J. Schechter - Syracuse University

J. Schechter
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J. Schechter
Syracuse University
United States

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High Energy Physics - Phenomenology (50)
High Energy Physics - Theory (3)
High Energy Physics - Lattice (2)
Nuclear Theory (1)
Nuclear Experiment (1)

Publications Authored By J. Schechter

We discuss the role of $i\epsilon$ in quantum field theories and suggest that it can be identified with the dimensional regularization parameter $i\epsilon=4-d$ thus clarifying and simplifying issues related to the infrared divergences without altering any of the present knowledge in QFT. We further present the relevance of this assumption for the optical theorem. Read More

We show that by decomposing the gauge fields in fermion degrees of freedom and by saturating the remaining degrees of freedom as dynamical fields in the Lagrangian one might explain the proliferation of fermion states in the standard model Lagrangian. Thus the mere presence of the gauge symmetry $U(1)_Y \times SU(2)_L \times SU(3)_c$ is essential. Read More

Starting from the equations of motion of the fields involved in a theory with spontaneous symmetry breaking and by making simple assumptions regarding their behavior we derive simple tree level relations between the mass of the Higgs boson in the theory and the masses of the gauge bosons corresponding to the broken generators. We show that these mass relations have a clear meaning if both the scalars and the gauge bosons are composite states made of two fermions. Read More

With the primary motivation of probing the quark substructure of scalar mesons, a generalized linear sigma model for the lowest and the next-to-lowest scalar and pseudoscalar mesons is employed to investigate several semi-leptonic decays of $D$ mesons. The free parameters of the model (in its leading approximation) have been previously determined from fits to mass spectra and various low-energy parameters. With these fixed parameters, the model has already given encouraging predictions for different low-energy decays and scattering, as well as for semileptonic decay channels of $D_s^+$ that include a scalar meson in the final state. Read More

We work out simple tree level relations in a top condensate model with dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking. We find that in this picture the mass of the composite Higgs boson at tree level is given by $m_H^2=\frac{m_t^2}{2}$ where $m_t$ is the mass of the top quark. Read More

We compute the QED beta function using a new method of functional integration. It turns out that in this procedure the beta function contains only the first two orders coefficients and thus corresponds to a new renormalization scheme, long time supposed to exist. Read More

Underlying mixing of scalar mesons is studied in $\eta'\rightarrow \eta\pi\pi$ decay within a generalized linear sigma model of low-energy QCD which contains two nonets of scalar mesons and two nonets of pseudoscalar mesons (a quark-antiquark nonet and a four quark nonet). The model has been previously employed in various investigations of the underlying mixings among scalar mesons below and above 1 GeV (as well as those of their pseudoscalar chiral partners) and has provided a coherent global picture for the physical properties and quark substructure of these states. It is found that the linear sigma model with only a single lowest-lying nonet is not accurate in predicting the decay width, but inclusion of the mixing of this nonet with the next-to-lowest lying nonet, together with the effect of final state interaction of pions, significantly improves this prediction and agrees with experiment up to about 1\%. Read More

We discuss the supersymmetric standard model from the perspective that the up and down Higgs supermultiplets are composite states. We show that a Higgs multiplet in which the scalar states are bound states of two squarks and the corresponding Higgsinos are bound states of a quark and an squark has the correct supersymmetry transformations and may lead to an alternative model which displays dynamical symmetry breaking. We describe this model through an effective Higgs potential which by itself may lead to the correct mass of 125. Read More

We consider two Ansatze for the neutrino masses and mixings in which the permutation symmetry is implemented in various orders. We discuss the possible see-saw mechanisms and the charged lepton masses for the two cases in the presence of a Higgs triplet and three Higgs doublets. Read More

We discuss the quark masses in a top condensate model where not only two quark but also four quark composite states may exist. We show that the presence of the top color group SU(3)_1\times SU(3)_2 with the correct non anomalous quark representations can justify even in the absence of additional technicolor interactions a hierarchy of the quark masses where the light quark masses have the same size, the charm and bottom masses are higher and similar and the top is the heaviest. Read More

We obtain analytical formulas which connect the neutrino masses and the leptonic mixing matrix with the entries in the mass matrix for the approximation in which the charged lepton mixing matrix is the unit matrix. We also extract the CP violation phase and determine the conditions in which this is present. Read More

We reconsider top condensate models from the perspective that not only two quark composite fields can form but also four quark ones. We obtain a model which contains a Higgs doublet and a Higgs triplet, where one of the neutral components of the Higgs triplet identifies with the Higgs boson found at the LHC. We discuss some of the phenomenological consequences. Read More

We study the implications of a criterion of naturalness for a simple two Higgs doublet model in the context of the discovery of a Higgs like particle with a mass at 125 GeV. This condition which measures the amount of fine tuning further limits the parameter space of this particular model and together with other phenomenological constraints leads to an allowed range of masses for the other neutral or charged Higgs bosons: H, a^{\pm}, a^0. Read More

We simplify and extend our previous model for the masses and mixing matrix of three Majorana neutrinos based on permutation symmetry $S_3$ and the perturbations which violate this symmetry. The perturbations are arranged such that we get the smaller solar neutrinos mass difference at second order. We work out the corrections to the tribimaximal mixing matrix with the non-zero value for $s_{13}$ and the conventional CP-violating phase. Read More

We discuss the possibility of using experiments timing the propagation of neutrino beams over large distances to help determine the absolute masses of the three neutrinos. Read More

After a brief historical discussion of meson quantum numbers, we examin the possibility of additional internal meson structure. Experimental tests of this structure using the semi-leptonic decays of the $D_s^+n$(1968) meson are discussed. Read More

A possible explanation of the results of the OPERA experiment is presented. Assuming that the usual value of c should be interpreted as the velocity of light in dark matter, we call the "true" velocity of light in vacuum, $c_t$. Then the OPERA neutrinos can be faster than c but slower than $c_t$. Read More

The unusual multiplet structures associated with the light spin zero mesons have recently attracted a good deal of theoretical attention. Here we discuss some aspects associated with the possibility of getting new experimental information on this topic from semi-leptonic decays of heavy charged mesons into an isosinglet scalar or pseudoscalar plus leptons. Read More

Pion pion scattering is studied in a generalized linear sigma model which contains two scalar nonets (one of quark-antiquark type and the other of diquark-antidiquark type) and two corresponding pseudoscalar nonets. An interesting feature concerns the mixing of the four isosinglet scalar mesons which yield poles in the scattering amplitude. Some realism is introduced by enforcing exact unitarity via the K-matrix method. Read More

It has become clearer recently that the regular pattern of three flavor nonets describing the low spin meson multiplets seems to require some modification for the case of the spin 0 scalar mesons. One picture which has had some success, treats the scalars in a chiral Lagrangian framework and considers them to populate two nonets. These are, in turn, taken to result from the mixing of two "bare" nonets, one of which is of quark- antiquark type and the other of two quark- two antiquark type. Read More

Some non perturbative aspects of the pure SU(3) Yang-Mills theory are investigated assuming a specific form of the beta function, based on a recent modification by Ryttov and Sannino of the known one for supersymmetric gauge theories. The characteristic feature is a pole at a particular value of the coupling constant, g. First it is noted, using dimensional analysis, that physical quantities behave smoothly as one travels from one side of the pole to the other. Read More

We further study a predictive model for the masses and mixing matrix of three Majorana neutrinos. At zeroth order the model yielded degenerate neutrinos and a generalized ``tribimaximal" mixing matrix. At first order the mass splitting was incorporated and the tribimaximal mixing matrix emerged with very small corrections but with a zero value for the parameter $s_{13}$. Read More

An approach to understanding the light scalar meson phenomenology is briefly reviewed. Read More

The Large Hadron Collider presents an unprecedented opportunity to probe the realm of new physics in the TeV region and shed light on some of the core unresolved issues of particle physics. These include the nature of electroweak symmetry breaking, the origin of mass, the possible constituent of cold dark matter, new sources of CP violation needed to explain the baryon excess in the universe, the possible existence of extra gauge groups and extra matter, and importantly the path Nature chooses to resolve the hierarchy problem - is it supersymmetry or extra dimensions. Many models of new physics beyond the standard model contain a hidden sector which can be probed at the LHC. Read More

We study the effects of the perturbation which violates the permutation symmetry of three Majorana neutrinos but preserves the well known (23) interchange symmetry. This is done in the presence of an arbitrary Majorana phase which serves to insure the degeneracy of the three neutrinos at the unperturbed level. Read More

A simple gauged linear sigma model with several parameters to take the symmetry breaking and the mass differences between the vector meson and the axial vector meson into account is considered here as a possibly useful template for the role of a light scalar in QCD as well as for (at a different scale) an effective Higgs sector for some recently proposed walking technicolor models. An analytic procedure is first developed for relating the Lagrangian parameters to four well established (in the QCD application) experimental inputs. One simple equation distinguishes three different cases:1. Read More

First it is shown that the tree amplitude for pion pion scattering in the minimal linear sigma model has an exact expression which is proportional to a geometric series in the quantity (s-$m_\pi^2$)/($m_B^2-m_\pi^2$), where $m_B$ is the sigma mass which appears in the Lagrangian and is the only a priori unknown parameter in the model. This induces an infinite series for every predicted scattering length in which each term corresponds to a given order in the chiral perturbation theory counting. It is noted that, perhaps surprisingly, the pattern, though not the exact values, of chiral perturbation theory predictions for both the isotopic spin 0 and isotopic spin 2 s-wave pion-pion scattering lengths to orders $p^2$, $p^4$ and $p^6$ seems to agree with this induced pattern. Read More

A generalized linear sigma model for low energy QCD is employed to study the quark structure of eight low lying scalar isomultiplets as well as eight low lying pseudoscalar isomultiplets. The model, building on earlier work, assumes the possible mixing of quark anti-quark states with others made of two quarks and two antiquarks. No {\it a priori} assumption is made about the quark contents of the states, which emerge as predictions. Read More

A generalized linear sigma model is employed to study the quark structure of low lying scalar as well as pseudoscalar states. The model allows the possible mixing of quark anti-quark states with others made of two quarks and two antiquarks but no a priori assumption is made about the quark contents of the predicted physical states. Effects of SU(3) symmetry breaking are included. Read More

We study a simple two Higgs doublet model which reflects, in a phenomenological way, the idea of compositeness for the Higgs sector. It is relatively predictive. In one scenario, it allows for a "hidden" usual Higgs particle in the 100 GeV region and a possible dark matter candidate. Read More

It is well known that the instanton approach to QCD generates an effective term which looks like a three flavor determinant of quark bilinears. This has the right behavior to explain the unusual mass and mixing of the $\eta(958)$ meson, as is often simply illustrated with the aid of a linear SU(3) sigma model. It is less well known that the instanton analysis generates another term which has the same transformation property but does not have a simple interpretation in terms of this usual linear sigma model. Read More

A brief discussion of the recent interest in light scalar mesons motivates the study of a generalized linear sigma model. In an SU(3) flavor invariant version of the model there is a prediction that the the lighter scalars have sizeable "four quark" content. It is further predicted that one of the singlet scalars should be exceptionally light. Read More

An earlier calculation in a generalized linear sigma model showed that the well-known current algebra formula for low energy pion pion scattering held even though the massless Nambu Goldstone pion contained a small admixture of a two-quark two-antiquark field. Here we turn on the pion mass and note that the current algebra formula no longer holds exactly. We discuss this small deviation and also study the effects of an SU(3) symmetric quark mass type term on the masses and mixings of the eight SU(3) multiplets in the model. Read More

We present a detailed study of a linear sigma model containing one chiral nonet transforming under U(1)$_A$ as a quark-antiquark composite and another chiral nonet transforming as a diquark-anti diquark composite (or, equivalently from a symmetry point of view, as a two meson molecule). The model provides an intuitive explanation of a current puzzle in low energy QCD: Recent work has suggested the existence of a lighter than 1 GeV nonet of scalar mesons which behave like four quark composites. On the other hand, the validity of a spontaneously broken chiral symmetric description would suggest that these states be chiral partners of the light pseudoscalar mesons, which are two quark composites. Read More

The exact relativistic form for the beta decay endpoint spectrum is derived and presented in a simple factorized form. We show that our exact formula can be well approximated to yield the endpoint form used in the fit method of the KATRIN collaboration. We also discuss the three neutrino case and how information from neutrino oscillation experiments may be useful in analyzing future beta decay endpoint experiments. Read More


In this write-up, we summarize our recent analysis of radiative decays involving light scalar mesons. Our analysis using the vector meson dominance model at tree level indicates that it may be difficult to distinguish $qq\bar{q}\bar{q}$ picture and $q\bar{q}$ picture for the light scalar nonet. Our result on the process of $\phi \to \pi^0 \eta \gamma$ shows that the derivative-type $f_0 K\bar{K}$ interaction reproduces experimental data below 950 GeV well, but gives a poor fit above 950 GeV, i. Read More

We compare the dependences on the number of colors of the leading pion pion scattering amplitudes using the single index quark field and two index quark fields. These are seen to have different relationships to the scattering amplitudes suggested by chiral dynamics which can explain the long puzzling pion pion s wave scattering up to about 1 GeV. This may be interesting for getting a better understanding of the large Nc approach as well as for application to recently proposed technicolor models. Read More

We propose a systematic procedure to study a generalized linear sigma model which can give a physical picture of possible mixing between $q{\bar q}$ and $qq{\bar q}{\bar q}$ low lying spin zero states. In the limit of zero quark masses, we derive the model independent results for the properties of the Nambu Goldstone pseudoscalar particles. For getting information on the scalars it is necessary to make a specific choice of terms. Read More

The form of the leptonic mixing matrix emerging from experiment has, in the last few years, generated a lot of interest in the so-called tribimaximal type. This form may be naturally associated with the possibility of a discrete permutation symmetry ($S_3$) among the three generations. However, trying to implement this attractive symmetry has resulted in some problems and it seems to have fallen out of favor. Read More

Within a linear sigma model framework, possible mixing between two chiral nonets (a two quark nonet, and a four quark nonet) below 2 GeV is studied. Incorporating the U(1)$_A$ behavior of the underlying QCD, and working in the isospin invariant limit, the mass spectra of the I=0, $I=1/2$ and I=1 pseudoscalars, and the $I=1/2$ scalars are studied, and estimates of their quark content are presented. It is found, as expected, that the ordinary and the excited pseudoscalars generally have much less two and four quark admixtures compared to the respective scalars. Read More

The radiative decays of the phi meson are known to be a good source of information about the a0(980) and f0(980) scalar mesons. We discuss these decays starting from a non-linear model Lagrangian which maintains the (broken) chiral symmetry for the pseudoscalar (P), scalar (S) and vector (V) nonets involved. The characteristic feature is derivative coupling for the SPP interaction. Read More

We use a toy model to discuss the problem of parameterizing the possible contribution of a light scalar meson, sigma, to the final state interactions in the non leptonic decays of heavy mesons. Read More

Motivated by the possibility that nonets of scalar mesons might be described as mixtures of "two quark" and "four quark" components, we further study a toy model in which corresponding chiral nonets (containing also the pseudoscalar partners) interact with each other. Although the "two quark" and "four quark" chiral fields transform identically under SU(3)$_L \times$ SU(3)$_R$ transformations they transform differently under the U(1)$_A$ transformation which essentially counts total (quark + antiquark) content of the mesons. To implement this we formulate an effective Lagrangian which mocks up the U(1)$_A$ behavior of the underlying QCD. Read More

We note that the fine structure at the endpoint region of the beta decay spectrum is now essentially known using neutrino oscillation data, if the mass of one neutrino is specified. This may help to identify the effects of nonzero neutrino masses in future experiments. An exact treatment of phase space kinematics is used. Read More

We further study the "complementary" Ansatz, Tr$(M_\nu)$=0, for a prediagonal light Majorana type neutrino mass matrix. Previously, this was studied for the CP conserving case and the case where the two Majorana type CP violating phases were present but the Dirac type CP violating phase was neglected. Here we employ a simple geometric algorithm which enables us to "solve" the Ansatz including all three CP violating phases. Read More

The "complementary" Ansatz, Tr$(M_\nu)=0$, where $M_\nu$ is the prediagonal neutrino mass matrix, seems a plausible approximation for capturing in a self-contained way some of the content of Grand Unification. We study its consequences in the form of relations between the neutrino masses and CP violation phases. Read More

We further study the previously proposed Ansatz, Tr(M)=0, for a prediagonal light Majorana type neutrino mass matrix. If CP violation is neglected this enables one to use the existing data on squared mass differences to estimate (up to a discrete ambiguity)the neutrino masses themselves. If it is assumed that only the conventional CP phase is present, the ansatz enables us to estimate this phase in addition to all three masses. Read More

Affiliations: 1Nagoya Univ., 2NORDITA, 3Syracuse Univ.

We study the dependence on the number of colors of the leading pi pi scattering amplitude in chiral dynamics. We demonstrate the existence of a critical number of colors for and above which the low energy pi pi scattering amplitude computed from the simple sum of the current algebra and vector meson terms is crossing symmetric and unitary at leading order in a truncated and regularized 1/Nc expansion. The critical number of colors turns out to be Nc=6 and is insensitive to the explicit breaking of chiral symmetry. Read More

We summarize some features of the vector meson dominance model which was recently proposed for studying radiative decays involving the scalar mesons. Using the experimental values of $\Gamma(a_0 \to \gamma\gamma)$, $\Gamma(f_0 \to \gamma\gamma)$ and $\Gamma(\phi \to a_0 \gamma)$ as inputs, we show that the model predicts a large hierarchy between $\Gamma(a_0 \to \omega \gamma)$ and $\Gamma(a_0 \to \rho \gamma)$ as well as between $\Gamma(f_0 \to \omega \gamma)$ and $\Gamma(f_0 \to \rho \gamma)$. Read More

We first review how the simple K-matrix unitarized linear SU(2) sigma model can explain the experimental data in the scalar pi pi scattering channel of QCD up to about 800 MeV. Since it is just a scaled version of the minimal electroweak Higgs sector, which is often treated with the same unitarization method, we interpret the result as support for this approach in the electroweak model with scaled values of tree level Higgs mass up to at least about 2 TeV. We further note that the relevant QCD effective Lagrangian which fits the data to still higher energies using the same method involves another scalar resonance. Read More