# J. L. Velasco - the Janus collaboration

## Contact Details

NameJ. L. Velasco |
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Affiliationthe Janus collaboration |
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Location |
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## Pubs By Year |
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## Pub CategoriesPhysics - Plasma Physics (18) Physics - Mesoscopic Systems and Quantum Hall Effect (17) Physics - Strongly Correlated Electrons (10) Physics - Materials Science (8) Computer Science - Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (5) High Energy Physics - Experiment (2) Mathematics - Analysis of PDEs (2) Mathematics - Optimization and Control (2) Computer Science - Neural and Evolutionary Computing (1) Statistics - Machine Learning (1) Computer Science - Information Theory (1) Quantitative Biology - Populations and Evolution (1) Mathematics - Information Theory (1) Mathematics - Dynamical Systems (1) |

## Publications Authored By J. L. Velasco

We study a generalization of a cross-diffusion problem deduced from a nonlinear complex-variable diffusion model for signal and image denoising. We prove the existence of weak solutions of the time-independent problem with fidelity terms under mild conditions on the data problem. Then, we show that this translates on the well-posedness of a quasi-steady state approximation of the evolution problem, and also prove the existence of weak solutions of the latter under more restrictive hypothesis. Read More

In general, the orbit-averaged radial magnetic drift of trapped particles in stellarators is non-zero due to the three-dimensional nature of the magnetic field. Stellarators in which the orbit-averaged radial magnetic drift vanishes are called omnigeneous, and they exhibit neoclassical transport levels comparable to those of axisymmetric tokamaks. However, the effect of deviations from omnigeneity cannot be neglected in practice. Read More

Measurements of the relaxation of a zonal electrostatic potential perturbation in a non-axisymmetric magnetically confined plasma are presented. A sudden perturbation of the plasma equilibrium is induced by the injection of a cryogenic hydrogen pellet in the TJ-II stellarator, which is observed to be followed by a damped oscillation in the electrostatic potential. The waveform of the relaxation is consistent with theoretical calculations of zonal potential relaxation in a non-axisymmetric magnetic geometry. Read More

Achieving impurity and helium ash control is a crucial issue in the path towards fusion-grade magnetic confinement devices, and this is particularly the case of helical reactors, whose low-collisionality ion-root operation scenarios usually display a negative radial electric field which is expected to cause inwards impurity pinch. In these work we discuss, based on experimental measurements and standard predictions of neoclassical theory, how plasmas of very low ion collisionality, similar to those observed in the impurity hole of the Large Helical Device, can be an exception to this general rule, and how a negative radial electric field can coexist with an outward impurity flux. This interpretation is supported by comparison with documented discharges available in the International Stellarator-Heliotron Profile Database, and it can be extrapolated to show that achievement of high ion temperature in the core of helical devices is not fundamentally incompatible with low core impurity content. Read More

Electrostatic confinement of charge carriers in graphene is governed by Klein tunneling, a relativistic quantum process in which particle-hole transmutation leads to unusual anisotropic transmission at pn junction boundaries. Reflection and transmission at these novel potential barriers should affect the quantum interference of electronic wavefunctions near these boundaries. Here we report the use of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) to map the electronic structure of Dirac fermions confined by circular graphene pn junctions. Read More

We review in a tutorial fashion some of the causes of impurity density variations along field lines and radial impurity transport in the moment approach framework. An explicit and compact form of the parallel inertia force valid for arbitrary toroidal geometry and magnetic coordinates is derived and shown to be non-negligible for typical TJ-II plasma conditions. In the second part of the article, we apply the fluid model including main ion-impurity friction and inertia to observations of asymmetric emissivity patterns in neutral beam heated plasmas of the TJ-II stellarator. Read More

Nanoscale control of charge doping in two-dimensional (2D) materials permits the realization of electronic analogs of optical phenomena, relativistic physics at low energies, and technologically promising nanoelectronics. Electrostatic gating and chemical doping are the two most common methods to achieve local control of such doping. However, these approaches suffer from complicated fabrication processes that introduce contamination, change material properties irreversibly, and lack flexible pattern control. Read More

**Authors:**J. L. Velasco, K. J. McCarthy, N. Panadero, S. Satake, D. López-Bruna, A. Alonso, I. Calvo, T. Estrada, J. M. Fontdecaba, J. Hernández, R. García, F. Medina, M. Ochando, I. Pastor, S. Perfilov, E. Sánchez, A. Soleto, B. Ph. Van Milligen, A. Zhezhera, the TJ-II team

**Category:**Physics - Plasma Physics

We study radial particle transport in stellarator plasmas using cryogenic pellet injection. By means of perturbative experiments, we estimate the experimental particle flux and compare it with neoclassical simulations. Experimental evidence is obtained of the fact that core depletion in helical devices can be slowed-down even by pellets that do not reach the core region. Read More

Measuring the Time delay of Arrival (TDOA) between a set of sensors is the basic setup for many applications, such as localization or signal beamforming. This paper presents the set of TDOA matrices, which are built from noise-free TDOA measurements, not requiring knowledge of the sensor array geometry. We prove that TDOA matrices are rank-two and have a special SVD decomposition that leads to a compact linear parametric representation. Read More

We study the existence and uniqueness of solutions of a nonlinear integro-differential problem which we reformulate introducing the notion of the decreasing rearrangement of the solution. A dimensional reduction of the problem is obtained and a detailed analysis of the properties of the solutions of the model is provided. Finally, a fast numerical method is devised and implemented to show the performance of the model when typical image processing tasks such as filtering and segmentation are performed. Read More

We introduce an exact reformulation of a broad class of neighborhood filters, among which the bilateral filters, in terms of two functional rearrangements: the decreasing and the relative rearrangements. Independently of the image spatial dimension (one-dimensional signal, image, volume of images, etc.), we reformulate these filters as integral operators defined in a one-dimensional space corresponding to the level sets measures. Read More

Monolayer molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) is a promising two-dimensional direct-bandgap semiconductor with potential applications in atomically thin and flexible electronics. An attractive insulating substrate or mate for MoS2 (and related materials such as graphene) is hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN). Stacked heterostructures of MoS2 and h-BN have been produced by manual transfer methods, but a more efficient and scalable assembly method is needed. Read More

The particle transport of impurities in magnetically confined plasmas under some conditions does not find, neither quantitatively nor qualitatively, a satisfactory theory-based explanation. This compromise the successful realization of thermo-nuclear fusion for energy production since its accumulation is known to be one of the causes that leads to the plasma breakdown. In standard reactor-relevant conditions this accumulation is in most stellarators intrinsic to the lack of toroidal symmetry, that leads to the neoclassical electric field to point radially inwards. Read More

Defects play a key role in determining the properties of most materials and, because they tend to be highly localized, characterizing them at the single-defect level is particularly important. Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) has a history of imaging the electronic structure of individual point defects in conductors, semiconductors, and ultrathin films, but single-defect electronic characterization at the nanometer-scale remains an elusive goal for intrinsic bulk insulators. Here we report the characterization and manipulation of individual native defects in an intrinsic bulk hexagonal boron nitride (BN) insulator via STM. Read More

Quasisymmetric stellarators are a type of optimized stellarators for which flows are undamped to lowest order in an expansion in the normalized Larmor radius. However, perfect quasisymmetry is impossible. Since large flows may be desirable as a means to reduce turbulent transport, it is important to know when a stellarator can be considered to be sufficiently close to quasisymmetry. Read More

Nonlocal filters are simple and powerful techniques for image denoising. In this paper we study the reformulation of a broad class of nonlocal filters in terms of two functional rearrangements: the decreasing and the relative rearrangements. Independently of the dimension of the image, we reformulate these filters as integral operators defined in a one-dimensional space corresponding to the level sets measures. Read More

Using transport measurements, we investigate multicomponent quantum Hall (QH) ferromagnetism in dual-gated rhombohedral trilayer graphene (r-TLG), in which the real spin, orbital pseudospin and layer pseudospins of the lowest Landau level form spontaneous ordering. We observe intermediate quantum Hall plateaus, indicating a complete lifting of the degeneracy of the zeroth Landau level (LL) in the hole-doped regime. In charge neutral r-TLG, the orbital degeneracy is broken first, and the layer degeneracy is broken last and only the in presence of an interlayer potential U. Read More

The reconstruction of a central tendency `species tree' from a large number of conflicting gene trees is a central problem in systematic biology. Moreover, it becomes particularly problematic when taxon coverage is patchy, so that not all taxa are present in every gene tree. Here, we list four apparently desirable properties that a method for estimating a species tree from gene trees could have (the strongest property states that building a species tree from input gene trees and then pruning leaves gives a tree that is the same as, or more resolved than, the tree obtained by first removing the taxa from the input trees and then building the species tree). Read More

Plasma flow is damped in stellarators because they are not intrinsically ambipolar, unlike tokamaks, in which the flux-surface averaged radial electric current vanishes for any value of the radial electric field. Only quasisymmetric stellarators are intrinsically ambipolar, but exact quasisymmetry is impossible to achieve in non-axisymmetric toroidal configurations. By calculating the violation of intrinsic ambipolarity due to deviations from quasisymmetry, one can derive criteria to assess when a stellarator can be considered quasisymmetric in practice, i. Read More

A generic non-symmetric magnetic field does not confine magnetized charged particles for long times due to secular magnetic drifts. Stellarator magnetic fields should be omnigeneous (that is, designed such that the secular drifts vanish), but perfect omnigeneity is technically impossible. There always are small deviations from omnigeneity that necessarily have large gradients. Read More

First observations of electrostatic potential variations within the flux surfaces of a toroidal magnetic confinement device are presented. Measurements are taken in the TJ-II stellarator with two distant Langmuir probe arrays. The edge floating potentials display differences of several tens of Volts in electron-root wave-heated plasmas. Read More

**Authors:**J. Velasco Jr., Y. Lee, Fan Zhang, Kevin Myhro, David Tran, Michael Deo, Dmitry Smirnov, A. H. MacDonald, C. N. Lau

Because of its large density-of-states and the 2{\pi} Berry phase near its low-energy band-contact points, neutral bilayer graphene (BLG) at zero magnetic field (B) is susceptible to chiral-symmetry breaking, leading to a variety of gapped spontaneous quantum Hall states distinguished by valley and spin-dependent quantized Hall conductivities. Among these, the layer antiferromagnetic state, which has quantum valley Hall (QVH) effects of opposite sign for opposite spins, appears to be the thermodynamic ground state. Though other gapped states have not been observed experimentally at B=0, they can be explored by exploiting their adiabatic connection to quantum Hall states with the same total Hall conductivity {\sigma}H. Read More

**Authors:**Y. Lee, D. Tran, K. Myhro, J. Velasco Jr., N. Gillgren, C. N. Lau, Y. Barlas, J. M. Poumirol, D. Smirnov, F. Guinea

Due to their unique electron dispersion and lack of a Fermi surface, Coulomb interactions in undoped two-dimensional Dirac systems, such as single, bi- and tri-layer graphene, can be marginal or relevant. Relevant interactions can result in spontaneous symmetry breaking, which is responsible for a large class of physical phenomena ranging from mass generation in high energy physics to correlated states such as superconductivity and magnetism in condensed matter. Here, using transport measurements, we show that rhombohedral-stacked trilayer graphene (r-TLG) offers a simple, yet novel and tunable, platform for study of various phases with spontaneous or field-induced broken symmetries. Read More

**Authors:**L. Ju, J. Velasco Jr., E. Huang, S. Kahn, C. Nosiglia, H. Tsai, W. Yang, T. Taniguchi, K. Watanabe, Y. Zhang, G. Zhang, M. Crommie, A. Zettl, F. Wang

The design of stacks of layered materials in which adjacent layers interact by van der Waals forces[1] has enabled the combination of various two-dimensional crystals with different electrical, optical and mechanical properties, and the emergence of novel physical phenomena and device functionality[2-8]. Here we report photo-induced doping in van der Waals heterostructures (VDHs) consisting of graphene and boron nitride layers. It enables flexible and repeatable writing and erasing of charge doping in graphene with visible light. Read More

We study the the Dirichlet problem for the cross-diffusion system \[ \partial_tu_i=\operatorname{div}\left(a_iu_i\nabla (u_1+u_2)\right)+f_i(u_1,u_2),\quad i=1,2,\quad a_i=const>0, \] in the cylinder $Q=\Omega\times (0,T]$. The functions $f_i$ are assumed to satisfy the conditions $f_1(0,r)=0$, $f_2(s,0)=0$, $f_1(0,r)$, $f_2(s,0)$ are locally Lipschitz-continuous. It is proved that for suitable initial data $u_0$, $v_0$ the system admits segregated solutions $(u_1,u_2)$ such that $u_i\in L^{\infty}(Q)$, $u_1+u_2\in C^{0}(\overline{Q})$, $u_1+u_2>0$ and $u_1\cdot u_2=0$ everywhere in $Q$. Read More

In previous works, we investigated the use of local filters based on partial differential equations (PDE) to denoise one-dimensional signals through the image processing of time-frequency representations, such as the spectrogram. In this image denoising algorithms, the particularity of the image was hardly taken into account. We turn, in this paper, to study the performance of non-local filters, like Neighborhood or Yaroslavsky filters, in the same problem. Read More

Nonlocal filters are simple and powerful techniques for image denoising. In this paper, we give new insights into the analysis of one kind of them, the Neighborhood filter, by using a classical although not very common transformation: the decreasing rearrangement of a function (the image). Independently of the dimension of the image, we reformulate the Neighborhood filter and its iterative variants as an integral operator defined in a one-dimensional space. Read More

We develop two types of graphene devices based on nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS), that allows transport measurement in the presence of in situ strain modulation. Different mobility and conductance responses to strain were observed for single layer and bilayer samples. These types of devices can be extended to other 2D membranes such as MoS2, providing transport, optical or other measurements with in situ strain. Read More

Fully-ionised carbon impurity flow is studied in ion-root, neutral beam heated plasmas by means of Charge Exchange Recombination Spectroscopy (CXRS) in the TJ-II stellarator. Perpendicular flows are found to be in reasonable agreement with neoclassical calculations of the radial electric field. The parallel flow of the impurity is obtained at two locations of the same flux surface after subtraction of the calculated Pfirsch-Schl\"uter parallel velocity. Read More

Rotation is favorable for confinement, but a stellarator can rotate at high speeds if and only if it is sufficiently close to quasisymmetry. This article investigates how close it needs to be. For a magnetic field $\mathbf{B} = \mathbf{B}_0 + \alpha \mathbf{B}_1$, where $\mathbf{B}_0$ is quasisymmetric, $\alpha\mathbf{B}_1$ is a deviation from quasisymmetry, and $\alpha\ll 1$, the stellarator can rotate at high velocities if $\alpha < \epsilon^{1/2}$, with $\epsilon$ the ion Larmor radius over the characteristic variation length of $\mathbf{B}_0$. Read More

The drift kinetic equation is solved for low density TJ-II plasmas employing slowly varying, time-dependent profiles. This allows to simulate density ramp-up experiments and to describe from first principles the formation and physics of the radial electric field shear, which is associated to the transition from electron to ion root. We show that the range of frequencies of plasma potential fluctuations in which zonal flows are experimentally observed is neoclassically undamped in a neighborhood of the transition. Read More

The goal of this paper is proving the existence and then localizing global fixed points for nilpotent groups generated by homeomorphisms of the plane satisfying a certain Lipschitz condition. The condition is inspired in a classical result of Bonatti for commuting diffeomorphisms of the 2-sphere and in particular it is satisfied by diffeomorphisms, not necessarily of class $C^{1}$, whose linear part at every point is uniformly close to the identity. In this same setting we prove a version of the Cartwright-Littlewood theorem, obtaining fixed points in any continuum preserved by a nilpotent action. Read More

A principled method to obtain approximate solutions of general constrained integer optimization problems is introduced. The approach is based on the calculation of a mean field probability distribution for the decision variables which is consistent with the objective function and the constraints. The original discrete task is in this way transformed into a continuous variational problem. Read More

Landau level gaps are important parameters for understanding electronic interactions and symmetry-broken processes in bilayer graphene (BLG). Here we present transport spectroscopy measurements of LL gaps in double-gated suspended BLG with high mobilities in the quantum Hall regime. By using bias as a spectroscopic tool, we measure the gap {\Delta} for the quantum Hall (QH) state at filling factor {\nu}={\pm}4 and -2. Read More

We present low temperature transport measurements on dual-gated suspended trilayer graphene in the quantum Hall (QH) regime. We observe QH plateaus at filling factors {\nu}=-8, -2, 2, 6, and 10, in agreement with the full-parameter tight binding calculations. In high magnetic fields, odd-integer plateaus are also resolved, indicating almost complete lifting of the 12-fold degeneracy of the lowest Landau levels (LL). Read More

Poloidal and toroidal velocities of fully-ionised carbon are measured by means of charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (CXRS) in the TJ-II stellarator. We present a detailed treatment of the 3D geometry and show that flow measurements, performed at different locations of the same flux surface, are compatible with flow incompressibility for the low density plasmas under study (line averaged electron densities $\bar{n}_e\,\le\,10^{19}$ m$^{-3}$). Furthermore, comparison with neoclassical calculations shows quantitative agreement with the measured radial electric field and ion bootstrap parallel flow in the absence of an external momentum input. Read More

Double-gated graphene devices provide an important platform for understanding electrical and optical properties of graphene. Here we present transport measurements of single layer, bilayer and trilayer graphene devices with suspended top gates. In zero magnetic fields, we observe formation of pnp junctions with tunable polarity and charge densities, as well as a tunable band gap in bilayer graphene and a tunable band overlap in trilayer graphene. Read More

The dynamics of fluctuating electric field structures in the edge of the TJ-II stellarator, that display zonal flow-like traits, is studied. These structures have been shown to be global and affect particle transport dynamically [J.A. Read More

The drift kinetic equation is solved for low density TJ-II plasmas employing slowly varying, time-dependent profiles. This allows to simulate density ramp-up experiments and describe from first principles the formation and physics of the radial electric field shear layer. The main features of the transition are perfectly captured by the calculation, and good quantitative agreement is also found. Read More

Bilayer graphene (BLG) at the charge neutrality point (CNP) is strongly susceptible to electronic interactions, and expected to undergo a phase transition into a state with spontaneous broken symmetries. By systematically investigating a large number of singly- and doubly-gated bilayer graphene (BLG) devices, we show that an insulating state appears only in devices with high mobility and low extrinsic doping. This insulating state has an associated transition temperature Tc~5K and an energy gap of ~3 meV, thus strongly suggesting a gapped broken symmetry state that is destroyed by very weak disorder. Read More

Calculations of the monoenergetic radial diffusion coefficients are presented for several configurations of the TJ-II stellarator usually explored in operation. The neoclassical radial fluxes and the ambipolar electric field for the standard configuration are then studied for three different collisionality regimes, obtaining precise results in all cases. Read More

Calculations of the bootstrap current for the TJ-II stellarator are presented. DKES and NEO-MC codes are employed; the latter has allowed, for the first time, the precise computation of the bootstrap transport coefficient in the long mean free path regime of this device. The low error bars allow a precise convolution of the monoenergetic coefficients, which is confirmed by error analysis. Read More

**Authors:**J. Velasco Jr., L. Jing, W. Bao, Y. Lee, P. Kratz, V. Aji, M. Bockrath, C. N. Lau, C. Varma, R. Stillwell, D. Smirnov, Fan Zhang, J. Jung, A. H. MacDonald

The flat bands in bilayer graphene(BLG) are sensitive to electric fields E\bot directed between the layers, and magnify the electron-electron interaction effects, thus making BLG an attractive platform for new two-dimensional (2D) electron physics[1-5]. Theories[6-16] have suggested the possibility of a variety of interesting broken symmetry states, some characterized by spontaneous mass gaps, when the electron-density is at the carrier neutrality point (CNP). The theoretically proposed gaps[6,7,10] in bilayer graphene are analogous[17,18] to the masses generated by broken symmetries in particle physics and give rise to large momentum-space Berry curvatures[8,19] accompanied by spontaneous quantum Hall effects[7-9]. Read More

In this paper is proposed a new heuristic approach belonging to the field of evolutionary Estimation of Distribution Algorithms (EDAs). EDAs builds a probability model and a set of solutions is sampled from the model which characterizes the distribution of such solutions. The main framework of the proposed method is an estimation of distribution algorithm, in which an adaptive Gibbs sampling is used to generate new promising solutions and, in combination with a local search strategy, it improves the individual solutions produced in each iteration. Read More

**Authors:**O. Adriani, L. Bonechi, M. Bongi, G. Castellini, R. D'Alessandro, A. Faus, K. Fukatsu, M. Haguenauer, Y. Itow, K. Kasahara, K. Kawade, D. Macina, T. Mase, K. Masuda, Y. Matsubara, H. Menjo, G. Mitsuka, Y. Muraki, M. Nakai, K. Noda, P. Papini, A. -L. Perrot, S. Ricciarini, T. Sako, Y. Shimizu, K. Suzuki, T. Suzuki, K. Taki, T. Tamura, S. Torii, A. Tricomi, W. C. Turner, J. Velasco, A. Viciani, K. Yoshida

**Category:**High Energy Physics - Experiment

In early 2010, the Large Hadron Collider forward (LHCf) experiment measured very forward neutral particle spectra in LHC proton-proton collisions. From a limited data set taken under the best beam conditions (low beam-gas background and low occurance of pile-up events), the single photon spectra at sqrt(s)=7TeV and pseudo-rapidity (eta) ranges from 8.81 to 8. Read More

**Authors:**W. Bao, L. Jing, Y. Lee, J. Velasco Jr., P. Kratz, D. Tran, B. Standley, M. Aykol, S. B. Cronin, D. Smirnov, M. Koshino, E. McCann, M. Bockrath, C. N. Lau

In a multi-layer electronic system, stacking order provides a rarely-explored degree of freedom for tuning its electronic properties. Here we demonstrate the dramatically different transport properties in trilayer graphene (TLG) with different stacking orders. At the Dirac point, ABA-stacked TLG remains metallic while the ABC counterpart becomes insulating. Read More

**Authors:**O. Adriani, L. Bonechi, M. Bongi, G. Castellini, R. D'Alessandro, A. Faus, K. Fukatsu, M. Haguenauer, Y. Itow, K. Kasahara, D. Macina, T. Mase, K. Masuda, Y. Matsubara, H. Menjo, G. Mitsuka, Y. Muraki, M. Nakai, K. Noda, P. Papini, A L. Perrot, S. Ricciarini, T. Sako, K. Suzuki, T. Suzuki, Y. Shimizu, K. Taki, T. Tamura, S. Torii, A. Tricomi, J. Velasco, W. C. Turner, K. Yoshida

**Category:**High Energy Physics - Experiment

LHCf is an experiment dedicated to the measurement of neutral particles emitted in the very forward region of LHC collisions. The physics goal is to provide data for calibrating hadron interaction models that are used in the study of Extremely High-Energy Cosmic-Rays. The LHCf experiment acquired data from April to July 2010 during commissioning time of LHC operations at low luminosity. Read More

Coupling high quality, suspended atomic membranes to specialized electrodes enables investigation of many novel phenomena, such as spin or Cooper pair transport in these two dimensional systems. However, many electrode materials are not stable in acids that are used to dissolve underlying substrates. Here we present a versatile and powerful multi-level lithographical technique to suspend atomic membranes, which can be applied to the vast majority of substrate, membrane and electrode materials. Read More

We perform transport measurements in high quality bilayer graphene pnp junctions with suspended top gates. At a magnetic field B=0, we demonstrate band gap opening by an applied perpendicular electric field, with an On/Off ratio up to 20,000 at 260mK. Within the band gap, the conductance decreases exponentially by 3 orders of magnitude with increasing electric field, and can be accounted for by variable range hopping with a gate-tunable density of states, effective mass, and localization length. Read More

We report pronounced magnetoconductance oscillations observed on suspended bilayer and trilayer graphene devices with mobilities up to 270,000 cm2/Vs. For bilayer devices, we observe conductance minima at all integer filling factors nu between 0 and -8, as well as a small plateau at {\nu}=1/3. For trilayer devices, we observe features at nu=-1, -2, -3 and -4, and at {\nu}~0. Read More