# J. Alwall - Uppsala University, Sweden

## Contact Details

NameJ. Alwall |
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AffiliationUppsala University, Sweden |
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CityUppsala |
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CountrySweden |
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## Pubs By Year |
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## External Links |
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## Pub CategoriesHigh Energy Physics - Phenomenology (39) High Energy Physics - Experiment (10) Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (1) |

## Publications Authored By J. Alwall

**Authors:**J. Alwall, R. Frederix, S. Frixione, V. Hirschi, F. Maltoni, O. Mattelaer, H. -S. Shao, T. Stelzer, P. Torrielli, M. Zaro

**Category:**High Energy Physics - Phenomenology

We discuss the theoretical bases that underpin the automation of the computations of tree-level and next-to-leading order cross sections, of their matching to parton shower simulations, and of the merging of matched samples that differ by light-parton multiplicities. We present a computer program, MadGraph5_aMC@NLO, capable of handling all these computations -- parton-level fixed order, shower-matched, merged -- in a unified framework whose defining features are flexibility, high level of parallelisation, and human intervention limited to input physics quantities. We demonstrate the potential of the program by presenting selected phenomenological applications relevant to the LHC and to a 1-TeV $e^+e^-$ collider. Read More

We present new features of the FeynRules and MadGraph5/aMC@NLO programs for the automatic computation of decay widths that consistently include channels of arbitrary final-state multiplicity. The implementations are generic enough so that they can be used in the framework of any quantum field theory, possibly including higher-dimensional operators. We extend at the same time the conventions of the Universal FeynRules Output (or UFO) format to include decay tables and information on the total widths. Read More

We present search prospects and phenomenology of doubly resonant signals that come from the decay of a neutral weak-singlet color-octet vector state \omega_8 into a lighter weak-triplet color-octet scalar \pi_8, which can arise in several theories beyond the Standard Model. Taking m_{\omega_8}-m_{\pi_8}>m_W, we demonstrate an analysis of the signals pp \to \omega_8 \to \pi^\pm_8 W^\mp (\pi^0_8 Z) \to g W^\pm W^\mp (g Z Z). The present 8 TeV LHC run is found to have the potential to exclude or discover the signal for a range of masses and parameters. Read More

The production and decay of a new heavy vector boson, a chromophilic $Z'$ vector boson, is described. The chromophilic $Z'$ couples only to two gluons, but its two-body decays are absent, leading to a dominant decay mode of $Z'\rightarrow q\bar{q}g$. The unusual nature of the interaction predicts a cross-section which grows with $m_{Z'}$ for a fixed coupling and an accompanying gluon with a coupling that rises with its energy. Read More

**Authors:**LHC Higgs Cross Section Working Group, S. Dittmaier

^{1}, C. Mariotti

^{2}, G. Passarino

^{3}, R. Tanaka

^{4}, S. Alekhin, J. Alwall, E. A. Bagnaschi, A. Banfi, J. Blumlein, S. Bolognesi, N. Chanon, T. Cheng, L. Cieri, A. M. Cooper-Sarkar, M. Cutajar, S. Dawson, G. Davies, N. De Filippis, G. Degrassi, A. Denner, D. D'Enterria, S. Diglio, B. Di Micco, R. Di Nardo, R. K. Ellis, A. Farilla, S. Farrington, M. Felcini, G. Ferrera, M. Flechl, D. de Florian, S. Forte, S. Ganjour, M. V. Garzelli, S. Gascon-Shotkin, S. Glazov, S. Goria, M. Grazzini, J. -Ph. Guillet, C. Hackstein, K. Hamilton, R. Harlander, M. Hauru, S. Heinemeyer, S. Hoche, J. Huston, C. Jackson, P. Jimenez-Delgado, M. D. Jorgensen, M. Kado, S. Kallweit, A. Kardos, N. Kauer, H. Kim, M. Kovac, M. Kramer, F. Krauss, C. -M. Kuo, S. Lehti, Q. Li, N. Lorenzo, F. Maltoni, B. Mellado, S. O. Moch, A. Muck, M. Muhlleitner, P. Nadolsky, P. Nason, C. Neu, A. Nikitenko, C. Oleari, J. Olsen, S. Palmer, S. Paganis, C. G. Papadopoulos, T . C. Petersen, F. Petriello, F. Petrucci, G. Piacquadio, E. Pilon, C. T. Potter, J. Price, I. Puljak, W. Quayle, V. Radescu, D. Rebuzzi, L. Reina, J. Rojo, D. Rosco, G. P. Salam, A. Sapronov, J. Schaarschmidt, M. Schonherr, M. Schumacher, F. Siegert, P. Slavich, M. Spira, I. W. Stewart, W. J. Stirling, F. Stockli, C. Sturm, F. J. Tackmann, R. S. Thorne, D. Tommasini, P. Torrielli, F. Tramontano, Z. Trocsanyi, M. Ubiali, S. Uccirati, M. Vazquez Acosta, T. Vickey, A. Vicini, W. J. Waalewijn, D. Wackeroth, M. Warsinsky, M. Weber, M. Wiesemann, G. Weiglein, J. Yu, G. Zanderighi

**Affiliations:**

^{1}eds.,

^{2}eds.,

^{3}eds.,

^{4}eds.

This Report summarises the results of the second year's activities of the LHC Higgs Cross Section Working Group. The main goal of the working group was to present the state of the art of Higgs Physics at the LHC, integrating all new results that have appeared in the last few years. The first working group report Handbook of LHC Higgs Cross Sections: 1. Read More

The main Higgs production channel at hadron colliders is gluon fusion via heavy-quark loops. We present the results of a fully exclusive simulation of gluon fusion Higgs production based on the matrix elements for h + 0, 1, 2 partons including full heavy-quark loop dependence, matched to a parton shower. We consider a Higgs with standard model couplings as well as models where the Higgs has enhanced couplings to bottom quarks (b-philic). Read More

We explore the discovery prospects for B'\bar{B}' pair production followed by direct decays B'->bX, where B' is a new quark and X is a long-lived neutral particle. We develop optimized cuts in the (m_B', m_X) plane and show that the 7 TeV LHC with an integrated luminosity of 1 (10) fb^-1 may exclude masses up to m_B' ~ 620 (800) GeV, completely covering the mass range allowed for new quarks that get mass from electroweak symmetry breaking. This analysis is applicable to other models with b\bar{b}+MET signals, including supersymmetric models with bottom squarks decaying directly to neutralinos, and models with exotic quarks decaying directly to GeV-scale dark matter. Read More

MadGraph 5 is the new version of the MadGraph matrix element generator, written in the Python programming language. It implements a number of new, efficient algorithms that provide improved performance and functionality in all aspects of the program. It features a new user interface, several new output formats including C++ process libraries for Pythia 8, and full compatibility with FeynRules for new physics models implementation, allowing for event generation for any model that can be written in the form of a Lagrangian. Read More

The matrix element method (MEM) has been extensively used for the analysis of top-quark and W-boson physics at the Tevatron, but in general without dedicated treatment of initial state QCD radiation. At the LHC, the increased center of mass energy leads to a significant increase in the amount of QCD radiation, which makes it mandatory to carefully account for its effects. We here present several methods for inclusion of QCD radiation effects in the MEM, and apply them to mass determination in the presence of multiple invisible particles in the final state. Read More

**Authors:**J. M. Butterworth, F. Maltoni, F. Moortgat, P. Richardson, S. Schumann, P. Skands, J. Alwall, A. Arbey, L. Basso, S. Belov, A. Bharucha, F. Braam, A. Buckley, M. Campanelli, R. Chierici, A. Djouadi, L. Dudko, C. Duhr, F. Febres Cordero, P. Francavilla, B. Fuks, L. Garren, T. Goto, M. Grazzini, T. Hahn, U. Haisch, K. Hamilton, S. Heinemeyer, G. Hesketh, S. Hoeche, H. Hoeth, J. Huston, J. Kalinowski, D. Kekelidze, S. Kraml, H. Lacker, P. Lenzi, P. Loch, L. Lonnblad, F. Mahmoudi, E. Maina, D. Majumder, M. Mangano, K. Mazumdar, A. Martin, J. Monk, M. Muhlleitner, C. Oleari, S. Ovyn, R. Pittau, S. Plaetzer, G. Piacquadio, L. Reina, J. Reuter, X. Rouby, C. Robinson, T. Roy, M. D. Schwartz, H. Schulz, E. von Seggern, A. Sherstnev, F. Siegert, T. Sjostrand, P. Slavich, M. Spira, C. Taylor, M. Vesterinen, S. de Visscher, D. Wackeroth, S. Weinzierl, J. Winter, T. R. Wyatt

This is the summary and introduction to the proceedings contributions for the Les Houches 2009 "Tools and Monte Carlo" working group. Read More

We determine the prospects for finding dark matter at the Tevatron and LHC through the production of exotic 4th generation quarks T' that decay through T' \to t X, where X is dark matter. The resulting signal of t \bar{t} + \met has not previously been considered in searches for 4th generation quarks, but there are both general and specific dark matter motivations for this signal, and with slight modifications, this analysis applies to any scenario where invisible particles are produced in association with top quarks. Current direct and indirect bounds on such exotic quarks restrict their masses to be between 300 and 600 GeV, and the dark matter's mass may be anywhere below m_T'. Read More

We apply the Matrix Element Method (MEM) to mass determination of squark pair production with direct decay to quarks and LSP at the LHC, showing that simultaneous mass determination of squarks and LSP is possible. We furthermore propose methods for inclusion of QCD radiation effects in the MEM. Read More

At hadron colliders, the production of heavy new particles is associated with additional quarks and gluons with significant transeverse momentum. The additional jets complicates the reconstruction of new particle masses. Taking gluino pair production and decay at the Large Hadron Collider as an example, we develop a novel technique to reduce these effects, and to reconstruct a clear kinematical endpoint for the gluino decay products. Read More

We present a study of effects of QCD radiation in the production of heavy colored states, employing inclusive multi-jet samples obtained by matching matrix elements and parton showers. We discuss several examples showing that matched samples are in general not only more accurate than a parton shower alone, but also often indispensable to make reliable predictions of beyond the Standard Model signals. Read More

Low-energy SUSY and several other theories that address the hierarchy problem predict pair-production at the LHC of particles with Standard Model quantum numbers that decay to jets, missing energy, and possibly leptons. If an excess of such events is seen in LHC data, a theoretical framework in which to describe it will be essential to constraining the structure of the new physics. We propose a basis of four deliberately simplified models, each specified by only 2-3 masses and 4-5 branching ratios, for use in a first characterization of data. Read More

We present a proposal for performing model-independent jets plus missing energy searches. Currently, these searches are optimized for mSUGRA and are consequently not sensitive to all kinematically-accessible regions of parameter space. We show that the reach of these searches can be broadened by setting limits on the differential cross section as a function of the total visible energy and the missing energy. Read More

We here present some recent developments of MadGraph/MadEvent since the latest published version, 4.0. These developments include: Jet matching with Pythia parton showers for both Standard Model and Beyond the Standard Model processes, decay chain functionality, decay width calculation and decay simulation, process generation for the Grid, a package for calculation of quarkonium amplitudes, calculation of Matrix Element weights for experimental events, automatic dipole subtraction for next-to-leading order calculations, and an interface to FeynRules, a package for automatic calculation of Feynman rules and model files from the Lagrangian of any New Physics model. Read More

This letter describes how to perform searches over the complete kinematically-allowed parameter space for new pair-produced color octet particles that each subsequently decay into two jets plus missing energy at the Tevatron. This letter shows that current searches can miss otherwise discoverable spectra of particles due to CMSSM-motivated cuts. Optimizing the HT and MET cuts expands the sensitivity of these searches. Read More

**Authors:**G. Brooijmans, A. Delgado, B. A. Dobrescu, C. Grojean, M. Narain, J. Alwall, G. Azuelos, K. Black, E. Boos, T. Bose, V. Bunichev, R. S. Chivukula, R. Contino, A. Djouadi, L. Dudko, J. Ferland, Y. Gershtein, M. Gigg, S. Gonzalez de la Hoz, M. Herquet, J. Hirn, G. Landsberg, K. Lane, E. Maina, L. March, A. Martin, X. Miao, G. Moreau, M. M. Nojiri, A. Pukhov, P. Ribeiro, P. Richardson, E. Ros, R. Rosenfeld, J. Santiago, V. Sanz, H. J. Schreiber, G. Servant, A. Sherstnev, E. H. Simmons, R. K. Singh, P. Skands, S. Su, T. M. P. Tait, M. Takeuchi, M. Vos, D. G. E. Walker

**Category:**High Energy Physics - Phenomenology

We present a collection of signatures for physics beyond the standard model that need to be explored at the LHC. The signatures are organized according to the experimental objects that appear in the final state, and in particular the number of high pT leptons. Our report, which includes brief experimental and theoretical reviews as well as original results, summarizes the activities of the "New Physics'' working group for the "Physics at TeV Colliders" workshop (Les Houches, France, 11-29 June, 2007). Read More

**Authors:**T. Lari, L. Pape, W. Porod, J. A. Aguilar-Saavedra, F. del Aguila, B. C. Allanach, J. Alwall, Yu. Andreev, D. Aristizabal Sierra, A. Bartl, M. Beccaria, S. Bejar, L. Benucci, S. Bityukov, I. Borjanovic, G. Bozzi, G. Burdman, J. Carvalho, N. Castro, B. Clerbaux, F. de Campos, A. de Gouvea, C. Dennis, A. Djouadi, O. J. P. Eboli, U. Ellwanger, D. Fassouliotis, P. M. Ferreira, R. Frederix, B. Fuks, J. -M. Gerard, A. Giammanco, S. Gopalakrishna, T. Goto, B. Grzadkowski, J. Guasch, T. Hahn, S. Heinemeyer, A. Hektor, M. Herquet, B. Herrmann, K. Hidaka, M. K. Hirsch, K. Hohenwarter-Sodek, W. Hollik, G. W. S. Hou, T. Hurth, A. Ibarra, J. Illana, M. Kadastik, S. Kalinin, C. Karafasoulis, M. Karagoz Unel, T. Kernreiter, M. M. Kirsanov, M. Klasen, E. Kou, C. Kourkoumelis, S. Kraml, N. Krasnikov, F. Krauss, A. Kyriakis, V. Lemaitre, G. Macorini, M. B. Magro, W. Majerotto, F. Maltoni, R. Mehdiyev, M. Misiak, F. Moortgat, G. Moreau, M. Mühlleitner, M. Muntel, A. Onofre, E. Ozcan, F. Palla, L. Panizzi, L. Pape, S. Penaranda, R. Pittau, G. Polesello, A. Pukhov, M. Raidal, A. R. Raklev, L. Rebane, F. M. Renard, D. Restrepo, Z. Roupas, R. Santos, S. Schumann, G. Servant, F. Siegert, P. Skands, P. Slavich, J. Sola, M. Spira, S. Sultansoy, A. Toropin, A. Tricomi, J. Tseng, G. Unel, J. W. F. Valle, F. Veloso, A. Ventura, G. Vermisoglou, C. Verzegnassi, A. Villanova del Moral, G. Weiglein, M. Yilmaz

This review presents flavour related issues in the production and decays of heavy states at LHC, both from the experimental side and from the theoretical side. We review top quark physics and discuss flavour aspects of several extensions of the Standard Model, such as supersymmetry, little Higgs model or models with extra dimensions. This includes discovery aspects as well as measurement of several properties of these heavy states. Read More

We propose to combine and slightly extend two existing "Les Houches Accords" to provide a simple generic interface between beyond-the-standard-model parton-level and event-level generators. All relevant information - particle content, quantum numbers of new states, masses, cross sections, parton-level events, etc - is collected in one single file, which adheres to the Les Houches Event File (LHEF) standard. Read More

We compare different procedures for combining fixed-order tree-level matrix-element generators with parton showers. We use the case of W-production at the Tevatron and the LHC to compare different implementations of the so-called CKKW and MLM schemes using different matrix-element generators and different parton cascades. We find that although similar results are obtained in all cases, there are important differences. Read More

We present the latest developments of the MadGraph/MadEvent Monte Carlo event generator and several applications to hadron collider physics. In the current version events at the parton, hadron and detector level can be generated directly from a web interface, for arbitrary processes in the Standard Model and in several physics scenarios beyond it (HEFT, MSSM, 2HDM). The most important additions are: a new framework for implementing user-defined new physics models; a standalone running mode for creating and testing matrix elements; generation of events corresponding to different processes, such as signal(s) and backgrounds, in the same run; two platforms for data analysis, where events are accessible at the parton, hadron and detector level; and the generation of inclusive multi-jet samples by combining parton-level events with parton showers. Read More

We demonstrate the possibility of studying weakly interacting new particles in weak boson fusion, using the example of supersymmetric same-sign charginos. This signal could establish the existence of Majorana neutralinos and give access to their electroweak couplings. It can be observed over (supersymmetric) QCD backgrounds provided the charginos are light and not too close to the squark mass. Read More

This paper has been withdrawn by the authors in order to comply with the ATLAS publication policy and is now only available via the CERN cdsweb (http://cdsweb.cern.ch/record/984015) Read More

**Authors:**J. Alwall, A. Ballestrero, P. Bartalini, S. Belov, E. Boos, A. Buckley, J. M. Butterworth, L. Dudko, S. Frixione, L. Garren, S. Gieseke, A. Gusev, I. Hinchliffe, J. Huston, B. Kersevan, F. Krauss, N. Lavesson, L. Lönnblad, E. Maina, F. Maltoni, M. L. Mangano, F. Moortgat, S. Mrenna, C. G. Papadopoulos, R. Pittau, P. Richardson, M. H. Seymour, A. Sherstnev, T. Sjöstrand, P. Skands, S. R. Slabospitsky, Z. Wcas, B. R. Webber, M. Worek, D. Zeppenfeld

**Category:**High Energy Physics - Phenomenology

A standard file format is proposed to store process and event information, primarily output from parton-level event generators for further use by general-purpose ones. The information content is identical with what was already defined by the Les Houches Accord five years ago, but then in terms of Fortran commonblocks. This information is embedded in a minimal XML-style structure, for clarity and to simplify parsing. Read More

The strongest constraint on Vtb presently comes from the 3 x 3 unitarity of the CKM matrix, which fixes Vtb to be very close to one. If the unitarity is relaxed, current information from top production at Tevatron still leaves open the possibility that Vtb is sizably smaller than one. In minimal extensions of the standard model with extra heavy quarks, the unitarity constraints are much weaker and the EW precision parameters entail the strongest bounds on Vtb. Read More

We have developed a physical model for the non-perturbative x-shape of parton density functions in the proton, based on Gaussian fluctuations in momenta, and quantum fluctuations of the proton into meson-baryon pairs. The model describes the proton structure function and gives a natural explanation of observed quark asymmetries, such as the difference between the anti-up and anti-down sea quark distributions and between the up and down valence distributions. We find an asymmetry in the momentum distribution of strange and anti-strange quarks in the nucleon, large enough to reduce the NuTeV anomaly to a level which does not give a significant indication of physics beyond the standard model. Read More

We have developed a physical model for the non-perturbative x-shape of parton density functions in the proton, based on Gaussian fluctuations in momenta, and quantum fluctuations of the proton into meson-baryon pairs. The model describes the proton structure function and gives a natural explanation of observed quark asymmetries, such as the difference between the anti-up and anti-down sea quark distributions and between the up and down valence distributions. We also find an asymmetry in the momentum distribution of strange and anti-strange quarks in the nucleon, large enough to reduce the NuTeV anomaly to a level which does not give a significant indication of physics beyond the standard model. Read More

This manual describes how to use the MatCHig code for matching the charged Higgs boson production processes gg->tbH+/- and gb->tH+/-. A negative term, correcting for the double-counting between these processes, is implemented as an external process to PYTHIA, allowing the Monte Carlo generation of matched events. Results from the matching were published in JHEP 0412, 050. Read More

Based on quantum fluctuations in momentum and of the proton into meson-baryon pairs, we develop a physical model for the non-perturbative x-shape of parton density functions in the proton. The model describes the proton structure function and gives a natural explanation of observed quark asymmetries, such as the difference between the anti-up and anti-down sea quark distributions and between the up and down valence distributions. An asymmetry in the momentum distribution of strange and anti-strange quarks in the nucleon is found to reduce the NuTeV anomaly to a level which does not give a significant indication of physics beyond the standard model. Read More

A physical model for parton densities in hadrons, based on Gaussian momentum fluctuations of partons and hadronic baryon-meson fluctuations, is presented. The model has previously been shown to describe proton structure function data, and is now applied to sea quark asymmetries and shown to describe the dbar-ubar asymmetry of the proton. By considering fluctuations involving strange quarks, the model gives an asymmetry between the momentum distributions of s and sbar, which would reduce the significance of the NuTeV anomaly. Read More

Many extensions of the Standard Model predict the existence of charged Higgs bosons. In order to be able to find those particles, an accurate description of their production is needed. In Monte Carlo simulations of charged Higgs boson production at hadron colliders, the two tree-level processes gb->H+/-t and gg->H+/-tb are used. Read More

We present a new method for matching the two twin-processes gb->H+/-t and gg->H+/-tb in Monte Carlo event generators. The matching is done by defining a double-counting term, which is used to generate events that are subtracted from the sum of these two twin-processes. In this way we get a smooth transition between the collinear region of phase space, which is best described by gb->H+/-t, and the hard region, which requires the use of the gg->H+/-tb process. Read More

The NuTeV anomaly of a non-universal value of the fundamental parameter sin^2\theta_W in the electroweak theory has been interpreted as an indication for new physics beyond the Standard Model. However, the observed quantity depends on a possible asymmetry in the momentum distributions of strange quarks and antiquarks in the nucleon. This asymmetry occurs naturally in a phenomenologically successful physical model for such parton distributions, which reduces the NuTeV result to only about two standard deviations from the Standard Model. Read More

**Authors:**K. A. Assamagan, M. Narain, A. Nikitenko, M. Spira, D. Zeppenfeld, J. Alwall, C. Balázs, T. Barklow, U. Baur, C. Biscarat, M. Bisset, E. Boos, G. Bozzi, O. Brein, J. Campbell, S. Catani, M. Ciccolini, K. Cranmer, A. Dahlhoff, S. Dawson, D. de Florian, A. De Roeck, V. Del Duca, S. Dittmaier, A. Djouadi, V. Drollinger, L. Dudko, M. Dührssen, U. Ellwanger, M. Escalier, Y. Q. Fang, S. Ferrag, J. R. Forshaw, M. Grazzini, J. Guasch, M. Guchait, J. F. Gunion, T. Hahn, R. Harlander, H. -J. He, S. Heinemeyer, J. Heyninck, W. Hollik, C. Hugonie, C. Jackson, N. Kauer, N. Kersting, V. Khoze, N. Kidonakis, R. Kinnunen, M. Krämer, Y. -P. Kuang, B. Laforge, S. Lehti, M. Lethuillier, J. Li, H. Logan, S. Lowette, F. Maltoni, R. Mazini, B. Mellado, F. Moortgat, S. Moretti, Z. Nagy, P. Nason, C. Oleari, S. Paganis, S. Penaranda, T. Plehn, W. Quayle, D. Rainwater, J. Rathsman, O. Ravat, L. Reina, A. Sabio Vera, A. Sopczak, Z. Trócsányi, P. Vanlaer, D. Wackeroth, G. Weiglein, S. Willenbrock, Sau Lan Wu, C. -P. Yuan, B. Zhang

**Category:**High Energy Physics - Phenomenology

Theoretical progress in Higgs boson production and background processes is discussed with particular emphasis on QCD corrections at and beyond next-to-leading order as well as next-to-leading order electroweak corrections. The residual theoretical uncertainties of the investigated processes are estimated in detail. Moreover, recent investigations of the MSSM Higgs sector and other extensions of the SM Higgs sector are presented. Read More

Low-Q^2 photons do not resolve partons in the proton, which gives problems when applying the deep inelastic scattering formalism, such as an unphysical, negative gluon density extracted from data. Considering instead hadronic fluctuations of the photon, we show that the generalised vector meson dominance model (GVDM) gives a good description of the measured cross section at low Q^2, i.e. Read More

**Authors:**Johan Alwall

^{1}, Catherine Biscarat

^{2}, Stefano Moretti

^{3}, Johan Rathsman

^{4}, Andre Sopczak

^{5}

**Affiliations:**

^{1}Uppsala University, Sweden,

^{2}Lancaster University, UK,

^{3}Southampton University, UK,

^{4}Uppsala University, Sweden,

^{5}Lancaster University, UK

**Category:**High Energy Physics - Phenomenology

Charged Higgs boson production in association with a top quark could be the first indication of the existence of Higgs particles. The Tevatron Run-II started data-taking in April 2001 at a centre-of-mass energy of 1960 GeV and could probe the existence of a charged Higgs boson beyond the current mass limit. We study the ppbar -> tbH^+/- production process with Monte Carlo simulations in HERWIG and PYTHIA, comparing expected cross sections and basic selection variables. Read More

The generalised vector meson dominance model (GVDM) gives a good description of F_2 data at very low Q^2. At intermediate Q^2 a GVDM component avoids problems when applying the large-Q^2 DIS formalism, such as a negative gluon distribution in the proton. The fluctuations of the exchanged photon into vector mesons is also a natural part of a model with hadronic fluctuations of the target proton, which gives a good description of the non-perturbative x-shape of the proton's parton density functions at the starting scale Q^2_0 for DGLAP evolution. Read More