Ivan Agudo - Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía, CSIC

Ivan Agudo
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Ivan Agudo
Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía, CSIC

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High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (27)
Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (22)
Astrophysics of Galaxies (8)
Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics (4)
Astrophysics (3)
Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (1)

Publications Authored By Ivan Agudo

We present the results of our power spectral analysis for the BL Lac object PKS 0735+178 utilizing the Fermi-LAT survey at high-energy $\gamma$-rays, several ground-based optical telescopes, and single-dish radio telescopes operating at GHz frequencies. The novelty of our approach is that, by combining long-term and densely sampled intra-night light curves in the optical regime, we were able to construct for the first time the optical power spectrum of the blazar for a time domain extending from 23 years down to minutes. Our analysis reveals that: (i) the optical variability is consistent with a pure red noise, for which the power spectral density can well be approximated by a single power-law throughout the entire time domain probed; (ii) the slope of power spectral density at high-energy $\gamma$-rays ($\sim 1$), is significantly flatter than that found at radio and optical frequencies ($\sim 2$) within the corresponding time variability range; (iii) for the derived power spectra we did not detect any low-frequency flattening, nor do we see any evidence for cut-offs at the highest frequencies down to the noise floor levels due to measurement uncertainties. Read More

A review of the current challenges for the understanding of the physics of extragalactic radio jets from supermassive black holes is presented. Also, a prospect is given about how both very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) and polarimetric observations help us to understand their physics and the ones of their magnetic fields. This paper focuses on the impact that previous ultra-high resolution polarimetric surveys have had on our current knowledge on radio loud AGN. Read More

We know that magnetic fields are pervasive across all scales in the Universe and over all of cosmic time and yet our understanding of many of the properties of magnetic fields is still limited. We do not yet know when, where or how the first magnetic fields in the Universe were formed, nor do we fully understand their role in fundamental processes such as galaxy formation or cosmic ray acceleration or how they influence the evolution of astrophysical objects. The greatest challenge to addressing these issues has been a lack of deep, broad bandwidth polarimetric data over large areas of the sky. Read More

Deep surveys with the SKA1-MID array offer for the first time the opportunity to systematically explore the polarization properties of the microJy source population. Our knowledge of the polarized sky approaching these levels is still very limited. In total intensity the population will be dominated by star-forming and normal galaxies to intermediate redshifts ($z \sim1-2$), and low-luminosity AGN to high redshift. Read More

Faraday rotation of polarised background sources is a unique probe of astrophysical magnetic fields in a diverse range of foreground objects. However, to understand the properties of the polarised sources themselves and of depolarising phenomena along the line of sight, we need to complement Faraday rotation data with polarisation observations over very broad bandwidths. Just as it is impossible to properly image a complex source with limited u-v coverage, we can only meaningfully understand the magneto-ionic properties of polarised sources if we have excellent coverage in $\lambda^2$-space. Read More

Relativistic jets in active galactic nuclei (AGN) are among the most powerful astrophysical objects discovered to date. Indeed, jetted AGN studies have been considered a prominent science case for SKA, and were included in several different chapters of the previous SKA Science Book (Carilli & Rawlings 2004). Most of the fundamental questions about the physics of relativistic jets still remain unanswered, and await high-sensitivity radio instruments such as SKA to solve them. Read More


Adding VLBI capability to the SKA arrays will greatly broaden the science of the SKA, and is feasible within the current specifications. SKA-VLBI can be initially implemented by providing phased-array outputs for SKA1-MID and SKA1-SUR and using these extremely sensitive stations with other radio telescopes, and in SKA2 by realising a distributed configuration providing baselines up to thousands of km, merging it with existing VLBI networks. The motivation for and the possible realization of SKA-VLBI is described in this paper. Read More

The blazar 1156+295 was active at gamma-ray energies, exhibiting three prominent flares during the year 2010. Here, we present results using the combination of broadband (X-ray through mm single dish) monitoring data and radio band imaging data at 43 GHz on the connection of gamma-ray events to the ejections of superluminal components and other changes in the jet of 1156+295. The kinematics of the jet over the interval 2007. Read More

The Korean VLBI Network (KVN) is a new mm-VLBI dedicated array with capability for simultaneous observations at multiple frequencies, up to 129 GHz. The innovative multi-channel receivers present significant benefits for astrometric measurements in the frequency domain. The aim of this work is to verify the astrometric performance of the KVN using a comparative study with the VLBA, a well established instrument. Read More

We present $\gamma$-ray, X-ray, ultraviolet, optical, and near-infrared light curves of 33 $\gamma$-ray bright blazars over four years that we have been monitoring since 2008 August with multiple optical, ground-based telescopes and the Swift satellite, and augmented by data from the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope and other publicly available data from Swift. The sample consists of 21 flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) and 12 BL Lac objects (BL Lacs). We identify quiescent and active states of the sources based on their $\gamma$-ray behavior. Read More

Affiliations: 1Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía, CSIC, 2Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía, CSIC, 3Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía, CSIC, 4Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, 5Chalmers University of Technology, 6Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie

The source NRAO150 is a very prominent millimeter to radio emitting quasar at redshift z=1.52 for which previous millimeter VLBI observations revealed a fast counterclockwise rotation of the innermost regions of the jet. Here we present new polarimetric multi-epoch VLBI-imaging observations of NRAO150 performed at 8, 15, 22, 43, and 86GHz with the VLBA and GMVA between 2006 and 2010. Read More

A detailed analysis of the optical polarimetric variability of the TeV blazar 1ES 1959+650 from 2007 October 18 to 2011 May 5 is presented. The source showed a maximum and minimum brightness states in the R-band of 14.08$\pm$0. Read More

We present observations of a major outburst at centimeter, millimeter, optical, X-ray, and gamma-ray wavelengths of the BL Lacertae object AO 0235+164 in 2008. We analyze the timing of multi-waveband variations in the flux and linear polarization, as well as changes in Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) images at 7mm with ~0.15 milliarcsecond resolution. Read More

The broad-line radio galaxy 3C 111 exhibited a major flux density outburst in 2007. Here, we present imaging and preliminary kinematic results of the jet, based on three millimetre-VLBI observations (86 GHz) using the Global Millimeter VLBI Array (GMVA) covering one year just after the radio flare. The GMVA data allow us to study this outburst with unprecedented image fidelity at highest (sub-parsec) resolution. Read More

Relativistic jets in AGN in general, and in blazars in particular, are the most energetic and among the most powerful astrophysical objects known so far. Their relativistic nature provides them with the ability to emit profusely at all spectral ranges from radio wavelengths to gamma-rays, as well as to vary extremely at time scales from hours to years. Since the birth of gamma-ray astronomy, locating the origin of gamma-ray emission has been a fundamental problem for the knowledge of the emission processes involved. Read More

We present multiwavelength data of the blazar 3C 454.3 obtained during an extremely bright outburst from November 2010 through January 2011. These include flux density measurements with the Herschel Space Observatory at five submillimeter-wave and far-infrared bands, the Fermi Large Area Telescope at gamma-ray energies, Swift at X-ray, ultraviolet (UV), and optical frequencies, and the Submillimeter Array at 1. Read More

We have observed 3C~279 in a gamma-ray flaring state in November 2008. We construct quasi-simultaneous spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of the source for the flaring period of 2008 and during a quiescent period in May 2010. Data have been compiled from observations with Fermi, Swift, RXTE, the VLBA, and various ground-based optical and radio telescopes. Read More

We present Very Long Baseline Array observations of the radio galaxy 3C120 at 5, 8, 12, and 15 GHz designed to study a peculiar stationary jet feature (hereafter C80) located ~80 mas from the core, which was previously shown to display a brightness temperature ~600 times lager than expected at such distances. The high sensitivity of the images -- obtained between December 2009 and June 2010 -- has revealed that C80 corresponds to the eastern flux density peak of an arc of emission (hereafter A80), downstream of which extends a large (~20 mas in size) bubble-like structure that resembles an inverted bow shock. The linearly polarized emission closely follows that of the total intensity in A80, with the electric vector position angle distributed nearly perpendicular to the arc-shaped structure. Read More

Helical structures are common in extragalactic jets. They are usually attributed in the literature to periodical phenomena in the source (e.g. Read More

(Context.) A number of millimeter and submillimeter facilities with linear polarization observing capabilities have started operating during last years. These facilities, as well as other previous millimeter telescopes and interferometers, require bright and stable linear polarization calibrators to calibrate new instruments and to monitor their instrumental polarization. Read More

We present the results from an ultra-high-resolution 7mm Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) study of the relativistic jet in the BL Lacertae object OJ287 from 1995 to 2011 containing 136 total intensity images. Analysis of the image sequence reveals a sharp jet-position-angle swing by >100 deg. during [2004,2006], as viewed in the plane of the sky, that we interpret as the crossing of the jet from one side of the line of sight to the other during a softer and longer term swing of the inner jet. Read More

We locate the gamma-ray and lower frequency emission in flares of the BL Lac object AO 0235+164 at >12pc in the jet of the source from the central engine. We employ time-dependent multi-spectral-range flux and linear polarization monitoring observations, as well as ultra-high resolution (~0.15 milliarcsecond) imaging of the jet structure at lambda=7mm. Read More

We introduce MAPCAT, a long-term observing program for "Monitoring of AGN with Polarimetry at the Calar Alto Telescopes". Multi-spectral-range studies are critical to understand some of the most relevant current problems of high energy astrophysics of blazars such as their high energy emission mechanisms and the location of their gamma-ray emission region through event associations across the spectrum. Adding multi-spectral-range polarimetry allows for even more reliable identification of polarized flares across the spectrum in these kind of objects, as well as for more accurate modeling of their magnetic field. Read More

We present multiwavelength spectral analyses of two Fermi-LAT blazars, OJ 287 and 3C 279, that are part of the Boston University multiwaveband polarization program. The data have been compiled from observations with Fermi, RXTE, the VLBA, and various ground-based optical and radio telescopes. We simulate the dynamic spectral energy distributions (SEDs) within the framework of a multi-slice, time-dependent leptonic jet model for blazars, with radiation feedback, in the internal shock scenario. Read More

We report on the location of the gamma-ray emission region in flares of the BL Lacertae object OJ287 at >14pc from the central supermassive black hole. We employ data from multi-spectral range (total flux and linear polarization) monitoring programs combined with sequences of ultra-high-resolution 7mm VLBA images. The correlation between the brightest gamma-ray and mm flares is found to be statistically significant. Read More

Affiliations: 1Yale, 2Boston U., 3Boston U., 4UCSD, 5UCSD, 6UCSD, 7U. Southampton, UK, 8U. Michigan, 9U. Michigan, 10Metsahovi Radio Observatory, Finland, 11Metsahovi Radio Observatory, Finland, 12Boston U., 13Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia, Spain, 14Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia, Spain, 15Lowell Observatory, 16CfA

We present the results of extensive multi-frequency monitoring of the radio galaxy 3C 111 between 2004 and 2010 at X-ray (2.4--10 keV), optical (R band), and radio (14.5, 37, and 230 GHz) wave bands, as well as multi-epoch imaging with the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) at 43 GHz. Read More

The source of Faraday rotation in the jet of the radio galaxy 3C120 is analyzed through Very Long Baseline Array observations carried out between 1999 and 2007 at 86, 43, 22, 15, 12, 8, 5, 2, and 1.7 GHz. Comparison of observations from 1999 to 2001 reveals uncorrelated changes in the linear polarization of the underlying jet emission and the Faraday rotation screen: while the rotation measure (RM) remains constant between approximately 2 and 5 mas from the core, the RM-corrected electric vector position angles (EVPAs) of two superluminal components are rotated by almost 90 degrees when compared to other components moving through similar jet locations. Read More

We combine time-dependent multi-waveband flux and linear polarization observations with sub-milliarcsecond-scale polarimetric images at lambda=7mm of the BL Lacertae-type blazar OJ287 to locate the gamma-ray emission in prominent flares in the jet of the source >14pc from the central engine. We demonstrate a highly significant correlation between the strongest gamma-ray and millimeter-wave flares through Monte-Carlo simulations. The two reported gamma-ray peaks occurred near the beginning of two major mm-wave outbursts, each of which is associated with a linear polarization maximum at millimeter wavelengths. Read More

As part of our comprehensive long-term multi-waveband monitoring of 34 blazars, we followed the activity in the jet of the blazar PKS 1510-089 during major outbursts during the first half of 2009. The most revealing event was a two-month long outburst that featured a number of gamma-ray flares. During the outburst, the position angle of optical linear polarization rotated by about 720 degrees, which implies that a single emission feature was responsible for all of the flares during the outburst. Read More

We present 1.7, 5, 15, 22 and 43 GHz polarimetric multi-epoch VLBA observations of the radio galaxy 3C 120. The higher frequency observations reveal a new component, not visible before April 2007, located 80 mas from the core (which corresponds to a deprojected distance of 140 pc), with a brightness temperature about 600 times higher than expected at such distances. Read More

We report the results from a six-year, multi-epoch very long baseline interferomertry monitoring of the Seyfert galaxy NGC3079. We have observed NGC3079 during eight epochs between 1999 and 2005 predominantly at 5GHz, but covering the frequency range of 1.7GHz to 22GHz. Read More

Affiliations: 1Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, 2Departamento de Astronomia y Astrofisica, Universidad de Valencia, 3Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia, 4Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia, 5Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, 6Departamento de Astronomia y Astrofisica, Universidad de Valencia
Category: Astrophysics

We present the results of a three-dimensional, relativistic, hydrodynamic simulation of a precessing jet into which a compact blob of matter is injected. A comparison of synthetic radio maps computed from the hydrodynamic model, taking into account the appropriate light travel time delays, with those obtained from observations of actual superluminal sources shows that the variability of the jet emission is the result of a complex combination of phase motions, viewing angle selection effects, and non-linear interactions between perturbations and the underlying jet and/or the external medium. These results question the hydrodynamic properties inferred from observed apparent motions and radio structures, and reveal that shock-in-jet models may be overly simplistic. Read More

We present a 16-month sequence of monthly polarimetric 43 GHz VLBA images of the radio galaxy 3C 120. The images probe the inner regions of the radio jet of this relatively nearby superluminal radio galaxy at a linear resolution of 0.07 $h_{65}^{-1}$ pc ($H_o= 65 h_{65}$ km s$^{-1}$ Mpc$^{-1}$). Read More