James Di Francesco - National Research Council of Canada

James Di Francesco
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James Di Francesco
National Research Council of Canada

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Astrophysics of Galaxies (29)
Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (19)
Astrophysics (8)
Earth and Planetary Astrophysics (5)
Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics (3)
Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (1)

Publications Authored By James Di Francesco

Authors: Derek Ward-Thompson, Kate Pattle, Pierre Bastien, Ray S. Furuya, Woojin Kwon, Shih-Ping Lai, Keping Qiu, David Berry, Minho Choi, Simon Coudé, James Di Francesco, Thiem Hoang, Erica Franzmann, Per Friberg, Sarah F. Graves, Jane S. Greaves, Martin Houde, Doug Johnstone, Jason M. Kirk, Patrick M. Koch, Jungmi Kwon, Chang Won Lee, Di Li, Brenda C. Matthews, Joseph C. Mottram, Harriet Parsons, Andy Pon, Ramprasad Rao, Mark Rawlings, Hiroko Shinnaga, Sarah Sadavoy, Sven van Loo, Yusuke Aso, Do-Young Byun, Eswariah Chakali, Huei-Ru Chen, Mike C. -Y. Chen, Wen Ping Chen, Tao-Chung Ching, Jungyeon Cho, Antonio Chrysostomou, Eun Jung Chung, Yasuo Doi, Emily Drabek-Maunder, Stewart P. S. Eyres, Jason Fiege, Rachel K. Friesen, Gary Fuller, Tim Gledhill, Matt J. Griffin, Qilao Gu, Tetsuo Hasegawa, Jennifer Hatchell, Saeko S. Hayashi, Wayne Holland, Tsuyoshi Inoue, Shu-ichiro Inutsuka, Kazunari Iwasaki, Il-Gyo Jeong, Ji-hyun Kang, Miju Kang, Sung-ju Kang, Koji S. Kawabata, Francisca Kemper, Gwanjeong Kim, Jongsoo Kim, Kee-Tae Kim, Kyoung Hee Kim, Mi-Ryang Kim, Shinyoung Kim, Kevin M. Lacaille, Jeong-Eun Lee, Sang-Sung Lee, Dalei Li, Hua-bai Li, Hong-Li Liu, Junhao Liu, Sheng-Yuan Liu, Tie Liu, A-Ran Lyo, Steve Mairs, Masafumi Matsumura, Gerald H. Moriarty-Schieven, Fumitaka Nakamura, Hiroyuki Nakanishi, Nagayoshi Ohashi, Takashi Onaka, Nicolas Peretto, Tae-Soo Pyo, Lei Qian, Brendan Retter, John Richer, Andrew Rigby, Jean-François Robitaille, Giorgio Savini, Anna M. M. Scaife, Archana Soam, Motohide Tamura, Ya-Wen Tang, Kohji Tomisaka, Hongchi Wang, Jia-Wei Wang, Anthony P. Whitworth, Hsi-Wei Yen, Hyunju Yoo, Jinghua Yuan, Chuan-Peng Zhang, Guoyin Zhang, Jianjun Zhou, Lei Zhu, Philippe André, C. Darren Dowell, Sam Falle, Yusuke Tsukamoto

We present the first results from the B-fields In STar-forming Region Observations (BISTRO) survey, using the Sub-millimetre Common-User Bolometer Array 2 (SCUBA-2) camera, with its associated polarimeter (POL-2), on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) in Hawaii. We discuss the survey's aims and objectives. We describe the rationale behind the survey, and the questions which the survey will aim to answer. Read More

We present an overview of the first data release (DR1) and first-look science from the Green Bank Ammonia Survey (GAS). GAS is a Large Program at the Green Bank Telescope to map all Gould Belt star-forming regions with $A_V \gtrsim 7$ mag visible from the northern hemisphere in emission from NH$_3$ and other key molecular tracers. This first release includes the data for four regions in Gould Belt clouds: B18 in Taurus, NGC 1333 in Perseus, L1688 in Ophiuchus, and Orion A North in Orion. Read More

We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations of molecular line emission from d216-0939, one of the largest and most massive protoplanetary disks in the Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC). We model the spectrally resolved HCO$^+$ (4--3), CO (3--2), and HCN (4--3) lines observed at 0\farcs5 resolution to fit the temperature and density structure of the disk. We also weakly detect and spectrally resolve the CS (7--6) line but do not model it. Read More

Compact substructure is expected to arise in a starless core as mass becomes concentrated in the central region likely to form a protostar. Additionally, multiple peaks may form if fragmentation occurs. We present ALMA Cycle 2 observations of 60 starless and protostellar cores in the Ophiuchus molecular cloud. Read More

We observed thirteen Planck cold clumps with the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope/SCUBA-2 and with the Nobeyama 45 m radio telescope. The N$_2$H$^+$ distribution obtained with the Nobeyama telescope is quite similar to SCUBA-2 dust distribution. The 82 GHz HC$_3$N, 82 GHz CCS, and 94 GHz CCS emission are often distributed differently with respect to the N$_2$H$^+$ emission. Read More

We present observations of the Cepheus Flare obtained as part of the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) Gould Belt Legacy Survey (GBLS) with the SCUBA-2 instrument. We produce a catalogue of sources found by SCUBA-2, and separate these into starless cores and protostars. We determine masses and densities for each of our sources, using source temperatures determined by the Herschel Gould Belt Survey. Read More

Although surveys of infall motions in dense cores have been carried out for years, few surveys have focused on mapping infall across cores using multiple spectral line observations. To fill this gap, we present IRAM 30-m Telescope maps of N2H+(1-0), DCO+(2-1), DCO+(3-2), and HCO+(3-2) emission towards two prestellar cores (L492 and L694-2) and one protostellar core (L1521F). We find that the measured infall velocity varies with position across each core and choice of molecular line, likely as a result of radial variations in core chemistry and dynamics. Read More

We present a comparison of SCUBA-2 850-$\mu$m and Herschel 70--500-$\mu$m observations of the L1495 filament in the Taurus Molecular Cloud with the goal of characterising the SCUBA-2 Gould Belt Survey (GBS) data set. We identify and characterise starless cores in three data sets: SCUBA-2 850-$\mu$m, Herschel 250-$\mu$m, and Herschel 250-$\mu$m spatially filtered to mimic the SCUBA-2 data. SCUBA-2 detects only the highest-surface-brightness sources, principally detecting protostellar sources and starless cores embedded in filaments, while Herschel is sensitive to most of the cloud structure, including extended low-surface-brightness emission. Read More

We present 1.3 mm observations of the Sun-like star $\tau$ Ceti with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) that probe angular scales of $\sim1$'' (4 AU). This first interferometric image of the $\tau$ Ceti system, which hosts both a debris disk and possible multiplanet system, shows emission from a nearly face-on belt of cold dust with a position angle of $90^\circ$ surrounding an unresolved central source at the stellar position. Read More

We present an Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) 106 GHz (Band 3) continuum survey of the complete population of dense cores in the Chamaeleon I molecular cloud. We detect a total of 24 continuum sources in 19 different target fields. All previously known Class 0 and Class I protostars in Chamaeleon I are detected, whereas all of the 56 starless cores in our sample are undetected. Read More

This paper discusses compelling science cases for a future long-baseline interferometer operating at millimeter and centimeter wavelengths, like the proposed Next Generation Vary Large Array (ngVLA). We report on the activities of the Cradle of Life science working group, which focused on the formation of low- and high-mass stars, the formation of planets and evolution of protoplanetary disks, the physical and compositional study of Solar System bodies, and the possible detection of radio signals from extraterrestrial civilizations. We propose 19 scientific projects based on the current specification of the ngVLA. Read More

Observations of the isolated globule B335 with ALMA have yielded absorption features against the continuum that are redshifted from the systemic velocity in both HCN and HCO$^+$ lines. These features provide unambiguous evidence for infall toward a central luminosity source. Previously developed models of inside-out collapse can match the observed line profiles of HCN and HCO$^+$ averaged over the central 50 AU. Read More

We present far-infrared and submillimeter maps from the Herschel Space Observatory and the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope of the debris disk host star AU Microscopii. Disk emission is detected at 70, 160, 250, 350, 450, 500 and 850 micron. The disk is resolved at 70, 160 and 450 micron. Read More

We present the full catalog of Young Stellar Objects (YSOs) identified in the 18 molecular clouds surveyed by the Spitzer Space Telescope "cores to disks" (c2d) and "Gould Belt" (GB) Legacy surveys. Using standard techniques developed by the c2d project, we identify 3239 candidate YSOs in the 18 clouds, 2966 of which survive visual inspection and form our final catalog of YSOs in the Gould Belt. We compile extinction corrected SEDs for all 2966 YSOs and calculate and tabulate the infrared spectral index, bolometric luminosity, and bolometric temperature for each object. Read More

We present ALMA observations of the largest protoplanetary disk in the Orion Nebula, 114-426. Detectable 345 GHz (856 micron) dust continuum is produced only in the 350 AU central region of the ~1000 AU diameter silhouette seen against the bright H-alpha background in HST images. Assuming optically thin dust emission at 345 GHz, a gas-to-dust ratio of 100, and a grain temperature of 20 K, the disk gas-mass is estimated to be 3. Read More

We present 13CO and C18O (1-0), (2-1), and (3-2) maps towards the core-forming Perseus B1-E clump using observations from the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT), Submillimeter Telescope (SMT) of the Arizona Radio Observatory, and IRAM 30 m telescope. We find that the 13CO and C18O line emission both have very complex velocity structures, indicative of multiple velocity components within the ambient gas. The (1-0) transitions reveal a radial velocity gradient across B1-E of 1 km/s/pc that increases from north-west to south-east, whereas the majority of the Perseus cloud has a radial velocity gradient increasing from south-west to north-east. Read More

We show Akari data, Herschel data and data from the SCUBA2 camera on JCMT, of molecular clouds. We focus on pre-stellar cores within the clouds. We present Akari data of the L1147-1157 ring in Cepheus and show how the data indicate that the cores are being externally heated. Read More

We present a multi-wavelength observational study of a low-mass star-forming region, L1251-C, with observational results at wavelengths from the near-infrared to the millimeter. Spitzer Space Telescope observations confirmed that IRAS 22343+7501 is a small group of protostellar objects. The extended emission to east-west direction with its intensity peak at the center of L1251A has been detected at 350 and 850 micron with the CSO and JCMT telescopes, tracing dense envelope materials around L1251A. Read More

We present the results from a Submillimeter Array survey of the 887 micron continuum emission from the protoplanetary disks around 95 young stars in the young cluster NGC 2024. Emission was detected from 22 infrared sources, with flux densities from ~5 to 330 mJy; upper limits (at 3sigma) for the other 73 sources range from 3 to 24 mJy. For standard assumptions, the corresponding disk masses range from ~0. Read More

CO, $^{13}$CO and C$^{18}$O ${\it J}$ = 3--2 observations are presented of the Ophiuchus molecular cloud. The $^{13}$CO and C$^{18}$O emission is dominated by the Oph A clump, and the Oph B1, B2, C, E, F and J regions. The optically thin(ner) C$^{18}$O line is used as a column density tracer, from which the gravitational binding energy is estimated to be $4. Read More

We present ALMA observations of a wide binary system in Orion, with projected separation 440 AU, in which we detect submillimeter emission from the protoplanetary disks around each star. Both disks appear moderately massive and have strong line emission in CO 3-2, HCO+ 4-3, and HCN 3-2. In addition, CS 7-6 is detected in one disk. Read More

We present submillimeter observations of the young brown dwarfs KPNO Tau 1, KPNO Tau 3, and KPNO Tau 6 at 450 micron and 850 micron taken with the Submillimeter Common-User Bolometer Array on the James Clerke Maxwell Telescope. KPNO Tau 3 and KPNO Tau 6 have been previously identified as Class II objects hosting accretion disks, whereas KPNO Tau 1 has been identified as a Class III object and shows no evidence of circumsubstellar material. Our 3 sigma detection of cold dust around KPNO Tau 3 implies a total disk mass of (4. Read More

We present ALMA observations of protoplanetary disks ("proplyds") in the Orion Nebula Cluster. We imaged 5 individual fields at 856um containing 22 HST-identified proplyds and detected 21 of them. Eight of those disks were detected for the first time at submillimeter wavelengths, including the most prominent, well-known proplyd in the entire Orion Nebula, 114-426. Read More

Recent studies of the nearest star-forming clouds of the Galaxy at submillimeter wavelengths with the Herschel Space Observatory have provided us with unprecedented images of the initial and boundary conditions of the star formation process. The Herschel results emphasize the role of interstellar filaments in the star formation process and connect remarkably well with nearly a decade's worth of numerical simulations and theory that have consistently shown that the ISM should be highly filamentary on all scales and star formation is intimately related to self-gravitating filaments. In this review, we trace how the apparent complexity of cloud structure and star formation is governed by relatively simple universal processes - from filamentary clumps to galactic scales. Read More

Affiliations: 1McGill University, 2Dalhousie University, 3National Research Council of Canada, 4National Research Council of Canada, 5Canadian Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, 6University of British Columbia, 7McMaster University

We survey the present landscape in submillimetre astronomy for Canada and describe a plan for continued engagement in observational facilities to ~2020. Building on Canada's decadal Long Range Plan process, we emphasize that continued involvement in a large, single-dish facility is crucial given Canada's substantial investment in ALMA and numerous PI-led submillimetre experiments. In particular, we recommend: i) an extension of Canadian participation in the JCMT until at least the unique JCMT Legacy Survey program is able to realize the full scientific potential provided by the world-leading SCUBA-2 instrument; and ii) involvement of the entire Canadian community in CCAT, with a large enough share in the partnership for Canadian astronomers to participate at all levels of the facility. Read More

The results of a maser survey toward ninety-nine protostars in the Orion molecular cloud complex are presented. The target sources are low-mass protostars identified from infrared observations. Single-dish observations were carried out in the water maser line at 22 GHz and the methanol class I maser lines at 44, 95, and 133 GHz. Read More

We present a survey of HCO+ (3-2) observations pointed towards dense cores with previous measurements of N(N2D+)/N(N2H+). Of the 26 cores in this survey, five show the spectroscopic signature of outward motion, nine exhibit neither inward nor outward motion, eleven appear to be infalling, and one is not detected. We compare the degree of deuterium fractionation with infall velocities calculated from the HCO+ spectra and find that those cores with [D]/[H] > 0. Read More

We perform a census of the reddest, and potentially youngest, protostars in the Orion molecular clouds using data obtained with the PACS instrument onboard the Herschel Space Observatory and the LABOCA and SABOCA instruments on APEX as part of the Herschel Orion Protostar Survey (HOPS). A total of 55 new protostar candidates are detected at 70 um and 160 um that are either too faint (m24 > 7 mag) to be reliably classified as protostars or undetected in the Spitzer/MIPS 24 um band. We find that the 11 reddest protostar candidates with log (lambda F_lambda 70) / (lambda F_lambda 24) > 1. Read More

Recently, a subset of starless cores whose thermal Jeans mass is apparently overwhelmed by the mass of the core has been identified, e.g., the core {\small L183}. Read More

We have mapped the Auriga/California molecular cloud with the Herschel PACS and SPIRE cameras and the Bolocam 1.1 mm camera on the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO) with the eventual goal of quantifying the star formation and cloud structure in this Giant Molecular Cloud (GMC) that is comparable in size and mass to the Orion GMC, but which appears to be forming far fewer stars. We have tabulated 60 compact 70/160um sources that are likely pre-main-sequence objects and correlated those with Spitzer and WISE mid-IR sources. Read More

We have studied the opacity of dust grains at submillimeter wavelengths by estimating the optical depth from imaging at 160, 250, 350, and 500 um from the Herschel Gould Belt Survey and comparing this to a column density obtained from the 2MASS-derived color excess E(J-Ks). Our main goal was to investigate the spatial variations of the opacity due to "big" grains over a variety of environmental conditions and thereby quantify how emission properties of the dust change with column (and volume) density. The central and southern areas of the Orion A molecular cloud examined here, with NH ranging from 1. Read More

We present SMA and CARMA continuum and spectral line observations of five dense cores located in the Perseus and Ophiuchus molecular clouds whose masses exceed their thermal Jeans masses. Three of these cores have previously been identified as being starless and two have been classified as being possibly protostellar. We find that one core is certainly protostellar. Read More

In this paper, we present the results of CARMA continuum and spectral line observations of the dense core Per-Bolo 45. Although this core has previously been classified as starless, we find evidence for an outflow and conclude that Per-Bolo 45 is actually an embedded, low-luminosity protostar. We discuss the impact of newly discovered, low-luminosity, embedded objects in the Perseus molecular cloud on starless core and protostar lifetimes. Read More

We present high spatial (<300 AU) and spectral (0.07 km/s) resolution Submillimeter Array observations of the dense starless cluster core Oph A-N6, in the 1 mm dust continuum and the 3-2 line of N2H+ and N2D+. The dust continuum observations reveal a compact source not seen in single-dish observations, of size ~1000 AU and mass 0. Read More

To investigate the fundamental principles of H2 formation in a giant molecular cloud (GMC), we derive the HI and H2 surface density (Sigma_HI and Sigma_H2) images of the Perseus molecular cloud on sub-pc scales (~0.4 pc). We use the far-infrared data from the Improved Reprocessing of the IRAS Survey and the V-band extinction image provided by the COMPLETE Survey to estimate the dust column density image of Perseus. Read More

We present the first Herschel PACS and SPIRE results of the Vela C molecular complex in the far-infrared and submillimetre regimes at 70, 160, 250, 350, and 500 um, spanning the peak of emission of cold prestellar or protostellar cores. Column density and multi-resolution analysis (MRA) differentiates the Vela C complex into five distinct sub-regions. Each sub-region displays differences in their column density and temperature probability distribution functions (PDFs), in particular, the PDFs of the `Centre-Ridge' and `South-Nest' sub-regions appear in stark contrast to each other. Read More

Submillimetre continuum radiation allows us to probe cold objects, particularly the earliest, dusty phases of star formation, high-redshift galaxies and circumstellar disks. The submillimetre window gives a unique view of the physical and dynamical conditions in the neutral and molecular interstellar medium. In the next decade a combination of wide-field surveys with single-dish telescopes and targeted follow-up with ALMA and other facilities should enable rapid progress in answering questions about the origins of planetary systems, stars and galaxies. Read More

We present new SMA and PdBI observations of the intermediate-mass object IRAS 22198+6336 in the millimeter continuum and in several molecular line transitions. The millimeter continuum emission reveals a strong and compact source with a mass of around 5 Msun and with properties of Class 0 objects. CO emission shows an outflow with a quadrupolar morphology centered on the position of the dust condensation. Read More

From a survey of 729 cores based on JCMT/SCUBA data, we present an analysis of 17 candidate starless cores with masses that exceed their stable Jeans masses. We re-examine the classification of these super-Jeans cores using Spitzer maps and find that 3 are re-classified as protostellar, 11 have ambiguous emission near the core positions, and 3 appear to be genuinely starless. We suggest the 3 starless and 11 undetermined super-Jeans cores represent excellent targets for future observational and computational study to understand the evolution of dense cores and the process of star formation. Read More

We present results from the earliest observations of DEBRIS, a Herschel Key Programme to conduct a volume- and flux-limited survey for debris discs in A-type through M-type stars. PACS images (from chop/nod or scan-mode observations) at 100 and 160 micron are presented toward two A-type stars and one F-type star: beta Leo, beta UMa and eta Corvi. All three stars are known disc hosts. Read More

Affiliations: 1Cardiff University, UK, 2Cardiff University, UK, 3NRCA-HIA, Canada, 4SAO, Harvard, 5University of Texas, Austin, 6Herschel Science Centre, Spain, 7SAO, Harvard, 8IfA, Hawaii, 9University of Texas, Austin, 10University of Texas, Austin, 11University of Maryland, Maryland, 12University of Bonn, Germany, 13University of Maryland, Maryland, 14Spitzer Science Center, California, 15SAO, Harvard, 16Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, Ireland, 17Spitzer Science Center, California

We present Spitzer IRAC (~2 deg^2) and MIPS (~8 deg^2) observations of the Cepheus Flare which is associated with the Gould Belt, at an approximate distance of ~300 pc. Around 6500 sources are detected in all four IRAC bands, of which ~900 have MIPS 24 micron detections. We identify 133 YSO candidates using color-magnitude diagram techniques, a large number of the YSO candidates are associated with the NGC 7023 reflection nebula. Read More

We present the SCUBA Legacy Catalogues, two comprehensive sets of continuum maps (and catalogues) using data at 850 microns and 450 microns of the various astronomical objects obtained with the Submillimetre Common User Bolometer Array (SCUBA). The Fundamental Map Dataset contains data only where superior atmospheric opacity calibration data were available. The Extended Map Dataset is comprised of data regardless of the quality of the opacity calibration. Read More

We present molecular line observations of L1251B, a small group of pre- and protostellar objects, and its immediate environment in the dense C18O core L1251E. These data are complementary to near-infrared, submillimeter and millimeter continuum observations reported by Lee et al. (2006, ApJ, 648, 491; Paper I). Read More

This paper presents a large spectral line and continuum survey of 8 deeply embedded, low-mass protostellar cores using the Submillimeter Array. Each source was observed in high excitation lines of some of the most common molecular species, CO, HCO+, CS, SO, H2CO, CH3OH and SiO. Line emission from 11 species originating from warm and dense gas have been imaged at high angular resolution (1-3"; typically 200-600 AU) together with continuum emission at 230 GHz (1. Read More

We observed the clustered star forming complex NGC1333 with the BIMA and FCRAO telescopes in the transitions HCO+(1-0) and N2H+(1-0) over an 11'x11' area with resolution ~10" (0.015pc). The N2H+ emission follows very closely the submillimeter dust continuum emission, while HCO+ emission appears more spatially extended and also traces outflows. Read More

We present a comprehensive study of a low-mass star-forming region,L1251B, at wavelengths from the near-infrared to the millimeter. L1251B, where only one protostar, IRAS 22376+7455, was known previously, is confirmed to be a small group of protostars based on observations with the Spitzer Space Telescope. The most luminous source of L1251B is located 5" north of the IRAS position. Read More

We present an overview of data available for the Ophiuchus and Perseus molecular clouds from ``Phase I'' of the COMPLETE Survey of Star-Forming Regions. This survey provides a range of data complementary to the Spitzer Legacy Program ``From Molecular Cores to Planet Forming Disks.'' Phase I includes: Extinction maps derived from 2MASS near-infrared data using the NICER algorithm; extinction and temperature maps derived from IRAS 60 and 100um emission; HI maps of atomic gas; 12CO and 13CO maps of molecular gas; and submillimetre continuum images of emission from dust in dense cores. Read More

We present an analysis of ~3.5 square degrees of submillimetre continuum and extinction data of the Perseus molecular cloud. We identify 58 clumps in the submillimetre map and we identify 39 structures (`cores') and 11 associations of structures (`super cores') in the extinction map. Read More

Affiliations: 1National Research Council of Canada, HIA, 2Service d'Astrophysique, CEA/DSM/DAPNIA, 3Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics
Category: Astrophysics

We present combined BIMA interferometer and IRAM 30 m Telescope data of N2H+ 1-0 line emission across the nearby dense, star forming core Ophiuchus A (Oph A) at high linear resolution (e.g., ~1000 AU). Read More