James Martin

James Martin
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James Martin

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Pub Categories

Mathematics - Probability (27)
Mathematics - Combinatorics (7)
Statistics - Methodology (6)
Mathematics - Mathematical Physics (6)
Mathematical Physics (6)
Quantitative Biology - Tissues and Organs (5)
Statistics - Computation (5)
Mathematics - Numerical Analysis (4)
Quantitative Biology - Cell Behavior (3)
Mathematics - Optimization and Control (2)
Physics - Mesoscopic Systems and Quantum Hall Effect (1)
Computer Science - Discrete Mathematics (1)
Quantitative Biology - Quantitative Methods (1)
Mathematics - Statistics (1)
Physics - Biological Physics (1)
Computer Science - Computer Science and Game Theory (1)
Statistics - Theory (1)

Publications Authored By James Martin

We consider "time-of-use" pricing as a technique for matching supply and demand of temporal resources with the goal of maximizing social welfare. Relevant examples include energy, computing resources on a cloud computing platform, and charging stations for electric vehicles, among many others. A client/job in this setting has a window of time during which he needs service, and a particular value for obtaining it. Read More

Mounting evidence for the role of oxidative stress in the degeneration of articular cartilage after an injurious impact requires our modeling & simulation efforts to temporarily shift from just describing the effect of mechanical stress and inflammation on osteoarthritis (OA). The hypothesis that the injurious impact causes irreversible damage to chondrocyte mitochondria, which in turn increase their production of free radicals, affecting their energy production and their ability to rebuild the extracellular matrix, has to be modeled and the processes quantified in order to further the understanding of OA, its causes, and viable treatment options. The current article presents a calibrated model that captures the damage oxidative stress incurs on the cell viability, ATP production, and cartilage stability in a cartilage explant after a drop-tower impact. Read More

We introduce the multiplicative coalescent with linear deletion, a continuous-time Markov process describing the evolution of a collection of blocks. Any two blocks of sizes $x$ and $y$ merge at rate $xy$, and any block of size $x$ is deleted with rate $\lambda x$ (where $\lambda\geq 0$ is a fixed parameter). This process arises for example in connection with a variety of random-graph models which exhibit self-organised criticality. Read More

We introduce a two-player game involving two tokens located at points of a fixed set. The players take turns to move a token to an unoccupied point in such a way that the distance between the two tokens is decreased. Optimal strategies for this game and its variants are intimately tied to Gale-Shapley stable marriage. Read More

A severe application of stress on articular cartilage can initiate a cascade of biochemical reactions that can lead to the development of osteoarthritis. We constructed a multiscale mathematical model of the process with three components: cellular, chemical, and mechanical. The cellular component describes the different chondrocyte states according to the chemicals these cells release. Read More

We consider the following two-player game on a graph. A token is located at a vertex, and the players take turns to move it along an edge to a vertex that has not been visited before. A player who cannot move loses. Read More

Let each site of the square lattice $Z^2$ be independently declared closed with probability $p$, and otherwise open. Consider the following game: a token starts at the origin, and the two players take turns to move it from its current site $x$ to an open site in $\{x+(0,1), x+(1,0)\}$; if both these sites are closed, then the player to move loses the game. Is there positive probability that the game is drawn with best play - i. Read More

Given a homogenous Poisson point process in the plane, we prove that it is possible to partition the plane into bounded connected cells of equal volume, in a translation-invariant way, with each point of the process contained in exactly one cell. Moreover, the diameter $D$ of the cell containing the origin satisfies the essentially optimal tail bound $P(D>r)Read More

In the Bayesian approach to inverse problems, data are often informative, relative to the prior, only on a low-dimensional subspace of the parameter space. Significant computational savings can be achieved by using this subspace to characterize and approximate the posterior distribution of the parameters. We first investigate approximation of the posterior covariance matrix as a low-rank update of the prior covariance matrix. Read More

The intrinsic dimensionality of an inverse problem is affected by prior information, the accuracy and number of observations, and the smoothing properties of the forward operator. From a Bayesian perspective, changes from the prior to the posterior may, in many problems, be confined to a relatively low-dimensional subspace of the parameter space. We present a dimension reduction approach that defines and identifies such a subspace, called the "likelihood-informed subspace" (LIS), by characterizing the relative influences of the prior and the likelihood over the support of the posterior distribution. Read More

We present a model of articular cartilage lesion formation to simulate the effects of cyclic loading. This model extends and modifies the reaction-diffusion-delay model by Graham et al. 2012 for the spread of a lesion formed though a single traumatic event. Read More

We present a computational framework for estimating the uncertainty in the numerical solution of linearized infinite-dimensional statistical inverse problems. We adopt the Bayesian inference formulation: given observational data and their uncertainty, the governing forward problem and its uncertainty, and a prior probability distribution describing uncertainty in the parameter field, find the posterior probability distribution over the parameter field. The prior must be chosen appropriately in order to guarantee well-posedness of the infinite-dimensional inverse problem and facilitate computation of the posterior. Read More

Until recently many studies of bone remodeling at the cellular level have focused on the behavior of mature osteoblasts and osteoclasts, and their respective precursor cells, with the role of osteocytes and bone lining cells left largely unexplored. This is particularly true with respect to the mathematical modeling of bone remodeling. However, there is increasing evidence that osteocytes play important roles in the cycle of targeted bone remodeling, in serving as a significant source of RANKL to support osteoclastogenesis, and in secreting the bone formation inhibitor sclerostin. Read More

I adapt Berlekamp's light bulb switching game to finite projective plans and finite affine planes, then find the worst arrangement of lit bulbs for planes of even and odd orders. The results are then extended from the planes to spaces of higher dimension. Read More

We consider a method for approximate inference in hidden Markov models (HMMs). The method circumvents the need to evaluate conditional densities of observations given the hidden states. It may be considered an instance of Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC) and it involves the introduction of auxiliary variables valued in the same space as the observations. Read More

We consider "bridges" for the simple exclusion process on Z, either symmetric or asymmetric, in which particles jump to the right at rate p and to the left at rate 1-p. The initial state O has all negative sites occupied and all non-negative sites empty. We study the probability that the process is again in state O at time t, and the behaviour of the process on [0,t] conditioned on being in state O at time t. Read More

There exists a Lipschitz embedding of a d-dimensional comb graph (consisting of infinitely many parallel copies of Z^{d-1} joined by a perpendicular copy) into the open set of site percolation on Z^d, whenever the parameter p is close enough to 1 or the Lipschitz constant is sufficiently large. This is proved using several new results and techniques involving stochastic domination, in contexts that include a process of independent overlapping intervals on Z, and first-passage percolation on general graphs. Read More

This paper presents a simulation-based framework for sequential inference from partially and discretely observed point process (PP's) models with static parameters. Taking on a Bayesian perspective for the static parameters, we build upon sequential Monte Carlo (SMC) methods, investigating the problems of performing sequential filtering and smoothing in complex examples, where current methods often fail. We consider various approaches for approximating posterior distributions using SMC. Read More

We examine the question of whether a collection of random walks on a graph can be coupled so that they never collide. In particular, we show that on the complete graph on n vertices, with or without loops, there is a Markovian coupling keeping apart Omega(n/log n) random walks, taking turns to move in discrete time. Read More

Injuries to articular cartilage result in the development of lesions that form on the surface of the cartilage. Such lesions are associated with articular cartilage degeneration and osteoarthritis. The typical injury response often causes collateral damage, primarily an effect of inflammation, which results in the spread of lesions beyond the region where the initial injury occurs. Read More

We report the observation of magnetic and resistive aging in a self assembled nanoparticle system produced in a multilayer Co/Sb sandwich. The aging decays are characterized by an initial slow decay followed by a more rapid decay in both the magnetization and resistance. The decays are large accounting for almost 70% of the magnetization and almost 40% of the resistance for samples deposited at 35 $^oC$. Read More

Irregular bone remodeling is associated with a number of bone diseases such as osteoporosis and multiple myeloma. Computational and mathematical modeling can aid in therapy and treatment as well as understanding fundamental biology. Different approaches to modeling give insight into different aspects of a phenomena so it is useful to have an arsenal of various computational and mathematical models. Read More

We consider directed last-passage percolation on the random graph G = (V,E) where V = Z and each edge (i,j), for i < j, is present in E independently with some probability 0 < p <= 1. To every present edge (i,j) we attach i.i. Read More

Burke's theorem can be seen as a fixed-point result for an exponential single-server queue; when the arrival process is Poisson, the departure process has the same distribution as the arrival process. We consider extensions of this result to multi-type queues, in which different types of customer have different levels of priority. We work with a model of a queueing server which includes discrete-time and continuous-time M/M/1 queues as well as queues with exponential or geometric service batches occurring in discrete time or at points of a Poisson process. Read More

The TASEP (totally asymmetric simple exclusion process) is a basic model for an one-dimensional interacting particle system with non-reversible dynamics. Despite the simplicity of the model it shows a very rich and interesting behaviour. In this paper we study some aspects of the TASEP in discrete time and compare the results to the recently obtained results for the TASEP in continuous time. Read More

Holroyd and Propp used Hall's marriage theorem to show that, given a probability distribution pi on a finite set S, there exists an infinite sequence s_1,s_2,... Read More

We consider a model of queues in discrete time, with batch services and arrivals. The case where arrival and service batches both have Bernoulli distributions corresponds to a discrete-time M/M/1 queue, and the case where both have geometric distributions has also been previously studied. We describe a common extension to a more general class where the batches are the product of a Bernoulli and a geometric, and use reversibility arguments to prove versions of Burke's theorem for these models. Read More

We consider the one-dimensional asymmetric simple exclusion process (ASEP) in which particles jump to the right at rate $p\in(1/2,1]$ and to the left at rate $1-p$, interacting by exclusion. In the initial state there is a finite region such that to the left of this region all sites are occupied and to the right of it all sites are empty. Under this initial state, the hydrodynamical limit of the process converges to the rarefaction fan of the associated Burgers equation. Read More

Problem 1.5.7 from Pitman's Saint-Flour lecture notes: Does there exist for each n a fragmentation process (\Pi_{n,k}, 1 \leq k \leq n) taking values in the space of partitions of {1,2,. Read More

In the Hammersley-Aldous-Diaconis process infinitely many particles sit in R and at most one particle is allowed at each position. A particle at x$ whose nearest neighbor to the right is at y, jumps at rate y-x to a position uniformly distributed in the interval (x,y). The basic coupling between trajectories with different initial configuration induces a process with different classes of particles. Read More

We study the competition interface between two growing clusters in a growth model associated to last-passage percolation. When the initial unoccupied set is approximately a cone, we show that this interface has an asymptotic direction with probability 1. The behavior of this direction depends on the angle $\theta$ of the cone: for $\theta\geq180^{\circ}$, the direction is deterministic, while for $\theta<180^{\circ}$, it is random, and its distribution can be given explicitly in certain cases. Read More

We consider last-passage percolation models in two dimensions, in which the underlying weight distribution has a heavy tail of index alpha<2. We prove scaling laws and asymptotic distributions, both for the passage times and for the shape of optimal paths; these are expressed in terms of a family (indexed by alpha) of "continuous last-passage percolation" models in the unit square. In the extreme case alpha=0 (corresponding to a distribution with slowly varying tail) the asymptotic distribution of the optimal path can be represented by a random self-similar measure on [0,1], whose multifractal spectrum we compute. Read More

We consider the discrete Hammersley-Aldous-Diaconis process (HAD) and the totally asymmetric simple exclusion process (TASEP) in Z. The basic coupling induces a multiclass process which is useful in discussing shock measures and other important properties of the processes. The invariant measures of the multiclass systems are the same for both processes, and can be constructed as the law of the output process of a system of multiclass queues in tandem; the arrival and service processes of the queueing system are a collection of independent Bernoulli product measures. Read More

In this paper we give a new example of duality between fragmentation and coagulation operators. Consider the space of partitions of mass (i.e. Read More

Initially a car is placed with probability p at each site of the two-dimensional integer lattice. Each car is equally likely to be East-facing or North-facing, and different sites receive independent assignments. At odd time steps, each North-facing car moves one unit North if there is a vacant site for it to move into. Read More

We describe a representation of the Bolthausen-Sznitman coalescent in terms of the cutting of random recursive trees. Using this representation, we prove results concerning the final collision of the coalescent restricted to [n]: we show that the distribution of the number of blocks involved in the final collision converges as n tends to infinity, and obtain a scaling law for the sizes of these blocks. We also consider the discrete-time Markov chain giving the number of blocks after each collision of the coalescent restricted to [n]; we show that the transition probabilities of the time-reversal of this Markov chain have limits as n tends to infinity. Read More

We consider totally asymmetric simple exclusion processes with n types of particle and holes ($n$-TASEPs) on $\mathbb {Z}$ and on the cycle $\mathbb {Z}_N$. Angel recently gave an elegant construction of the stationary measures for the 2-TASEP, based on a pair of independent product measures. We show that Angel's construction can be interpreted in terms of the operation of a discrete-time $M/M/1$ queueing server; the two product measures correspond to the arrival and service processes of the queue. Read More

The competition interface between two growing ``Young clusters'' (diagrams), in a two-dimensional random cone, is mapped to the path of a second-class particle in the one-dimensional totally asymmetric simple exclusion process. Using the asymptotics of the second class particle and hydrodynamic limits for the exclusion process (Burgers equation), we show that the behavior of the competition interface depends on the angle of the cone: for angles in [180^o, 270^o) the competition interface has a deterministic inclination, while for angles in [90^o,180^o) the inclination is random. We relate the competition model to a model of random directed polymers, and obtain some partial results for the fluctuations of the competition interface. Read More

We consider a branching random walk with binary state space and index set $T^k$, the infinite rooted tree in which each node has k children (also known as the model of "broadcasting on a tree"). The root of the tree takes a random value 0 or 1, and then each node passes a value independently to each of its children according to a 2x2 transition matrix P. We say that "reconstruction is possible" if the values at the d'th level of the tree contain non-vanishing information about the value at the root as $d\to\infty$. Read More

We consider directed first-passage and last-passage percolation on the nonnegative lattice Z_+^d, d\geq2, with i.i.d. Read More