J. Aichelin - SUBATECH, Uni. Nantes

J. Aichelin
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J. Aichelin
SUBATECH, Uni. Nantes

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High Energy Physics - Phenomenology (43)
Nuclear Theory (41)
Nuclear Experiment (12)
High Energy Physics - Experiment (3)
High Energy Physics - Theory (1)
High Energy Physics - Lattice (1)

Publications Authored By J. Aichelin

We present an analysis of the comparison between 2nd and 3rd flow harmonics of $\pi$, protons and D mesons produced in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions. We advocate that such an analysis could turn out to be a good strategy in order to quantify the off-equilibrium dynamics of heavy flavor at lower transverse momentum $p_T$. Read More

$J/\psi$ observables of p+p collisions at $\sqrt{s}=$ 200 GeV and 2.76 TeV are calculated using the PYTHIA event generator for the production of $c$ and $\bar c$ and the Wigner density formalism. The charm quark momentum from PYTHIA is tuned in such a way that the transverse momentum and rapidity distribution correspond to the Fixed-Order Next-to-Leading Logarithm (FONLL) calculations and hence to the experimental data for open charm mesons. Read More

We study the equation of state of QCD using an improved version of the three-flavor Polyakov-Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model beyond the mean-field approximation. It incorporates the effects of unquenched quarks into the Polyakov-loop effective potential, as well as mesonic contributions to the grand-canonical potential. We study in full detail the calculation of the thermodynamical potential in this approach and compare the resulting pressure and entropy density with the most-recent lattice-QCD calculations at zero baryochemical potential. Read More

We discuss the quark masses and the elastic $q\bar q$ cross sections at finite chemical potential in the Nambu--Jona-Lasinio model. We comment the generic features of the cross sections as functions of the chemical potential, temperature and collision energy. Finally, we discuss their relevance in the construction of a relativistic transport model for heavy-ion collisions based on this effective Lagrangian. Read More

The hadronic phase in ultrarelativistic nuclear collisions has a large influence on final state observables like multiplicity, flow and $p_t$ spectra, as studied in the UrQMD approach. In this model one assumes that a non-equilibrium decoupling phase follows a fluid dynamical description of the high density phase. Hadrons are produced assuming local thermal equilibrium and dynamically decouple during the hadronic rescattering until the particles are registered in the detectors. Read More

Open and hidden heavy-flavor physics in high-energy nuclear collisions are entering a new and exciting stage towards reaching a clearer understanding of the new experimental results with the possibility to link them directly to the advancement in lattice Quantum Chromo-dynamics (QCD). Recent results from experiments and theoretical developments regarding open and hidden heavy-flavor dynamics have been debated at the Lorentz Workshop "Tomography of the quark-gluon plasma with heavy quarks}, which was held in October 2016 in Leiden, the Netherlands. In this contribution, we summarize identified common understandings and developed strategies for the upcoming five years, which aim at achieving a profound knowledge of the dynamical properties of the quark-gluon plasma. Read More

Recently it has been discovered that the rapidity dependence of the elliptic flow, $v_2$, of charged particles shows the strongest sensitivity to the Nuclear Equation of State (EoS) which has been observed within a microscopic model. This dependence on the nuclear EoS is predicted by Quantum Molecular Dynamics (QMD) calculations \cite{Fevre:2015fza} which show as well that the absorption or rescattering of in-plane emitted particles by the spectator matter is not the main reason for the EoS dependence of the elliptic flow at mid-rapidity.The reason are different density gradients (and therefore different forces) in the direction of the impact parameter (x-direction) as compared to the direction perpendicular to the reaction plan (y-direction), due to the presence of the spectator matter. Read More

Two-particle correlations obtained from parton showers that pass the hot and dense medium of the quark gluon plasma (QGP) can be used as an alternative observable, in addition to the combination of the nuclear modification factor $R_{AA}$ and the elliptic flow $v_2$, to study the mechanisms of in-medium heavy quark energy-loss. In particular, angular correlations represent a promising tool to distinguish between energy loss due to collisional and radiative interactions of jet and medium particles. To this end, parton cascades were created in Monte-Carlo simulations, where individual particles can undergo both parton splitting as well as an effective jet-medium interaction. Read More

We study the correlation between the distributions of the net-charge, net-kaon, net-baryon and net-proton number at hadronization and after the final hadronic decoupling by simulating ultra relativistic heavy ion collisions with the hybrid version of the ultrarelativistic quantum molecular dynamics (UrQMD) model. We find that due to the hadronic rescattering these distributions are not strongly correlated. The calculated change of the correlation, during the hadronic expansion stage, does not support the recent paradigm, namely that the measured final moments of the experimentally observed distributions do give directly the values of those distributions at earlier times, when the system had been closer to the QCD crossover. Read More

Heavy quarks (charm and bottoms) are one of the few probes which are sensitive to the degrees of freedom of a Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP), which cannot be revealed by lattice gauge calculations in equilibrium. Due to the rapid expansion of the QGP energetic heavy quarks do not come to an equilibrium with the QGP. Their energy loss during the propagation through the QGP medium depends strongly on the modelling of the interaction of the heavy quarks with the QGP quarks and gluons, i. Read More

Transport simulations are very valuable for extracting physics information from heavy-ion collision experiments. With the emergence of many different transport codes in recent years, it becomes important to estimate their robustness in extracting physics information from experiments. We report on the results of a transport code comparison project. Read More

Heavy-quark observables in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions, like the nuclear modification factor and the elliptic flow, give insight into the mechanisms of high-momentum suppression and low-momentum thermalization of heavy quarks. Here, we present a global study of these two observables within a coupled approach of the heavy-quark propagation in a realistic fluid dynamical medium, MC@sHQ+EPOS2, and compare to experimental data from RHIC and LHC experiments. The heavy quarks scatter elastically and inelastically with the quasiparticles of the quark-gluon plasma (QGP), which are represented consistently with the underlying equation of state. Read More

Recent consensus on the $N_f=2+1$ equation of state at vanishing chemical potential from different lattice-QCD groups has spoiled the previous agreement with the outcome from the mean-field Polyakov-Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. In this letter we review the thermodynamics of the PNJL model introducing two important aspects needed to describe the pressure computed in the lattice QCD. First, we consider the thermodynamics of the model beyond the mean-field approach to include pseudoscalar and scalar mesonic-like fluctuations into the grand-canonical potential. Read More

We study the properties of strange mesons in vacuum and in the hot nuclear medium within unitarized coupled-channel effective theories. We determine transition probabilities, cross sections and scattering lengths for strange mesons. These scattering observables are of fundamental importance for understanding the dynamics of strangeness production and propagation in heavy-ion collisions. Read More

We use the Isospin Quantum Molecular Dynamics approach supplemented with a phase space coalescence to study the properties of the production of hypertritons. We see strong influences of the hyperon rescattering on the yields. The hypertritons show up to be quite aligned to the properties of nuclear matter underlining the necessity of rescattering to transport the hyperons to the spectator matter. Read More

We report recent results on the dynamics of strange hadrons in two-body reactions relevant for near-threshold production in heavy-ion collisions at GSI/FAIR and NICA-Dubna. In particular, $\bar K N$ scattering in hot and dense nuclear matter is studied within a chiral unitary framework in coupled channels, setting up the starting point for implementations in microscopic off-shell transport approaches. We focus on the calculation of transition rates with special attention to the excitation of hyperon resonances and isospin effects. Read More

Starting from the (Polyakov-) Nambu-Jona-Lasinio Lagrangian, (P)NJL, we formulate a transport theory which allows for describing the expansion of a quark-antiquark plasma and the subsequent transition to the hadronic world --without adding any new parameter to the standard (P)NJL approach, whose parameters are fixed to vacuum physics. This transport theory can be used to describe ultrarelativistic heavy-ion reaction data as well as to study the (first-order) phase transition during the expansion of the plasma. (P)NJL predicts such a phase transition for finite chemical potentials. Read More

We present a new algorithm to identify fragments in computer simulations of relativistic heavy ion collisions. It is based on the simulated annealing technique and can be applied to n-body transport models like the Quantum Molecular Dynamics. This new approach is able to predict isotope yields as well as hyper-nucleus production. Read More

We apply the three-flavor (Polyakov-)Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model to generate baryons as quark-diquark bound states using many-body techniques at finite temperature. All the baryonic states belonging to the octet and decuplet flavor representations are generated in the isospin-symmetric case. For each state we extract the melting temperature at which the baryon may decay into a quark-diquark pair. Read More

The heavy quark collisional scattering on partons of the quark gluon plasma (QGP) is studied in a QCD medium at finite temperature and chemical potential. We evaluate the effects of finite parton masses and widths, finite temperature $T$ and quark chemical potential $\mu_q$ on the different elastic cross sections for dynamical quasi-particles (on- and off-shell particles in the QGP medium as described by the dynamical quasi-particles model "DQPM") using the leading order Born diagrams. Our results show clearly the decrease of the $qQ$ and $gQ$ total elastic cross sections when the temperature and the quark chemical potential increase. Read More

Using FOPI data on elliptic flow in Au+Au collisions between 0.4 and 1.5A GeV we extract constraints for the equation of state (EOS) of compressed symmetric nuclear matter using the transport code IQMD by introducing an observable describing the evolution of the size of the elliptic flow as a function of rapidity. Read More

For nucleus-nucleus collisions at Relativistic-Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC) energies we calculate observables in two conceptually transport theories, i.e. the n-body molecular dynamical model RSP and in the Parton-Hadron-String-Dynamics (PHSD), starting out from the same distribution of the initial energy density at the quark gluon plasma (QGP) formation time. Read More

We investigate the elliptic and the triangular flow of heavy mesons in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions at RHIC and the LHC. The dynamics of heavy quarks is coupled to the locally thermalized and fluid dynamically evolving quark-gluon plasma. The elliptic flow of $D$ mesons and the centrality dependence measured at the LHC is well reproduced for purely collisional and bremsstrahlung interactions. Read More

We investigate the charm-quark propagation in the QGP media produced in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions at RHIC and the LHC. Purely collisional and radiative processes lead to a significant suppression of final $D$-meson spectra at high transverse momentum and a finite flow of heavy quarks inside the fluid dynamical evolution of the light partons. The $D$-meson nuclear modification factor and the elliptic flow are studied at two collision energies. Read More

We extend the Gunion Bertsch calculation of gluon radiation in single scattering to the case of finite mass quarks. This case applies to the radiative energy-loss of heavy quarks of intermediate energies propagating in a quark gluon plasma. We discuss more specifically the dead cone effect as well as the mass hierarchy of the collisional and radiative energy loss and provide some predictions for observables sensitive to the mass hierarchy of energy loss in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions. Read More

We employ recently published cross sections for $D$-mesons with hadrons and calculate the drag and diffusion coefficients of $D$-mesons in hadronic matter as a function of the momentum of $D$-mesons as well as of the temperature of the medium. Calculating in our approach the spatial diffusion coefficient, $D_x$, at zero chemical potential we see a very smooth transition between our calculations for the hadron gas and the lattice QCD calculations. Applying the results for the transport coefficients of $D$-mesons in a Fokker-Planck equation, which describes the evolution of $D$-mesons during the expansion of a hadron gas created in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions, we find that the value of $R_{AA}$ is little influenced by hadronic rescattering, whereas in the elliptic flow the effects are stronger. Read More

The interactions of heavy quarks with the partonic environment at finite temperature $T$ and finite quark chemical potential $\mu_q$ are investigated in terms of transport coefficients within the Dynamical Quasi-Particle model (DQPM) designed to reproduce the lattice-QCD results (including the partonic equation of state) in thermodynamic equilibrium. These results are confronted with those of nuclear many-body calculations close to the critical temperature $T_c$. The hadronic and partonic spatial diffusion coefficients join smoothly and show a pronounced minimum around $T_c$, at $\mu_q=0$ as well as at finite $\mu_q$. Read More

We present a study of in-medium cross sections and (off-shell) transition rates for the most relevant binary reactions for strange pseudoscalar meson production close to threshold in heavy-ion collisions at FAIR energies. Our results rely on a chiral unitary approach in coupled channels which incorporates the $s$- and $p$-waves of the kaon-nucleon interaction. The formalism, which is modified in the hot and dense medium to account for Pauli blocking effects, mean-field binding on baryons, and pion and kaon self-energies, has been improved to implement full unitarization and self-consistency for both the $s$- and $p$-wave interactions at finite temperature and density. Read More

In this study we evaluate the dynamical collisional energy loss of heavy quarks, their interaction rate as well as the different transport coefficients (drag and diffusion coefficients, $\hat{q}$, etc). We calculate these different quantities for i) perturbative partons (on-shell particles in the vacuum with fixed and running coupling) and ii) for dynamical quasi-particles (off-shell particles in the QGP medium at finite temperature $T$ with a running coupling in temperature as described by the dynamical quasi-particles model). We use the perturbative elastic $(q(g) Q \rightarrow q (g) Q)$ cross section for the first case, and the Infrared Enhanced Hard Thermal Loop cross sections for the second. Read More

The suppression of D mesons in non-central heavy-ion collisions is investigated. The anisotropy in collisions at finite impact parameter leads to an ordering of all-angle, in- and out-of-plane nuclear modification factors due to the different in-medium path lengths. Within our MC@sHQ+EPOS model of heavy-quark propagation in the QGP we demonstrate that fluctuating initial conditions lead to an effective reduction of the energy loss of heavy quarks, which is seen in a larger nuclear modification factor at intermediate and high transverse momenta. Read More

The centrality dependence of spectra of identified particles in collisions between ultrarelativistic heavy ions with a center of mass energy ($\sqrt{s}$) of 39 and 11.5 $AGeV$ is analyzed in the core - corona model. We show that at these energies the spectra can be well understood assuming that they are composed of two components whose relative fraction depends on the centrality of the interaction: The core component which describes an equilibrated quark gluon plasma and the corona component which is caused by nucleons close to the surface of the interaction zone which scatter only once and which is identical to that observed in proton-proton collisions. Read More

We calculate the shear $\eta(T)$ and bulk viscosities $\zeta(T)$ as well as the electric conductivity $\sigma_e(T)$ and heat conductivity $\kappa(T)$ within the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model for 3 flavors as a function of temperature as well as the entropy density $s(T)$, pressure $P(T)$ and speed of sound squared $c_s^2(T)$. We compare the results with other models such as the Polyakov-Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (PNJL) model and the dynamical quasiparticle model (DQPM) and confront these results with lattice QCD data whenever available. We find the NJL model to have a limited predictive power for the thermodynamic variables and various transport coefficients above the critical temperature whereas the PNJL model and DQPM show acceptable results for the quantities of interest. Read More

Within the aim of a dynamical study of on- and off-shell heavy quarks Q in the quark gluon plasma (QGP) - as produced in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions - we study the heavy quark collisional scattering on partons of the QGP. The elastic cross sections $\sigma_{q,g-Q}$ are evaluated for perturbative partons (massless on-shell particles) and for dynamical quasi-particles (massive off-shell particles as described by the dynamical quasi-particles model "DQPM") using the leading order Born diagrams. We demonstrate that the finite width of the quasi-particles in the DQPM has little influence on the cross sections $\sigma_{q,g-Q}$ except close to thresholds. Read More

Observables of heavy-quark azimuthal correlations in heavy-ion collisions are a new and promising tool for the investigation of the in-medium energy loss. We explore the potential of these observables to discriminate the collisional and radiative contributions within a hybrid EPOS+MC@sHQ transport approach. Read More

We study the heavy quark scattering on partons of the quark gluon plasma (QGP) being especially interested in the collisional (elastic) scattering processes of heavy quarks on quarks and gluons. We calculate the different cross sections for perturbative partons (massless on-shell particles in the vacuum) and for dynamical quasi-particles (off-shell particles in the QGP medium as described by the dynamical quasi-particles model "DQPM") using the leading order Born diagrams. Our results show clearly the effect of a finite parton mass and width on the perturbative elastic $(q(g) Q \rightarrow q (g) Q)$ cross sections which depend on temperature $T$, energy density $\epsilon$, the invariant energy $\sqrt{s}$ and the scattering angle $\theta$. Read More

Employing scalar QCD we study the gluon emission of heavy quarks created by the interaction with light quarks considered as dynamical scattering centers. We develop approximation formulas for the high energy limit and study when the full calculation reaches this high energy limit. For zero quark masses and in the high energy limit our model reproduces the Gunion-Bertsch results. Read More

We calculate the shear $\eta(T)$ and bulk viscosities $\zeta(T)$ as well as the electric conductivity $\sigma_e(T)$ and heat conductivity $\kappa(T)$ within the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model for 3 flavors as a function of temperature as well as the entropy density $s(T)$, pressure $P(T)$ and speed of sound $c_s^2(T)$. We compare the results with other models such as the Polyakov-Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (PNJL) model and the dynamical quasiparticle model (DQPM) and confront these results with lattice QCD data whenever available. We find the NJL model to have a limited predictive power for the thermodynamic variables and various transport coefficients above the critical temperature whereas the PNJL model and DQPM show acceptable results for the quantities of interest. Read More

We investigate how the possible existence of hadronic bound states above the deconfinement transition temperature $T_c$ affects heavy-quark observables like the nuclear modification factor, the elliptic flow and azimuthal correlations. Lattice QCD calculations suggest that above $T_c$ the effective degrees of freedom might not be exclusively partonic but that a certain fraction of hadronic degrees of freedom might already form at higher temperatures. This is an interesting questions by itself but also has a strong influence on other probes of the strongly interacting matter produced in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions. Read More

In this paper we study the azimuthal correlations of heavy quarks in Pb+Pb collisions with $\sqrt{s}=2.76$ TeV at LHC. Due to the interaction with the medium heavy quarks and antiquarks are deflected from their original direction and the initial correlation of the pair is broadened. Read More

In this conference contribution, we discuss the influence of gluon-bremsstrahlung damping in hot, absorptive QCD matter on the heavy-quark radiation spectra. Within our Monte-Carlo implementation for the description of the heavy-quark in-medium propagation we demonstrate that as a consequence of gluon damping the quenching of heavy quarks becomes significantly affected at higher transverse momenta. Read More

Affiliations: 1FIAS&ITP, Uni. Frankfurt, 2SUBATECH, Uni. Nantes, 3SUBATECH, Uni. Nantes, 4ITP, Uni. Frankfurt, 5FIAS&ITP, Uni. Frankfurt

We study the dilepton production in heavy-ion collisions at energies of 1-2 AGeV as well as in proton induced pp, pn, pd and p+A reactions from 1 GeV up to 3.5 GeV. For the analysis we employ three different transport models - the microscopic off-shell Hadron-String-Dynamics (HSD) transport approach, the Isospin Quantum Molecular Dynamics (IQMD) approach as well as the Ultra-relativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics (UrQMD) approach. Read More

In this contribution to the Quark Matter 2012 conference, we study whether energy loss models established for RHIC energies to describe the quenching of heavy quarks can be applied at LHC with the same success. We also benefit from the larger $p_T$-range accessible at this accelerator to test the impact of gluon damping on observables such as the nuclear modification factor. Read More

We present a relativistic molecular dynamics approach based on the Nambu--Jona-Lasinio Lagrangian. We derive the relativistic time evolution equations for an expanding plasma, discuss the hadronization cross section and how they act in such a scenario. We present in detail how one can transform the time evolution equation to a simulation program and apply this program to study the expansion of a plasma created in experiments at RHIC and LHC. Read More

In an absorptive plasma, damping of radiation mechanisms can influence the bremsstrahlung formation in case of large radiation formation lengths. We study qualitatively the influence of this effect on the gluon bremsstrahlung spectrum off heavy quarks in the quark-gluon plasma. Independent of the heavy-quark mass, the spectrum is found to be strongly suppressed in an intermediate gluon energy region which grows with increasing gluon damping rate and increasing energy of the heavy quark. Read More

Affiliations: 1SUBATECH, Nantes & CERN, 2SUBATECH, Nantes, 3SUBATECH, Nantes

We determine the energy loss spectrum per time-interval of a relativistic charge traversing a dispersive medium. Polarization and absorption effects in the medium are modelled via a complex index of refraction. We find that the spectrum amplitude becomes exponentially damped due to absorption mechanisms. Read More

We study e^+e^- pair production in proton-proton and central Pb+Pb collisions at sqrt(s_NN)=2.76 TeV within two models: an extended statistical hadronization model (SHM) and the Parton-Hadron-String Dynamics (PHSD) transport approach. We find that the PHSD calculations roughly agree with the dilepton spectrum from hadronic sources with the 'cocktail' estimates from the statistical hadronization model matched to available data at LHC energies. Read More

In this contribution, we present some predictions for the production of D and B mesons in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions at RHIC and LHC energies and confront them with experimental results obtained so far by the STAR, PHENIX, ALICE and CMS collaborations. We next discuss some preliminary results obtained with an improved description of the medium based on EPOS initial conditions, and its possible implications on the nuclear modification factor and on the elliptic flow of heavy quarks. Read More


The radiative energy loss of a relativistic charge in a dense, absorptive medium can be affected significantly by damping phenomena. The effect is more pronounced for large energies of the charge and/or large damping of the radiation. This can be understood in terms of a competition between the formation time of bremsstrahlung and a damping time scale. Read More

Recent LHC data on Pb+Pb reactions at sqrt(s_{NN})=2.7 TeV suggests that the p/pi is incompatible with thermal models. We explore several hadron ratios (K/pi, p/pi, Lambda/pi, Xi/pi) within a hydrodynamic model with hadronic after burner, namely UrQMD 3. Read More

Based on results obtained with event generators we have launched the core-corona model. It describes in a simplified way but quite successfully the centrality dependence of multiplicity and $$ of identified particles observed in heavy-ion reaction at beam energies between $\sqrt{s}$ = 17 GeV and 200 GeV. Also the centrality dependence of the elliptic flow, $v_2$, for all charged and identified particles could be explained in this model. Read More