# J. Steinheimer - Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Frankfurt am Main, Germany

## Contact Details

NameJ. Steinheimer |
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AffiliationFrankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Frankfurt am Main, Germany |
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CityFrankfurt am Main |
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CountryGermany |
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## Pubs By Year |
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## Pub CategoriesNuclear Theory (46) High Energy Physics - Phenomenology (39) Nuclear Experiment (12) Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (4) High Energy Physics - Experiment (3) High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (1) High Energy Physics - Lattice (1) |

## Publications Authored By J. Steinheimer

The hadronic phase in ultrarelativistic nuclear collisions has a large influence on final state observables like multiplicity, flow and $p_t$ spectra, as studied in the UrQMD approach. In this model one assumes that a non-equilibrium decoupling phase follows a fluid dynamical description of the high density phase. Hadrons are produced assuming local thermal equilibrium and dynamically decouple during the hadronic rescattering until the particles are registered in the detectors. Read More

We use an improved version of the SU(3) flavour parity-doublet quark-hadron model to investigate the higher order baryon number susceptibilities near the chiral and the nuclear liquid-gas transitions. The parity-doublet model has been improved by adding higher-order interaction terms of the scalar fields in the effective mean field Lagrangian, resulting in a much-improved description of nuclear ground-state properties, in particular the nuclear compressibility. The resulting phase diagram of the model agrees qualitatively with expectations from lattice QCD, i. Read More

We study the sensitivities of the directed flow in Au+Au collisions on the equation of state (EoS), employing the transport theoretical model JAM. The EoS is modified by introducing a new collision term in order to control the pressure of a system by appropriately selecting an azimuthal angle in two-body collisions according to a given EoS. It is shown that this approach is an efficient method to modify the EoS in a transport model. Read More

**Authors:**A. S. Botvina

^{1}, K. K. Gudima

^{2}, J. Steinheimer

^{3}, M. Bleicher

^{4}, J. Pochodzalla

^{5}

**Affiliations:**

^{1}Frankfurt U., FIAS, ITP & Moscow, INR,

^{2}Kishinev, IAP,

^{3}Frankfurt U., FIAS,

^{4}Frankfurt U., FIAS, ITP,

^{5}Mainz U., HIM, IKP

In relativistic ion collisions there are excellent opportunities to produce and investigate hyper-nuclei. We have systematically studied the formation of hypernuclear spectator residues in peripheral heavy-ion collisions with the transport DCM and UrQMD models. The hyperon capture was calculated within the potential and coalescence approaches. Read More

We study the correlation between the distributions of the net-charge, net-kaon, net-baryon and net-proton number at hadronization and after the final hadronic decoupling by simulating ultra relativistic heavy ion collisions with the hybrid version of the ultrarelativistic quantum molecular dynamics (UrQMD) model. We find that due to the hadronic rescattering these distributions are not strongly correlated. The calculated change of the correlation, during the hadronic expansion stage, does not support the recent paradigm, namely that the measured final moments of the experimentally observed distributions do give directly the values of those distributions at earlier times, when the system had been closer to the QCD crossover. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}U. Florence,

^{2}FIAS Frankfurt,

^{3}U. Frankfurt,

^{4}FIAS Frankfurt

We compare the reconstructed hadronization conditions in relativistic nuclear collisions in the nucleon-nucleon centre-of-mass energy range 4.7-2760 GeV in terms of temperature and baryon-chemical potential with lattice QCD calculations, by using hadronic multiplicities. We obtain hadronization temperatures and baryon chemical potentials with a fit to measured multiplicities by correcting for the effect of post-hadronization rescattering. Read More

We present the first predictions for sub-threshold open charm and charmonium production in nuclear collisions. The production mechanism is driven by multi-step scatterings of nucleons and their resonance states, accumulating sufficient energy for the production of $J/\Psi$, $\Lambda_c + \overline{D}$ and $D+\overline{D}$. Our results are of particular importance for the CBM experiment at FAIR, as they indicate that already at the SIS100 accelerator one can expect a significant number of charmed hadrons to be produced. Read More

Two scenarios for cluster production have since long been discussed in the literature: i) direct emission of the clusters from a (grand canonical) thermal source or ii) subsequent formation of the clusters by coalescence of single nucleons. While both approaches have been successfully applied in the past it has not yet been clarified which of the two mechanisms dominates the cluster production. We propose to use recently developed event-by-event techniques to study particle multiplicity fluctuations on nuclear clusters and employ this analysis to the deuteron number fluctuations to disentangle the two production mechanisms. Read More

We study the details and time dependence of particle production in nuclear collisions at a fixed target beam energy of $E_{\mathrm{lab}}= 1.76$ A GeV with the UrQMD transport model. We find that the previously proposed production mechanism for multi strange hadrons, $\phi$ and $\Xi$, are possible due to secondary interactions of incoming nuclei of the projectile and target with already created nuclear resonances, while the Fermi momenta of the nuclei play only a minor role. Read More

The higher moments of the net charge distributions, e.g. the skewness and kurtosis, are studied within an infinite hadronic matter calculation in a transport approach. Read More

We explore the influence of deuteron formation in the late stage of nucleus-nucleus reactions on the fluctuations observed in the final net-proton yields around midrapidity. At each investigated energy, the produced (anti-)proton yield at chemical freeze-out is assumed to fluctuate according to a Poisson distribution and in each event the probability for deuteron formation by coalescence is proportional to $(dN_{\mathrm{proton}}/dy)^2$. The protons that are then clustered in deuterons are usually not included in the experimental measurement of the net-proton fluctuations, therefore, we subtract these clustered protons from the final state proton number for the calculation of the net-proton fluctuations (the same is done in the anti-proton sector). Read More

The early stage of high multiplicity nuclear collisions is represented by a nearly quarkless, hot, deconfined pure gluon plasma. This new scenario should be characterized by a suppression of high $p_T$ photons and dileptons as well as by reduced baryon to meson ratios. We present the numerical results for central Pb+Pb collisions at the LHC energies by using the ideal Bjorken hydrodynamics with time-dependent quark fugacity. Read More

We study the production of hadronic resonances and their interaction in the partonic and hadronic medium using the EPOS3 model, which employs the UrQMD model for the description of the hadronic phase. We investigate the centrality dependence of the yields and momentum distributions for various resonances (rho(770),K(892),phi(1020),Delta(1232),Sigma(1385),Lambda(1520),Xi(1530) and their antiparticles) in Pb-Pb collisions at sNN= 2.76 TeV. Read More

**Authors:**Horst Stoecker, Kai Zhou, Stefan Schramm, Florian Senzel, Carsten Greiner, Maxim Beitel, Kai Gallmeister, Mark Gorenstein, Igor Mishustin, David Vasak, Jan Steinheimer, Juergen Struckmeier, Volodymyr Vovchenko, Leonid Satarov, Zhe Xu, Pengfei Zhuang, Laszlo P. Csernai, Bikash Sinha, Sibaji Raha, Tamás Sándor Biró, Marco Panero

The early stage of high multiplicity pp, pA and AA collider is represented by a nearly quarkless, hot, deconfined pure gluon plasma. According to pure Yang-Mills Lattice Gauge Theory, this hot pure glue matter undergoes, at a high temperature, $T_c = 270$ MeV, a first order phase transition into a confined Hagedorn-GlueBall fluid. These new scenario should be characterized by a suppression of high $p_T$ photons and dileptons, baryon suppression and enhanced strange meson production. Read More

We present a possible explanation for the deep sub-threshold, $\phi$ and $\Xi^-$ production yields measured with the HADES experiment in Ar+KCl reactions at $E_{\mathrm{lab}}=1.76$ A GeV and present predictions for Au+Au reactions at $E_{\mathrm{lab}}=1.23$ A GeV. Read More

These proceedings present recent results from transport-hydrodynamics-hybrid models for heavy ion collisions at relativistic energies. The main focus is on the absorption of (anti-)protons in the hadronic afterburner stage of the reaction, di-lepton production at SPS and heavy quark dynamics. Read More

The major goals of heavy ion research are to explore the phase diagram of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and to investigate the properties of the quark gluon plasma (QGP), a new state of matter created at high temperatures and/or densities. Collective anisotropic flow is one of the most promising observables to gain insights about the properties of the system created in relativistic heavy ion reactions. The current status of the beam energy dependence of the first three Fourier coefficients of the azimuthal distribution of the produced particles $v_1$ to $v_3$ within hybrid transport plus hydrodynamics approaches are summarized. Read More

**Authors:**A. S. Botvina

^{1}, J. Steinheimer

^{2}, E. Bratkovskaya

^{3}, M. Bleicher

^{4}, J. Pochodzalla

^{5}

**Affiliations:**

^{1}Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Frankfurt am Main, Germany,

^{2}Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Frankfurt am Main, Germany,

^{3}Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Frankfurt am Main, Germany,

^{4}Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Frankfurt am Main, Germany,

^{5}Helmholtz-Institut Mainz, Mainz, Germany

Within a combined approach we investigate the main features of the production of hyper-fragments in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. The formation of hyperons is modelled within the UrQMD and HSD transport codes. To describe the hyperon capture by nucleons and nuclear residues a coalescence of baryons (CB) model was developed. Read More

We present results on deep sub threshold hyperon production in nuclear collisions, with the UrQMD transport model. Introducing anti-kaon+baryon and hyperon+hyperon strangeness exchange reactions we obtain a good description of experimental data on single strange hadron production in Ar+KCl reactions at $E_{lab}=1.76$ A GeV. Read More

Recent STAR data from the RHIC beam energy scan (BES) show that the midrapidity slope dv1/dy of the directed flow v1 of net-protons changes sign twice within the collision energy range 7.7 - 39 GeV. To investigate this phenomenon, we study the collision energy dependence of v1 utilizing a Boltzmann + hydrodynamics hybrid model. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}U. Florence,

^{2}FIAS Frankfurt,

^{3}U. Florence,

^{4}FIAS, Frankfurt,

^{5}U. and FIAS Frankfurt

We present an analysis of hadronic multiplicities measured in Pb-Pb collisions at \sqrt s_{NN} = 2.76 TeV as a function of the collision centrality within the statistical hadronization model. Evidence is found of a dependence of the chemical freeze-out temperature as a function of centrality, with a slow rise from central to peripheral collisions, which we interpret as an effect of post-hadronization inelastic scatterings. Read More

We discuss several new developments in the field of strange and heavy flavor physics in high energy heavy ion collisions. As shown by many recent theoretical works, heavy flavored particles give us a unique opportunity to study the properties of systems created in these collisions. Two in particular important aspects, the production of (multi) strange hypernuclei and the properties of heavy flavor mesons, are at the core of several future facilities and will be discussed in detail. Read More

The sign change of the slope of the directed flow of baryons has been predicted as a signal for a first order phase transition within fluid dynamical calculations. Recently, the directed flow of identified particles has been measured by the STAR collaboration in the beam energy scan (BES) program. In this article, we examine the collision energy dependence of directed flow $v_1$ in fluid dynamical model descriptions of heavy ion collisions for $\sqrt{s_{NN}}=3-20$ GeV. Read More

We show how repulsive interactions of deconfined quarks as well as confined hadrons have an influence on the baryon number susceptibilities and the curvature of the chiral pseudo critical line in effective models of QCD. We discuss implications and constraints for the vector interaction strength from comparisons to lattice QCD and comment on earlier constraints, extracted from the curvature of the transition line of QCD and compact star observables. Our results clearly point to a strong vector repulsion in the hadronic phase and near-zero repulsion in the deconfined phase. Read More

Within the context of relativistic nuclear collisions aimed at exploring hot and baryon-dense matter, we investigate how the general features of the expansion dynamics, as well as a number of specific observables, depend on the equation of state used in dynamical simulations of the non-equilibrium confinement phase transition. Read More

Strong interaction physics under extreme conditions of high temperature and/or density is of central interest in modern nuclear physics for experimentalists and theorists alike. In order to investigate such systems, model approaches that include hadrons and quarks in a unified approach, will be discussed. Special attention will be given to high-density matter as it occurs in neutron stars. Read More

Using a unified hadron-quark effective model for the QCD equation of state, this paper studies the phase structure of strongly interacting matter in a wide range of temperature and baryonchemical potential. At small potentials the model yields a smooth cross-over to chirally restored matter with a transition temperature and curvature in line with recent lattice QCD estimates and thermal model fits of freeze-out curves. Trajectories of constant entropy per net baryon number show a clear dependence on the particle composition in the model and on repulsive vector field interactions. Read More

In this work the susceptibility coefficients of the strange and non-strange quark number of second and fourth order are presented. The results at zero baryonchemical potential are obtained using a well tested chiral effective model including all known hadron degrees of freedom and additionally incorporating quarks and gluons in a PNJL model approach. Quark number susceptibilities are sensitive to the fundamental degrees of freedom in the model and signal the shift from massive hadrons to light quarks at the deconfinement transition by a sharp rise at the critical temperature. Read More

We analyze hadrochemical freeze-out in central Pb+Pb collisions at CERN SPS and LHC energies. Employing the UrQMD hybrid transport model we study the effects of the final hadron/resonance expansion phase on the hadron multiplicities established at hadronization. The bulk meson yields freeze out directly at hadronization whereas the baryon-antibaryon sector is subject to significant alterations, due to annihilation and regeneration processes. Read More

This work presents an effective model for strongly interacting matter and the QCD equation of state (EoS). The model includes both hadron and quark degrees of freedom and takes into account the transition of chiral symmetry restoration as well as the deconfinement phase transition. At low temperatures $T$ and baryonic densities $\rho_B$ a hadron resonance gas is described using a SU(3)-flavor sigma-omega model and a quark phase is introduced in analogy to PNJL models for higher $T$ and $\rho_B$. Read More

The QGP that might be created in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions is expected to radiate thermal dilepton radiation. However, this thermal dilepton radiation interferes with dileptons originating from hadron decays. In the invariant mass region between the $\phi$ and $J/\Psi$ peak ($1\,$GeV$\lesssim M_{\ell^+ \ell^-} \lesssim 3 \,$GeV) the most substantial background of hadron decays originates from correlated D$\bar{\mathrm{D}}$-meson decays. Read More

The study of neutron stars, or more general compact stars, is a topic of central interest in nuclear astrophysics. Furthermore, neutron stars serve as the only physical systems whose properties can be used to infer information on cold and dense matter at several times nuclear saturation density. Therefore, neutron star physics is ideally suited to complement the studies of ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions that sample strongly interacting matter at high temperature and relatively small net baryon density. Read More

Relativistic heavy-ion collisions produce a hot and dense thermalized medium, that is expected to emit thermal radiation in form of dileptons. These dileptons are not affected by the strong force and are therefore a clean probe for the possible creation of a Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP). However, electroweak decays of open-charm mesons are expected to induce a substantial background in the invariant mass region between the $\phi$ and $J/\Psi$ peak ($1\,\text{GeV} \lesssim M_{\ell^+ \ell^-} \lesssim 3 \,\text{GeV}$) of the thermal QGP radiation. Read More

The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at the Facility for Anti-proton and Ion Research (FAIR) will provide new possibilities for charm-quark ($D$-meson) observables in heavy-ion collisions at low collision energies and high baryon densities. To predict the collective flow and nuclear modification factors of charm quarks in this environment, we apply a Langevin approach for the transport of charm quarks in the UrQMD (hydrodynamics + Boltzmann) hybrid model. Due to the inclusion of event-by-event fluctuations and a full (3+1) dimensional hydrodynamical evolution, the UrQMD hybrid approach provides a realistic evolution of the matter produced in heavy-ion collisions. Read More

In an approach inspired by Polyakov loop extended NJL models, we present a nonlinear hadronic SU(3) sigma-omega mean field model augmented by quark degrees of freedom. By introducing the effective Polyakov loop related scalar field \Phi and an associated effective potential, the model includes all known hadronic degrees of freedom at low temperatures and densities as well as a quark phase at high temperatures and densities. Hadrons in the model exhibit a finite volume in order to suppress baryons at high T and \mu. Read More

We recently introduced a fluid-dynamical model for simulating relativistic nuclear collisions in the presence of a first-order phase transition and made explorative studies of head-on lead-lead collisions. We give here a more detailed account of this novel theoretical tool and carry out more exhaustive studies of the phase-separation dynamics. Extracting the density enhancement caused by the spinodal instabilities, the associated clump size distribution, and the resulting transverse flow velocity, we examine the sensitivity of these quantities to the strength of the gradient term that promotes the phase separation, to the details of the initial density fluctuations that form the seeds for the subsequent amplification, and to the equation of state. Read More

We analyze hadrochemical freeze-out in central Pb+Pb collisions at CERN SPS and LHC energies. We determine the effects of baryon and antibaryon annihilation and/or regeneration occurring during the final cascade expansion stage of the collisions by deriving "survival factors" for each hadronic species and all energies considered by employing the UrQMD hybrid model. These survival factors are shown to resemble the pattern of data deviation from the statistical equilibrium calculations with the statistical model. Read More

We calculate the heavy quark evolution in heavy ion collisions and show results for the elliptic flow $v_2$ as well as the nuclear modification factor $R_{AA}$ at RHIC and LHC energies. For the calculation we implement a Langevin approach for the transport of heavy quarks in the UrQMD (hydrodynamics + Boltzmann) hybrid model. As drag and diffusion coefficients we use a Resonance approach for elastic heavy-quark scattering and assume a decoupling temperature of the charm quarks from the hot medium of $130\,\text{MeV}$. Read More

We have implemented a Langevin approach for the transport of heavy quarks in the UrQMD hybrid model. The UrQMD hybrid approach provides a realistic description of the background medium for the evolution of relativistic heavy ion collisions. We have used two different sets of drag and diffusion coefficients, one based on a $T$-Matrix approach and one based on a resonance model for the elastic scattering of heavy quarks within the medium. Read More

Extending a previously developed two-phase equation of state, we simulate head-on relativistic lead-lead collisions with fluid dynamics, augmented with a finite-range term, and study the effects of the phase structure on the evolution of the baryon density. For collision energies that bring the bulk of the system into the mechanically unstable spinodal region of the phase diagram, the density irregularities are being amplified significantly. The resulting density clumping may be exploited as a signal of the phase transition, possibly through an enhanced production of composite particles. Read More

We implement a Langevin approach for the transport of charm quarks in the UrQMD (hydrodynamics + Boltzmann) hybrid model. Due to the inclusion of event-by-event fluctuations and a full (3+1) dimensional hydrodynamic evolution, this approach provides a more realistic model for the evolution of the matter produced in heavy ion collisions as compared to simple homogeneous fireball expansions usually employed. As drag and diffusion coefficients we use a resonance approach for elastic heavy-quark scattering and assume a decoupling temperature of the charm quarks from the hot medium of 130 MeV. Read More

We study the importance of the initial state, baryon stopping and baryon number transport for the dynamical evolution of a strongly interacting system produced in heavy ion collisions. We employ a hybrid model, which combines the fluid dynamical evolution of the fireball with a transport treatment for the initial state and the final hadronic phase. We present results for collisions at beam energies from sqrt{s_{NN}}=7. Read More

We analyze longitudinal pion spectra from \sqrt{s_{NN}}= 2 GeV to \sqrt {s_{\rm NN}}=20 GeV within Landau's hydrodynamical model and the UrQMD hybrid approach. From the measured data on the widths of the pion rapidity spectra, we extract the sound velocity c_s^2 in the dense stage of the reactions. It is found that the sound velocity has a local minimum (indicating a softest point in the equation of state, EoS) at \sqrt{s_{NN}}= 4-9 GeV, an energy range accessible at the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) as well as the RHIC-Beam Energy Scan (RHIC-BES). Read More

We apply an extended version of the SU(3) parity model, containing quark degrees of freedom, to study neutron stars. The model successfully reproduces the main thermodynamic features of QCD which allows us to describe the composition of dense matter. Chiral symmetry restoration is realized inside the star and the chiral partners of the baryons appear, their masses becoming degenerate. Read More

Recent LHC data on Pb+Pb reactions at sqrt(s_{NN})=2.7 TeV suggests that the p/pi is incompatible with thermal models. We explore several hadron ratios (K/pi, p/pi, Lambda/pi, Xi/pi) within a hydrodynamic model with hadronic after burner, namely UrQMD 3. Read More

We study the production of (hyper-)nuclei and di-baryons in most central heavy Ion collisions at energies of $E_{lab}=1-160 A$ GeV. In particular we are interested in clusters produced from the hot and dense fireball. The formation rate of strange and non-strange clusters is estimated by assuming thermal production from the intermediate phase of the UrQMD-hydro hybrid model and alternatively by the coalescence mechanism from a hadronic cascade model. Read More

The study of neutron stars is a topic of central interest in the investigation of the properties of strongly compressed hadronic matter. Whereas in heavy-ion collisions the fireball, created in the collision zone, contains very hot matter, with varying density depending on the beam energy, neutron stars largely sample the region of cold and dense matter with the exception of the very short time period of the existence of the proto-neutron star. Therefore, neutron star physics, in addition to its general importance in astrophysics, is a crucial complement to heavy-ion physics in the study of strongly interacting matter. Read More

With an effective chiral flavour SU(3) model we show the effect of hadronic resonances on the QCD phase diagram. We state that varying the resonance couplings to the scalar and vector fields affects the order and location of the phase transition, the possible existence of a critical end point (CEP), and the thermodynamic properties. We present (strange) quark number susceptibilities at zero baryochemical potential and at three different points at the phase transition. Read More

Two major aspects of strange particle physics at the upcoming FAIR and NICA facilities and the RHIC low energy scan will be discussed. A new distinct production mechanism for hypernuclei will be presented, namely the production abundances for hypernuclei from $\Lambda$'s absorbed in the spectator matter in peripheral heavy ion collisions. As strangeness is not uniformly distributed in the fireball of a heavy ion collision, the properties of the equation of state therefore depend on the local strangeness fraction. Read More

We review the physics potential at FAIR in the light of the existing data of the RHIC-BES program and the NA49/NA61 beam and system size scan. Special emphasize will be put on the potential of fluctuations, as well as dilepton observables. Read More