# Ivan Calvo

## Contact Details

NameIvan Calvo |
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## Pubs By Year |
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## Pub CategoriesPhysics - Plasma Physics (15) High Energy Physics - Theory (8) Physics - Statistical Mechanics (6) Mathematics - Quantum Algebra (5) Physics - Soft Condensed Matter (3) Quantitative Biology - Quantitative Methods (2) Quantitative Biology - Biomolecules (2) Mathematics - Differential Geometry (2) Mathematics - Mathematical Physics (1) Physics - Computational Physics (1) Mathematical Physics (1) Quantum Physics (1) |

## Publications Authored By Ivan Calvo

Due to their capability to reduce turbulent transport in magnetized plasmas, understanding the dynamics of zonal flows is an important problem in the fusion programme. Since the pioneering work by Rosenbluth and Hinton in axisymmetric tokamaks, it is known that studying the linear and collisionless relaxation of zonal flow perturbations gives valuable information and physical insight. Recently, the problem has been investigated in stellarators and it has been found that in these devices the relaxation process exhibits a characteristic feature: a damped oscillation. Read More

In general, the orbit-averaged radial magnetic drift of trapped particles in stellarators is non-zero due to the three-dimensional nature of the magnetic field. Stellarators in which the orbit-averaged radial magnetic drift vanishes are called omnigeneous, and they exhibit neoclassical transport levels comparable to those of axisymmetric tokamaks. However, the effect of deviations from omnigeneity cannot be neglected in practice. Read More

The radial flux of toroidal angular momentum is needed to determine tokamak intrinsic rotation profiles. Its computation requires knowledge of the gyrokinetic distribution functions and turbulent electrostatic potential to second-order in $\epsilon = \rho/L$, where $\rho$ is the ion Larmor radius and $L$ is the variation length of the magnetic field. In this article, a complete set of equations to calculate the radial transport of toroidal angular momentum in any tokamak is presented. Read More

A stellarator is said to be omnigeneous if all particles have vanishing average radial drifts. In omnigeneous stellarators, particles are perfectly confined in the absence of turbulence and collisions, whereas in non-omnigeneous configurations, particle can drift large radial distances. One of the consequences of omnigeneity is that the unfavorable inverse scaling with collisionality of the stellarator neoclassical fluxes disappears. Read More

Quasisymmetric stellarators are a type of optimized stellarators for which flows are undamped to lowest order in an expansion in the normalized Larmor radius. However, perfect quasisymmetry is impossible. Since large flows may be desirable as a means to reduce turbulent transport, it is important to know when a stellarator can be considered to be sufficiently close to quasisymmetry. Read More

Plasma flow is damped in stellarators because they are not intrinsically ambipolar, unlike tokamaks, in which the flux-surface averaged radial electric current vanishes for any value of the radial electric field. Only quasisymmetric stellarators are intrinsically ambipolar, but exact quasisymmetry is impossible to achieve in non-axisymmetric toroidal configurations. By calculating the violation of intrinsic ambipolarity due to deviations from quasisymmetry, one can derive criteria to assess when a stellarator can be considered quasisymmetric in practice, i. Read More

A generic non-symmetric magnetic field does not confine magnetized charged particles for long times due to secular magnetic drifts. Stellarator magnetic fields should be omnigeneous (that is, designed such that the secular drifts vanish), but perfect omnigeneity is technically impossible. There always are small deviations from omnigeneity that necessarily have large gradients. Read More

Rotation is favorable for confinement, but a stellarator can rotate at high speeds if and only if it is sufficiently close to quasisymmetry. This article investigates how close it needs to be. For a magnetic field $\mathbf{B} = \mathbf{B}_0 + \alpha \mathbf{B}_1$, where $\mathbf{B}_0$ is quasisymmetric, $\alpha\mathbf{B}_1$ is a deviation from quasisymmetry, and $\alpha\ll 1$, the stellarator can rotate at high velocities if $\alpha < \epsilon^{1/2}$, with $\epsilon$ the ion Larmor radius over the characteristic variation length of $\mathbf{B}_0$. Read More

Recently, the electrostatic gyrokinetic Hamiltonian and change of coordinates have been computed to order $\epsilon^2$ in general magnetic geometry. Here $\epsilon$ is the gyrokinetic expansion parameter, the gyroradius over the macroscopic scale length. Starting from these results, the long-wavelength limit of the gyrokinetic Fokker-Planck and quasineutrality equations is taken for tokamak geometry. Read More

The generation of intrinsic rotation by turbulence and neoclassical effects in tokamaks is considered. To obtain the complex dependences observed in experiments, it is necessary to have a model of the radial flux of momentum that redistributes the momentum within the tokamak in the absence of a preexisting velocity. When the lowest order gyrokinetic formulation is used, a symmetry of the model precludes this possibility, making small effects in the gyroradius over scale length expansion necessary. Read More

In the classical theorems of extreme value theory the limits of suitably rescaled maxima of sequences of independent, identically distributed random variables are studied. So far, only affine rescalings have been considered. We show, however, that more general rescalings are natural and lead to new limit distributions, apart from the Gumbel, Weibull, and Fr\'echet families. Read More

Gyrokinetic theory is based on an asymptotic expansion in the small parameter $\epsilon$, defined as the ratio of the gyroradius and the characteristic length of variation of the magnetic field. In this article, this ordering is strictly implemented to compute the electrostatic gyrokinetic phase-space Lagrangian in general magnetic geometry to order $\epsilon^2$. In particular, a new expression for the complete second-order gyrokinetic Hamiltonian is provided, showing that in a rigorous treatment of gyrokinetic theory magnetic geometry and turbulence cannot be dealt with independently. Read More

A theoretical interpretation is given for the observed long-distance correlations in potential fluctuations in TJ-II. The value of the correlation increases above the critical point of the transition for the emergence of the plasma edge shear flow layer. Mean (i. Read More

Visualization of turbulent flows is a powerful tool to help understand the turbulence dynamics and induced transport. However, it does not provide a quantitative description of the observed structures. In this paper, an approach to characterize quantitatively the topology of the flows is given. Read More

Fractional Levy motion (fLm) is the natural generalization of fractional Brownian motion in the context of self-similar stochastic processes and stable probability distributions. In this paper we give an explicit derivation of the propagator of fLm by using path integral methods. The propagators of Brownian motion and fractional Brownian motion are recovered as particular cases. Read More

In J. Phys. A: Math. Read More

In toroidal geometry, and prior to the establishment of a fully developed turbulent state, the so-called topological instability of the pressure-gradient-driven turbulence is observed. In this intermediate state, a narrow spectral band of modes dominates the dynamics, giving rise to the formation of iso-surfaces of electric potential with a complicated topology. Since E x B advection of tracer particles takes place along these iso-surfaces, their topological complexity affects the characteristic features of radial and poloidal transport dramatically. Read More

In the study of transport in inhomogeneous systems it is common to construct transport equations invoking the inhomogeneous Fick law. The validity of this approach requires that at least two ingredients be present in the system. First, finite characteristic length and time scales associated to the dominant transport process must exist. Read More

A one-dimensional version of the second-order transition model based on the sheared flow amplification by Reynolds stress and turbulence supression by shearing is presented. The model discussed in this paper includes a form of the Reynolds stress which explicitly conserves momentum. A linear stability analysis of the critical point is performed. Read More

In this article, the continuous time random walk on the circle is studied. We derive the corresponding generalized master equation and discuss the effects of topology, especially important when Levy flights are allowed. Then, we work out the fluid limit equation, formulated in terms of the periodic version of the fractional Riemann-Liouville operators, for which we provide explicit expressions. Read More

The topics covered in this thesis may be divided into three parts. Firstly, we perform a study on the most general branes which are consistent with the Poisson sigma model, both at the classical and quantum levels. The second part is devoted to the particular case in which the target Poisson manifold is a Poisson-Lie group. Read More

As already known for nonrelativistic spinless particles, Bopp operators give an elegant and simple way to compute the dynamics of quasiprobability distributions in the phase space formulation of Quantum Mechanics. In this work, we present a generalization of Bopp operators for spins and apply our results to the case of open spin systems. This approach allows to take the classical limit in a transparent way, recovering the corresponding Fokker-Planck equation. Read More

A general approach to the design of accurate classical potentials for protein folding is described. It includes the introduction of a meaningful statistical measure of the differences between approximations of the same potential energy, the definition of a set of Systematic and Approximately Separable and Modular Internal Coordinates (SASMIC), much convenient for the simulation of general branched molecules, and the imposition of constraints on the most rapidly oscillating degrees of freedom. All these tools are used to study the effects of constraints in the Conformational Equilibrium Distribution (CED) of the model dipeptide HCO-L-Ala-NH2. Read More

If constraints are imposed on a macromolecule, two inequivalent classical models may be used: the stiff and the rigid one. This work studies the effects of such constraints on the Conformational Equilibrium Distribution (CED) of the model dipeptide HCO-L-Ala-NH2 without any simplifying assumption. We use ab initio Quantum Mechanics calculations including electron correlation at the MP2 level to describe the system, and we measure the conformational dependence of all the correcting terms to the naive CED based in the Potential Energy Surface (PES) that appear when the constraints are considered. Read More

If a macromolecule is described by curvilinear coordinates or rigid constraints are imposed, the equilibrium probability density that must be sampled in Monte Carlo simulations includes the determinants of different mass-metric tensors. In this work, we explicitly write the determinant of the mass-metric tensor G and of the reduced mass-metric tensor g, for any molecule, general internal coordinates and arbitrary constraints, as a product of two functions; one depending only on the external coordinates that describe the overall translation and rotation of the system, and the other only on the internal coordinates. This work extends previous results in the literature, proving with full generality that one may integrate out the external coordinates and perform Monte Carlo simulations in the internal conformational space of macromolecules. Read More

We complete the study of the Poisson-Sigma model over Poisson-Lie groups. Firstly, we solve the models with targets $G$ and $G^*$ (the dual group of the Poisson-Lie group $G$) corresponding to a triangular $r$-matrix and show that the model over $G^*$ is always equivalent to BF-theory. Then, given an arbitrary $r$-matrix, we address the problem of finding D-branes preserving the duality between the models. Read More

It has been shown recently that extended supersymmetry in twisted first-order sigma models is related to twisted generalized complex geometry in the target. In the general case there are additional algebraic and differential conditions relating the twisted generalized complex structure and the geometrical data defining the model. We study in the Hamiltonian formalism the case of vanishing metric, which is the supersymmetric version of the WZ-Poisson sigma model. Read More

We prove that non-coisotropic branes in the Poisson-Sigma model are allowed at the quantum level. When the brane is defined by second-class constraints, the perturbative quantization of the model yields the Kontsevich's star product associated to the Dirac bracket on the brane. We also discuss the quantization when both first and second-class constraints are present. Read More

We analyse the general boundary conditions (branes) consistent with the Poisson-sigma model and study the structure of the phase space of the model defined on the strip with these boundary conditions. Finally, we discuss the perturbative quantization of the model on the disc with a Poisson-Dirac brane and relate it to Kontsevich's formula for the deformation quantization of the Dirac bracket induced on the brane. Read More

We analyse the problem of boundary conditions for the Poisson-Sigma model and extend previous results showing that non-coisotropic branes are allowed. We discuss the canonical reduction of a Poisson structure to a submanifold, leading to a Poisson algebra that generalizes Dirac's construction. The phase space of the model on the strip is related to the (generalized) Dirac bracket on the branes through a dual pair structure. Read More

We solve the topological Poisson Sigma model for a Poisson-Lie group $G$ and its dual $G^*$. We show that the gauge symmetry for each model is given by its dual group that acts by dressing transformations on the target. The resolution of both models in the open geometry reveals that there exists a map from the reduced phase of each model ($P$ and $P^*$) to the main symplectic leaf of the Heisenberg double ($D_{0}$) such that the symplectic forms on $P$, $P^{*}$ are obtained as the pull-back by those maps of the symplectic structure on $D_{0}$. Read More