the idea of a clean separation between magnetars and normal pulsars. Read More

The analysis of X-ray observations suggest an ultrastrong ($B\gtrsim 10^{14} \,{\rm G}$) surface magnetic field at the polar cap of pulsars (Szary, 2013). On the other hand, the temperature of the polar caps is about a few millions Kelvin. Based on these two facts we use the Partially Screened Gap (PSG) model to describe the Inner Acceleration Region (IAR). Read More

The pulsar radio emission is generated in the near magnetosphere of the neutron star and it has to propagate through the rest of it to emerge into the interstellar medium. An important issue is whether this propagation affects the planes of polarization of the generated radiation. Observationally, there is a sufficient evidence that the emerging radiation is polarized parallel or perpendicular to the magnetic field line planes that should be associated with the ordinary O and extraordinary X plasma modes respectively, excited by some radiative process. Read More

We investigate radio emission efficiency $\xi$ of pulsars and report a near linear inverse correlation between $\xi$ and the spindown power $\dot E$, as well as a near linear correlation between $\xi$ and pulsar age $\tau$. This is a consequence of very weak, if any, dependences of radio luminosity $L$ on pulsar period $P$ and period derivative $\dot{P}$, in contrast to X-ray or $\gamma$-ray emission luminosities. The analysis of radio fluxes suggests that these correlations are not due to a selection effect, but are intrinsic to the pulsar radio emission physics. Read More

Observations of the thermal X-ray emission from old radio pulsars implicate that the size of hot spots is much smaller then the size of the polar cap that follows from the purely dipolar geometry of pulsar magnetic field. Plausible explanation of this phenomena is an assumption that the magnetic field at the stellar surface differs essentially from the purely dipolar field. Using the conservation of the magnetic flux through the area bounded by open magnetic field lines we can estimate the surface magnetic field as of the order of $10^{14}$G. Read More

A successful attempt was made to analyse about 6000 single pulses of PSR B1133+16 obtained with the 100-meter Effelsberg radio-telescope. The high resolution (60 micro-seconds) data were taken at a frequency of 8.35 GHz with a bandwidth of 1. Read More

2011Aug
Affiliations: 1J.Kepler Institute of Astronomy, University of Zielona Góra, Poland, 2J.Kepler Institute of Astronomy, University of Zielona Góra, Poland, 3J.Kepler Institute of Astronomy, University of Zielona Góra, Poland

Observations of the thermal X-ray emission from radio pulsars implicate that the size of hot spots is much smaller then the size of the polar cap that follows from the purely dipolar geometry of pulsar magnetic field. Most plausible explanation of this phenomena is an assumption that the magnetic field at the stellar surface differs essentially from the purely dipolar field. We can determine magnetic field at the surface by the conservation of the magnetic flux through the area bounded by open magnetic field lines. Read More

2011Jul
Affiliations: 1Kepler Institute of Astronomy, University of Zielona Góra, Poland, 2Kepler Institute of Astronomy, University of Zielona Góra, Poland

We performed a statistical analysis of half-power pulse-widths of the core components in average pulsar profiles. We confirmed an existence of the lower bound of the distribution of half-power pulse-width versus the pulsar period W50~2.45deg P^(-0. Read More

2011Feb
Affiliations: 1Kepler Institute of Astronomy, University of Zielona Góra, 2Kepler Institute of Astronomy, University of Zielona Góra, 3Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University

We performed Monte Carlo simulations of different properties of pulsar radio emission, such as: pulsar periods, pulse-widths, inclination angles and rates of occurrence of interpulse emission (IP). We used recently available large data sets of the pulsar periods P, the pulse profile widths W and the magnetic inclination angle alpha. We also compiled the largest ever database of pulsars with interpulse emission, divided into the double-pole (DP-IP) and the single-pole (SP-IP) cases. Read More

2010Jun
Affiliations: 1IUCAA, India, 2NCRA, India, 3University of Zielona Gora, Poland

We report on the unique nulling properties of PSR B0818-41, using the GMRT at 325 and 610 MHz. We find following interesting behaviour just before and after the nulls: (i) The pulsar's intensity does not switch off abruptly at the null, but fades gradually, taking ~ 10 P1. Just after nulls intensity rises to a maximum over a short (less than one period) time scale. Read More

An interesting paper has recently been published claiming that the long-sought Rosetta Stone needed to decipher the nature of pulsar radio emission has been finally identified as the double features in averaged pulsar profiles. The authors argue that highly symmetric bifurcated features are produced by a split-fan beams of extraordinary-mode curvature radiation emitted by thin microscopic streams of magnetospheric plasma conducted by a very narrow bundle of magnetic field lines. We examined arguments leading to these intriguing conclusions and found a number of flaws. Read More

2009Dec
Affiliations: 1NCRA-TIFR, IUCAA, 2NCRA-TIFR Pune, India, 3University of Zielona Gora, Poland

We present the results from a study of wide profile pulsars using high sensitivity multifrequency observations with the GMRT. Since the line of sight samples a large region of the polar cap in case of the wide profile pulsars, presence of simultaneous multiple drift regions is quite probable (as seen in PSR B0826-34 and PSR B0818-41). We solve the aliasing problem of PSR B0818-41 using the observed phase relationship of the drift regions, and determine its pattern rotation period P4 to be ~ 10s, which makes it the fastest known carousel. Read More

Forty years have passed since the discovery of pulsars, yet the physical mechanism of their coherent radio emission is a mystery. Recent observational and theoretical studies strongly suggest that the radiation outcoming from the pulsar magnetosphere consists mainly of extraordinary waves polarized perpendicular to the planes of pulsar dipolar magnetic field. However, the fundamental question whether these waves are excited by maser or coherent curvature radiation, remains open. Read More

2008Oct
Affiliations: 1NCRA-TIFR, India, 2NCRA-TIFR, India, 3Zielona Gora University, Poland
Category: Astrophysics

PSR B0818-41 is one of the few pulsars which show multiple drift regions having well defined phase relationship. In this paper we report new results from the multifrequency GMRT observations of this pulsar. Significant linear polarization is observed with depolarization at the edge of the profile, due to orthogonal polarization. Read More

Thermal radiation from hot polar caps is examined in radio pulsars with drifting subpulses. It is argued that if these subpulses correspond to sparking discharges of the inner acceleration region right above the polar cap surface then a simple relationship between the observed subpulse drift rate in radio and thermal X-ray luminosity from the polar cap heated by sparks should exist. This relationship is derived and tested in pulsars for which an appropriate good quality data is available. Read More

The subpulse drifting phenomenon in pulsar radio emission is considered within the partially screened inner gap model, in which the sub-Goldreich-Julian thermionic flow of iron ions or electrons coexists with the spark-associated electron-positron plasma flow. We derive a simple formula that relates the thermal X-ray luminosity $L_{\rm x}$ from the spark-heated polar cap and the \EB subpulse periodicity $\hat{P}_3$ (polar cap carousel time). For PSRs B0943+10 and B1133+16, the only two pulsars for which both $\hat{P}_3$ and $L_{\rm x}$ are known observationally, this formula holds well. Read More

2006Jan
Affiliations: 1UNLV, 2Zielona Gora Univ, 3Nicolaus Copernicus Center
Category: Astrophysics

Growing evidence suggests that some radio pulsars only act sporadically. These "part-time'' pulsars include long-term nulls, quasi-periodic radio flares in PSR B1931+24, as well as the so-called Rotating RAdio Transients (RRATs). Based on the assumption that these objects are isolated neutron stars similar to conventional radio pulsars, we discuss two possible interpretations to the phenomenon. Read More

We examined a model of partially screened gap region above the polar cap, in which the electron-positron plasma generated by sparking discharges coexists with thermionic flow ejected by the bombardment of the surface beneath these sparks. Our special interest was the polar cap heating rate and the subpulse drifting rate, both phenomena presumably associated with sparks operating at the polar cap. We investigated correlation between the intrinsic drift rate and polar cap heating rate and found that they are coupled to each other in such a way that the thermal X-ray luminosity $L_x$ from heated polar cap depends only on the observational tertiary subpulse drift periodicity $\hat{P}_3$ (polar cap carousel time). Read More

2005Aug
Affiliations: 1UNLV, 2Zielona Gora Univ. & UNLV
Category: Astrophysics

A transient radio source in the direction of the Galactic Center, GCRT J1745-3009, exhibited 5 peculiar consecutive outbursts at 0.33 GHz with a period of 77.13 minutes and a duration of ~10 minutes for each outburst. Read More

The Monte Carlo simulations of pulsar periods, pulse-widths and magnetic inclination angles are performed. Using the available observational data sets we study a possible trial parent distribution functions by means of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov significance tests. We also use an additional condition that the numbers of generated interpulses, whether from both magnetic poles or from single pole, are at the observed levels. Read More

Recent observations suggest that the level of pulse-to-pulse intensity modulation observed in a given radio pulsar may depend on its period and period derivative. Such a ``modulation index relationship'' (MIR) may be an important tool for determining the physical processes behind the radio emission. In the context of sparking gap models, the exact functional form of the MIR depends on the physical processes occurring on the surface of the neutron star in the region known as the ``vacuum gap. Read More

It is argued that the nanosecond giant subpulses detected recently in the Crab pulsar are generated by means of the coherent curvature radiation of charged relativistic solitons associated with sparking discharges of the inner gap potential drop above the polar cap. Read More

The single-pulse properties of the millisecond radio pulsar PSR B1937+21 are studied in the 1410 MHz radio band. Aside from occasional ``giant pulses'' occurring in restricted regions of pulse phase, the emission appears to be remarkably stable, showing no pulse-to-pulse fluctuations other then those induced by propagation through the interstellar medium. This type of behavior has not been seen in any other pulsar although it was seen in previous 430 MHz observations of this source. Read More

We consider the curvature radiation of the point-like charge moving relativistically along curved magnetic field lines through a pulsar magnetospheric electron-positron plasma. We demonstrate that the radiation power is largely suppressed as compared with the vacuum case, but still at a considerable level, high enough to explain the observed pulsar luminosities. The emitted radiation is polarized perpendicularly to the plane of the curved magnetic filed lines coincides with $ which can freely escape from the magnetospheric plasma. Read More

2003Jul
Authors: F. Wu1, R. X. Xu2, Janusz Gil3
Affiliations: 1PKU, 2PKU, 3UZG
Category: Astrophysics

Using the method proposed in a previous paper, we calculate pulsar braking indices in the models with torque contributions from both inner and outer accelerating regions, assuming that the interaction between them is negligible. We suggest that it is likely that the inverse Compton scattering induced polar vacuum gap and the outer gap coexist in the pulsar magnetosphere. We include the new near threshold vacuum gap models with curvature-radiation and inverse Compton scattering induced cascades, respectively; and find that these models can well reproduce the measured values of the braking indices. Read More

The classical vacuum gap model of Ruderman & Sutherland, in which spark-associated subbeams of subpulse emission circulate around the magnetic axis due to the EB drift, provides a natural and plausible physical mechanism of the subpulse drift phenomenon. Recent progress in the analysis of drifting subpulses in pulsars has provided a strong support to this model by revealing a number of subbeams circulating around the magnetic axis in a manner compatible with theoretical predictions. However, a more detailed analysis revealed that the circulation speed in a pure vacuum gap is too high when compared with observations. Read More

2002Sep
Affiliations: 1University of Zielona Gora, 2University of Zielona Gora
Category: Astrophysics

The problem of formation of the inner vacuum gap in neutron stars with ${\bf\Omega}\cdot{\bf B}<0$ is considered. It is argued by means of the condition $T_i/T_s>1$, where $T_i$ is the melting temperature of surface $^{56}_{26}$Fe ions and $T_s$ is the actual temperature of the polar cap surface, that the inner vacuum gap can form, provided that the actual surface magnetic field is extremaly strong ($B_s\gtrsim 10^{13}$ G) and curved (${\cal R}<10^6$ cm), irrespective of the value of dipolar component measured from the pulsar spin down rate. The calculations are carried out for pulsars with drifting subpulses and/or periodic intensity modulations, in which the existence of the quasi steady vacuum gap discharging via ${\bf E}\times{\bf B}$ drifting sparks is almost unavoidable. Read More

The problem of formation of the Ruderman-Sutherland type inner vacuum gap in neutron stars with ${\bf\Omega}\cdot{\bf B}<0$ is considered. It is argued by means of the condition $T_i/T_s>1$ (where $T_i$ is the critical temperature above which $^{56}_{26}$Fe ions will not be bound at the surface and $T_s$ is the actual temperature of the polar cap surface heated by the back-flow of relativistic electrons) that the inner vacuum gap can form, provided that the actual surface magnetic field is extremaly strong ($B_s\gtrsim 10^{13}$ G) and curved (${\cal R}<10^6$ cm), irrespective of the value of dipolar component measured from the pulsar spin down rate. Calculations are carried out for pulsars with drifting subpulses and/or periodic intensity modulations, in which the existence of the quasi steady vacuum gap discharging via ${\bf E}\times{\bf B}$ drifting sparks is almost unavoidable. Read More

PSR B0943+10 is known to show remarkably stable drifting subpulses, which can be interpreted in terms of a circumferential motion of 20 sparks, each completing one circulation around the periphery of the polar cap in 37 pulsar periods. We use this observational constraint and argue that the vacuum gap model can adequately describe the observed drift patterns. Further we demonstrate that {\em only} the presence of strong non-dipolar surface magnetic field can favor such vacuum gap formation. Read More

2001Nov
Affiliations: 1Institute of Astronomy, University of Zielona Gora, Poland, 2Institute of Astronomy, University of Zielona Gora, Poland, 3Max-Planck Institute for Radioastronomy, Bonn, Germany
Category: Astrophysics

We propose a vacuum gap (VG) model which can be applied uniformly for normal and high magnetic field pulsars. The model requires strong and non-dipolar surface magnetic field near the pulsar polar cap. We assume that the actual surface magnetic field in pulsars results from a superposition of global dipole field and crust-anchored small scale magnetic anomaly. Read More

2000Oct
Affiliations: 1J. Kepler Astronomical Centre, 2Raman Research Institut
Category: Astrophysics

In this paper we revisit the radio pulsar death line problem within the framework of curvature radiation and/or inverse compton scattering induced vacuum gap model above neutron star polar caps. Our special interest is in the recently detected pulsar PSR J2144-3933 with extremal period 8.5 seconds, which lies far beyond conventional death lines. Read More

A non-stationary polar gap model first proposed by Ruderman & Sutherland (1975) is modified and applied to spark-associated pulsar emission at radio wave-lengths. It is argued that under physical and geometrical conditions prevailing above pulsar polar cap, highly non-stationary spark discharges do not occur at random positions. Instead, sparks should tend to operate in well determined preferred regions. Read More

We propose a new, self-consistent theory of coherent pulsar radio emission based on the non-stationary sparking model of Ruderman & Sutherland (1975), modified by Gil & Sendyk (2000) in the accompanying Paper I. According to these authors, the polar cap is populated as densely as possible by a number of sparks with a characteristic perpendicular dimension D approximately equal to the polar gap height scale h, separated from each other also by about h. Each spark reappears in approximately the same place on the polar cap for a time scale much longer than its life-time and delivers to the open magnetosphere a sequence of electron-positron clouds which flow orderly along a flux tube of dipolar magnetic field lines. Read More

We present a model for generation mechanisms of the optical pulsations recently detected from the Geminga pulsar. We argue that this is just a synchrotron radiation emitted along open magnetic field lines at altitudes of a few light cylinder radii (which requires that Geminga is an almost aligned rotator), where charged particles acquire non-zero pitch-angles as a result of the cyclotron absorption of radio waves in the magnetized pair plasma. This explains self-consistently both the lack of apparent radio emission, at least at frequencies higher than about 100 MHz, and the optical pulsations from the Geminga pulsar. Read More

We present a model for pulsar radio eclipses in some binary systems, and test this model for PSRs B1957+20 and J2051-0827. We suggest that in these binaries the companion stars are degenerate dwarfs with strong surface magnetic fields. The magnetospheres of these stars are permanently infused by the relativistic particles of the pulsar wind. Read More