# James Gray - Monash Univ.

## Contact Details

NameJames Gray |
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AffiliationMonash Univ. |
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CityCaulfield East |
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CountryAustralia |
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## Pubs By Year |
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## Pub CategoriesHigh Energy Physics - Theory (43) High Energy Physics - Phenomenology (8) Mathematics - Category Theory (6) Mathematics - Algebraic Geometry (6) Astrophysics (1) Astrophysics of Galaxies (1) Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (1) |

## Publications Authored By James Gray

We provide a set of tools for analyzing the geometry of elliptically fibered Calabi-Yau manifolds, starting with a description of the total space rather than with a Weierstrass model or a specified type of fiber/base. Such an approach to the subject of F-theory compactification makes certain geometric properties, which are usually hidden, manifest. Specifically, we review how to isolate genus-one fibrations in such geometries and then describe how to find their sections explicitly. Read More

In this work we explore the physics associated to Calabi-Yau (CY) n-folds that can be described as a fibration in more than one way. Beginning with F-theory vacua in various dimensions, we consider limits/dualities with M-theory, type IIA, and heterotic string theories. Our results include many M-/F-theory correspondences in which distinct F-theory vacua - associated to different elliptic fibrations of the same CY n-fold - give rise to the same M-theory limit in one dimension lower. Read More

We present a general method for computing Hodge numbers for Calabi-Yau manifolds realised as discrete quotients of complete intersections in products of projective spaces. The method relies on the computation of equivariant cohomologies and is illustrated for several explicit examples. In this way, we compute the Hodge numbers for all discrete quotients obtained in Braun's classification arXiv:1003. Read More

We analyze Yukawa unification in the the context of $E_8\times E_8$ heterotic Calabi-Yau models which rely on breaking to a GUT theory via a non-flat gauge bundle and subsequent Wilson line breaking to the standard model. Our focus is on underlying GUT theories with gauge group $SU(5)$ or $SO(10)$. We provide a detailed analysis of the fact that, in contrast to traditional field theory GUTs, the underlying GUT symmetry of these models does not enforce Yukawa unification. Read More

**Authors:**Francesco Shankar

^{1}, Giorgio Calderone

^{2}, Christian Knigge

^{3}, James Matthews

^{4}, Rachel Buckland

^{5}, Krzysztof Hryniewicz

^{6}, Gregory Sivakoff

^{7}, Xinyu Dai

^{8}, Kayleigh Richardson

^{9}, Jack Riley

^{10}, James Gray

^{11}, Fabio La Franca

^{12}, Diego Altamirano

^{13}, Judith Croston

^{14}, Poshak Gandhi

^{15}, Sebastian F. Hoenig

^{16}, Ian McHardy

^{17}, Matthew Middleton

^{18}

**Affiliations:**

^{1}University of Southampton,

^{2}INAF--Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera,

^{3}University of Southampton,

^{4}University of Southampton,

^{5}University of Southampton,

^{6}Observatoire de Geneve,

^{7}University of Alberta,

^{8}University of Oklahoma,

^{9}University of Southampton,

^{10}University of Southampton,

^{11}University of Southampton,

^{12}Universita' degli Studi Roma Tre,

^{13}University of Southampton,

^{14}University of Southampton,

^{15}University of Southampton,

^{16}University of Southampton,

^{17}University of Southampton,

^{18}Institute of Astronomy, Cambridge

We analyzed a large sample of radio-loud and radio-quiet quasar spectra at redshift 1.0 < z < 1.2 to compare the inferred underlying quasar continuum slopes (after removal of the host galaxy contribution) with accretion disk models. Read More

We explore a novel type of transition in certain 6D and 4D quantum field theories, in which the matter content of the theory changes while the gauge group and other parts of the spectrum remain invariant. Such transitions can occur, for example, for SU(6) and SU(7) gauge groups, where matter fields in a three-index antisymmetric representation and the fundamental representation are exchanged in the transition for matter in the two-index antisymmetric representation. These matter transitions are realized by passing through superconformal theories at the transition point. Read More

In this paper we explore contributions to non-perturbative superpotentials arising from instantons wrapping effective divisors in smooth Calabi-Yau four-folds. We concentrate on the case of manifolds constructed as complete intersections in products of projective spaces (CICYs) or generalizations thereof (gCICYs). We systematically investigate the structure of the cone of effective (algebraic) divisors in the four-fold geometries and employ the same tools recently developed in arXiv:1507. Read More

We present a generalization of the complete intersection in products of projective space (CICY) construction of Calabi-Yau manifolds. CICY three-folds and four-folds have been studied extensively in the physics literature. Their utility stems from the fact that they can be simply described in terms of a `configuration matrix', a matrix of integers from which many of the details of the geometries can be easily extracted. Read More

Kreuzer and Skarke famously produced the largest known database of Calabi-Yau threefolds by providing a complete construction of all 473,800,776 reflexive polyhedra that exist in four dimensions. These polyhedra describe the singular limits of ambient toric varieties in which Calabi-Yau threefolds can exist as hypersurfaces. In this paper, we review how to extract topological and geometric information about Calabi-Yau threefolds using the toric construction, and we provide, in a companion online database (see http://nuweb1. Read More

We call a finitely complete category algebraically coherent when the change-of-base functors of its fibration of points are coherent, which means that they preserve finite limits and jointly strongly epimorphic pairs of arrows. We give examples of categories satisfying this condition; for instance, coherent categories, categories of interest in the sense of Orzech, and (compact) Hausdorff algebras over a semi-abelian algebraically coherent theory. We study equivalent conditions in the context of semi-abelian categories, as well as some of its consequences: including amongst others, strong protomodularity, and normality of Higgins commutators for normal subobjects, and in the varietal case, fibre-wise algebraic cartesian closedness. Read More

We investigate the mathematical properties of the class of Calabi-Yau four-folds recently found in [arXiv:1303.1832]. This class consists of 921,497 configuration matrices which correspond to manifolds that are described as complete intersections in products of projective spaces. Read More

We study the relation between Bourn's notion of peri-abelian category and conditions involving the coincidence of the Smith, Huq and Higgins commutators. In particular we show that a semi-abelian category is peri-abelian if and only if for each normal subobject $K\leq X$, the Higgins commutator of $K$ with itself coincides with the normalisation of the Smith commutator of the denormalisation of $K$ with itself. We show that if a category is peri-abelian, then the condition (UCE), which was introduced and studied by Casas and the second author, holds for that category. Read More

In this paper we study compactifications of heterotic string theory on manifolds satisfying the ddbar-lemma. We consider the Strominger system description of the low energy supergravity to first order in alpha' and show that the moduli of such compactifications are subspaces of familiar cohomology groups such as H^1(TX), H^1(TX*), H^1(End_0(V)) and H^1(End_0(TX)). These groups encode the complex structure, Kahler moduli, bundle moduli and perturbations of the spin connection respectively in the case of a Calabi-Yau compactification. Read More

In a semi-abelian context, we study the condition (NH) asking that Higgins commutators of normal subobjects are normal subobjects. We provide examples of categories that do or do not satisfy this property. We focus on the relationship with the "Smith is Huq" condition (SH) and characterise those semi-abelian categories in which both (NH) and (SH) hold in terms of reflection and preservation properties of the change of base functors of the fibration of points. Read More

We make explicit a larger structural phenomenon hidden behind the existence of normalizers in terms of existence of certain cartesian maps related to the kernel functor. Read More

Compactifications of heterotic theories on smooth Calabi-Yau manifolds remains one of the most promising approaches to string phenomenology. In two previous papers, http://arXiv.org/abs/arXiv:1106. Read More

We discuss the use of gauge fields to stabilize complex structure moduli in Calabi-Yau three-fold compactifications of heterotic string and M-theory. The requirement that the gauge fields in such models preserve supersymmetry leads to a complicated landscape of vacua in complex structure moduli space. We develop methods to systematically map out this multi-branched vacuum space, in a computable and explicit manner. Read More

We present an exhaustive, constructive, classification of the Calabi-Yau four-folds which can be described as complete intersections in products of projective spaces. A comprehensive list of 921,497 configuration matrices which represent all topologically distinct types of complete intersection Calabi-Yau four-folds is provided and can be downloaded at http://www-thphys.physics. Read More

We characterize those varieties of universal algebras where every split epimorphism considered as a map of sets is a product projection. In addition we obtain new characterizations of protomodular, unital and subtractive varieties as well as varieties of right omega-loops and biternary systems. Read More

We describe an efficient, construction independent, algorithmic test to determine whether Calabi--Yau threefolds admit a structure compatible with the Large Volume moduli stabilization scenario of type IIB superstring theory. Using the algorithm, we scan complete intersection and toric hypersurface Calabi-Yau threefolds with $2 \leq h^{1,1} \le 4$ and deduce that 418 among 4434 manifolds have a Large Volume Limit with a single large four-cycle. We describe major extensions to this survey, which are currently underway. Read More

We examine compactifications of heterotic string theory on manifolds with SU(3) structure. In particular, we study N = 1/2 domain wall solutions which correspond to the perturbative vacua of the 4D, N =1 supersymmetric theories associated to these compactifications. We extend work which has appeared previously in the literature in two important regards. Read More

In a previous publication, arXiv:1106.4804, we have found 200 models from heterotic Calabi-Yau compactifications with line bundles, which lead to standard models after taking appropriate quotients by a discrete symmetry and introducing Wilson lines. In this paper, we construct the resulting standard models explicitly, compute their spectrum including Higgs multiplets, and analyze some of their basic properties. Read More

We analyse some aspects of the notion of algebraic exponentiation introduced by the second author [16] and satisfied by the category of groups. We show how this notion provides a new approach to the categorical-algebraic question of the centralization. We explore, in the category of groups, the unusual universal properties and constructions determined by this notion, and we show how it is the origin of various properties of this category. Read More

Holomorphic gauge fields in N=1 supersymmetric heterotic compactifications can constrain the complex structure moduli of a Calabi-Yau manifold. In this paper, the tools necessary to use holomorphic bundles as a mechanism for moduli stabilization are systematically developed. We review the requisite deformation theory -- including the Atiyah class, which determines the deformations of the complex structure for which the gauge bundle becomes non-holomorphic and, hence, non-supersymmetric. Read More

We construct heterotic standard models by compactifying on smooth Calabi-Yau three-folds in the presence of purely Abelian internal gauge fields. A systematic search over complete intersection Calabi-Yau manifolds with less than six Kahler parameters leads to over 200 such models which we present. Each of these models has precisely the matter spectrum of the MSSM, at least one pair of Higgs doublets, the standard model gauge group and no exotics. Read More

We propose a scenario to stabilize all geometric moduli - that is, the complex structure, Kahler moduli and the dilaton - in smooth heterotic Calabi-Yau compactifications without Neveu-Schwarz three-form flux. This is accomplished using the gauge bundle required in any heterotic compactification, whose perturbative effects on the moduli are combined with non-perturbative corrections. We argue that, for appropriate gauge bundles, all complex structure and a large number of other moduli can be perturbatively stabilized - in the most restrictive case, leaving only one combination of Kahler moduli and the dilaton as a flat direction. Read More

We analyze transitions between heterotic vacua with distinct gauge bundles using two complementary methods - the effective four-dimensional field theory and the corresponding geometry. From the viewpoint of effective field theory, such transitions occur between flat directions of the potential energy associated with heterotic stability walls. Geometrically, this branch structure corresponds to smooth deformations of the gauge bundle coupled to the chamber structure of K\"ahler moduli space. Read More

In this paper, we show that the presence of gauge fields in heterotic Calabi-Yau compacitifications causes the stabilisation of some, or all, of the complex structure moduli of the Calabi-Yau manifold while maintaining a Minkowski vacuum. Certain deformations of the Calabi-Yau complex structure, with all other moduli held fixed, can lead to the gauge bundle becoming non-holomorphic and, hence, non-supersymmetric. This leads to an F-term potential which stabilizes the corresponding complex structure moduli. Read More

A holomorphic vector bundle on a Calabi-Yau threefold, X, with h^{1,1}(X)>1 can have regions of its Kahler cone where it is slope-stable, that is, where the four-dimensional theory is N=1 supersymmetric, bounded by "walls of stability". On these walls the bundle becomes poly-stable, decomposing into a direct sum, and the low energy gauge group is enhanced by at least one anomalous U(1) gauge factor. In this paper, we show that these additional symmetries can strongly constrain the superpotential in the stable region, leading to non-trivial textures of Yukawa interactions and restrictions on allowed masses for vector-like pairs of matter multiplets. Read More

A complete analysis of all heterotic Calabi-Yau compactifications based on positive two-term monad bundles over favourable complete intersection Calabi-Yau threefolds is performed. We show that the original data set of about 7000 models contains 91 standard-like models which we describe in detail. A closer analysis of Wilson-line breaking for these models reveals that none of them gives rise to precisely the matter field content of the standard model. Read More

We study the sub-structure of the heterotic Kahler moduli space due to the presence of non-Abelian internal gauge fields from the perspective of the four-dimensional effective theory. Internal gauge fields can be supersymmetric in some regions of the Kahler moduli space but break supersymmetry in others. In the context of the four-dimensional theory, we investigate what happens when the Kahler moduli are changed from the supersymmetric to the non-supersymmetric region. Read More

We present a practical, algebraic method for efficiently calculating the Yukawa couplings of a large class of heterotic compactifications on Calabi-Yau three-folds with non-standard embeddings. Our methodology covers all of, though is not restricted to, the recently classified positive monads over favourable complete intersection Calabi-Yau three-folds. Since the algorithm is based on manipulating polynomials it can be easily implemented on a computer. Read More

We explicitly describe, in the language of four-dimensional N=1 supersymmetric field theory, what happens when the moduli of a heterotic Calabi-Yau compactification change so as to make the internal non-Abelian gauge fields non-supersymmetric. At the edge of the region in Kahler moduli space where supersymmetry can be preserved, an additional anomalous U(1) gauge symmetry appears in the four-dimensional theory. The D-term contribution to the scalar potential associated to this U(1) attempts to force the system back into a supersymmetric configuration and provides a consistent low-energy description of gauge bundle stability. Read More

In this talk I give an elementary introduction to the key algorithm used in recent applications of computational algebraic geometry to the subject of string phenomenology. I begin with a simple description of the algorithm itself and then give 3 examples of its use in physics. I describe how it can be used to obtain constraints on flux parameters, how it can simplify the equations describing vacua in 4d string models and lastly how it can be used to compute the vacuum space of the electroweak sector of the MSSM. Read More

We take new algebraic and geometric perspectives on the old subject of SQCD. We count chiral gauge invariant operators using generating functions, or Hilbert series, derived from the plethystic programme and the Molien-Weyl formula. Using the character expansion technique, we also see how the global symmetries are encoded in the generating functions. Read More

We give a simple tutorial introduction to the Mathematica package STRINGVACUA, which is designed to find vacua of string-derived or inspired four-dimensional N=1 supergravities. The package uses powerful algebro-geometric methods, as implemented in the free computer algebra system Singular, but requires no knowledge of the mathematics upon which it is based. A series of easy-to-use Mathematica modules are provided which can be used both in string theory and in more general applications requiring fast polynomial computations. Read More

We present the potential energy due to flux and gaugino condensation in heterotic M-theory compactifications with anti-branes in the vacuum. For reasons which we explain in detail, the contributions to the potential due to flux are not modified from those in supersymmetric contexts. The discussion of gaugino condensation is, however, changed by the presence of anti-branes. Read More

One of the central problems of string-phenomenology is to find stable vacua in the four dimensional effective theories which result from compactification. We present an algorithmic method to find all of the vacua of any given string-phenomenological system in a huge class. In particular, this paper reviews and then extends hep-th/0606122 to include various non-perturbative effects. Read More

We derive the perturbative four-dimensional effective theory describing heterotic M-theory with branes and anti-branes in the bulk space. The back-reaction of both the branes and anti-branes is explicitly included. To first order in the heterotic strong-coupling expansion, we find that the forces on branes and anti-branes vanish and that the KKLT procedure of simply adding to the supersymmetric theory the probe approximation to the energy density of the anti-brane reproduces the correct potential. Read More

We develop a new and efficient method to systematically analyse four dimensional effective supergravities which descend from flux compactifications. The issue of finding vacua of such systems, both supersymmetric and non-supersymmetric, is mapped into a problem in computational algebraic geometry. Using recent developments in computer algebra, the problem can then be rapidly dealt with in a completely algorithmic fashion. Read More

Using techniques of algorithmic algebraic geometry, we present a new and efficient method for explicitly computing the vacuum space of N=1 gauge theories. We emphasize the importance of finding special geometric properties of these spaces in connecting phenomenology to guiding principles descending from high-energy physics. We exemplify the method by addressing various subsectors of the MSSM. Read More

We propose a new guiding principle for phenomenology: special geometry in the vacuum space. New algorithmic methods which efficiently compute geometric properties of the vacuum space of N=1 supersymmetric gauge theories are described. We illustrate the technique on subsectors of the MSSM. Read More

We describe how to calculate the amount of supersymmetry associated to a class of supergravity theories obtained by compactification on T-folds. We illustrate our discussion by calculating the degree of supersymmetry enjoyed by a particular set of massive supergravities which have been obtained in the literature by compactifying type II supergravity on such backgrounds. Our discussion involves a modification of the usual arguments, based upon G-structures, for the amount of supersymmetry preserved by geometric compactifications. Read More

We study small instanton (and brane recombination) phase transitions in phenomenological models built with D-branes. By explicitly describing the cosmological dynamics of the moduli and matter fields, we show that these transitions do not occur smoothly, but are typically chaotic with the gauge group of the low energy theory fluctuating in time. We comment on the potential implications for cosmological questions such as inflation. Read More

We present an explicit example of a gauge symmetry breaking phase transition in heterotic models, the dynamics of which are not thermal and can be described in a well controlled manner throughout. The phase transition is driven by the evolution of bundle moduli - moduli associated with gauge field vacuum expectation values in the hidden dimensions. We present the necessary parts of the four dimensional effective theory including moduli which describe the embedding of the gauge bundle within the gauge group. Read More

We present the first examples of cosmological solutions to four-dimensional heterotic models which include an evolving bundle modulus. The particular bundle modulus we consider corresponds to the width of a gauge five brane. As such our solutions can be used to describe the evolution in one of these models after a small instanton transition. Read More

We present the first example of a Kahler potential for heterotic M-theory which includes gauge bundle moduli. These moduli describe the background gauge field configurations living on the orbifold fixed planes. We concentrate on the bundle moduli describing the size and SU(2) orientation of a gauge five brane - a soliton which is primarily composed of these gauge fields. Read More

We present a Kahler potential for four dimensional heterotic M-theory which includes moduli describing a gauge five brane living on one of the orbifold fixed planes. This result can also be thought of as describing compactifications of either of the weakly coupled heterotic strings in the presence of a gauge five brane. This is the first example of a Kahler potential in these theories which includes moduli describing background gauge field configurations. Read More

Under certain conditions some solutions to five-dimensional heterotic M-theory can be accurately described by the four-dimensional action of the theory - they have a four-dimensional limit. We consider the connection between solutions of four and five-dimensional heterotic M-theory when moving five-branes are present in the bulk. We begin by describing how to raise the known four-dimensional moving brane solutions to obtain approximate solutions to the five-dimensional theory, presenting for the first time the metric template necessary for this procedure. Read More

We present a new scenario for baryogenesis in the context of heterotic brane-world models. The baryon asymmetry of the universe is generated at a small-instanton phase transition which is initiated by a moving brane colliding with the observable boundary. We demonstrate, in the context of a simple model, that reasonable values for the baryon asymmetry can be obtained. Read More