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High Energy Physics - Phenomenology (48)
High Energy Physics - Theory (34)
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Publications Authored By ISMAIL ZAHED

We use a variant of the $D4$-$D8$ construction that includes two chiral and one heavy meson, to describe heavy-light baryons and their exotics as heavy mesons bound to a flavor instanton in bulk. At strong coupling, the heavy meson is shown to {\it always bind} in the form of a flavor instanton zero mode in the fundamental representation. The ensuing instanton moduli for the heavy baryons exhibits both chiral and heavy quark symmetry. Read More

We discuss the effects of the electromagnetic interaction in high-energy proton collisions with nuclei of large Z at strong coupling $\lambda=g^2N_c$. Using the holographic dual limit of large $N_c>\lambda\gg 1$, we describe the Reggeon exchange as a twisted surface and show that it gets essentially modified by the electromagnetic interaction. Read More

We give qualitative arguments for the mesoscopic nature of the Sachdev-Yee-Kitaev (SYK) model in the holographic regime with $q^2/N\ll 1$ with $N$ Majorana particles coupled by antisymmetric and random interactions of range $q$. Using a stochastic deformation of the SYK model, we show that its characteristic determinant obeys a viscid Burgers equation with a small spectral viscosity in the opposite regime with $q/N=1/2$, in leading order. The stochastic evolution of the SYK model can be mapped onto that of random matrix theory, with universal Airy oscillations at the edges. Read More

We discuss a minimal holographic model for the description of heavy-light and light mesons with chiral symmetry, defined in a slab of AdS space. The model consists of a pair of chiral Yang-Mills and tachyon fields with specific boundary conditions that break spontaneously chiral symmetry in the infrared. The heavy-light spectrum and decay constants are evaluated explicitly. Read More

We propose a variant of the $D4$-$D8$ construction to describe the low energy effective theory of heavy-light mesons, interacting with the lowest lying pseudoscalar and vector mesons. The heavy degrees of freedom are identified with the $D8_L$-$D8_H$ string low energy modes, and are approximated near the world volume of $N_f-1$ light $D8_L$ branes, by fundamental vector field valued in $U(N_f-1)$. The effective action follows from the reduction of the bulk D-brane Born-Infeld (DBI) and Chern-Simons (CS) actions, and is shown to exhibit both chiral and heavy-quark symmetry. Read More

We briefly review the formation of pion-mediated heavy-light exotic molecules with both charm and bottom, under the general strictures of chiral and heavy quark symmetries. The charm isosinglet exotic molecules with $J^{PC}=1^{++}$ binds, which we identify as the reported neutral $X(3872)$. The bottom isotriplet exotic with $J^{PC}=1^{+-}$ binds, and is identified as a mixed state of the reported charged exotics $Z^+_b(10610)$ and $Z^+_b(10650)$. Read More

We use an event-by-event hydrodynamical description of the collision process with Glauber initial conditions to calculate the thermal emission of photons. The photon rates in the hadronic phase follow from a spectral function approach and a density expansion, while in the partonic phase they follow from the AMY perturbative rates. The calculated photon elliptic flows are in overall agreement with those reported recently by both the ALICE and PHENIX collaborations. Read More

We suggest a specific semiclassical background field, the so called pure gauge sphaleron explosion, to evaluate the magnitude of the CP violation stemming from the standard phase of the CKM matrix. We use it to evaluate the matrix elements of some next-to-leading order effective CP-violating operators suggested in the literature. We also derive the scale dependence of the corresponding coefficients. Read More

We revisit the formation of pion-mediated heavy-light exotic molecules with both charm and bottom and their chiral partners under the general strictures of both heavy-quark and chiral symmetry. The chiral exotic partners with good parity formed using the $(0^+, 1^+)$ multiplet are about twice more bound than their primary exotic partners formed using the $(0^-,1^-)$ multiplet. The chiral couplings across the multiplets $(0^\pm, 1^\pm)$ cause the chiral exotic partners to unbind, and the primary exotic molecules to be about twice more bound, for $J\leq 1$. Read More

We discuss an extension of the instanton-dyon liquid model that includes light quarks at finite chemical potential in the center symmetric phase. We develop the model in details for the case of SU_c(2)\times SU_f(2) by mapping the theory on a 3-dimensional quantum effective theory. We analyze the different phases in the mean-field approximation. Read More

We discuss an extension of the instanton-dyon liquid model that includes twisted light quarks in the fundamental representation with explicit $Z_{N_c}$ symmetry for the case with equal number of colors $N_c$ and flavors $N_f$. We map the model on a 3-dimensional quantum effective theory, and analyze it in the mean-field approximation. The effective potential and the vacuum chiral condensates are made explicit for $N_f=N_c=2, 3$. Read More

We discuss the instanton-dyon liquid model with $N_f$ Majorana quark flavors in the adjoint representation of color $SU_c(2)$ at finite temperature. We briefly recall the index theorem on $S^1\times R^3$ for twisted adjoint fermions in a BPS dyon background of arbitrary holonomy, and use the ADHM construction to explicit the adjoint anti-periodic zero modes. We use these results to derive the partition function of an interacting instanton-dyon ensemble with $N_f$ light and anti-periodic adjoint quarks. Read More

We derive an exact formula for the stochastic evolution of the characteristic determinant of a class of deformed Wishart matrices following from a chiral random matrix model of QCD at finite chemical potential. In the WKB approximation, the characteristic determinant describes a sharp droplet of eigenvalues that deforms and expands at large stochastic times. Beyond the WKB limit, the edges of the droplet are fuzzy and described by universal edge functions. Read More

We review some aspects of spin physics where QCD instantons play an important role. In particular, their large contributions in semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering and polarized proton on proton scattering. We also review their possible contribution in the $\mathcal{P}$-odd pion azimuthal charge correlations in peripheral $AA$ scattering at collider energies. Read More

We show that the QCD Dirac spectrum at finite chemical potential using a matrix model in the spontaneously broken phase, is amenable to a generic 2-dimensional effective action. The eigenvalues form a droplet with strong screening and plasmon oscillation. The droplet is threaded by a magnetic vortex which is at the origin of a Berry phase. Read More

We analyze the length, mass and spatial distribution of a discretized transverse string in $D_\perp$ dimensions with fixed end-points near its Hagedorn temperature. We suggest that such a string may dominate the (holographic) Pomeron kinematics for dipole-dipole scattering at intermediate and small impact parameters. Attractive self-string interactions cause the transverse string size to contract away from its diffusive size, a mechanism reminiscent of the string-black-hole transmutation. Read More

We present a hydrodynamical description of the QCD Dirac spectrum at finite chemical potential as an uncompressible droplet in the complex eigenvalue space. For a large droplet, the fluctuation spectrum around the hydrostatic solution is gapped by a longitudinal Coulomb plasmon, and exhibits a frictionless odd viscosity. The stochastic relaxation time for the restoration/breaking of chiral symmetry is set by twice the plasmon frequency. Read More

We derive a hydrodynamical description of the eigenvalues of the chiral Dirac spectrum in the vacuum and in the large $N$ (volume) limit. The linearized hydrodynamics supports sound waves. The stochastic relaxation of the eigenvalues is captured by a hydrodynamical instanton configuration which follows from a pertinent form of Euler equation. Read More

We discuss a hydrodynamical description of the eigenvalues of the Polyakov line at large but finite $N_c$ for Yang-Mills theory in even and odd space-time dimensions. The hydro-static solutions for the eigenvalue densities are shown to interpolate between a uniform distribution in the confined phase and a localized distribution in the de-confined phase. The resulting critical temperatures are in overall agreement with those measured on the lattice over a broad range of $N_c$, and are consistent with the string model results at $N_c=\infty$. Read More

We discuss an extension of the dyon-anti-dyon liquid model that includes light quarks in the dense center symmetric Coulomb phase. In this work, like in our previous one, we use the simplest color SU(2) group. We start with a single fermion flavor $N_f=1$ and explicitly map the theory onto a 3-dimensional quantum effective theory with a fermion that is only U$_V(1)$ symmetric. Read More

We revisit the dyon-anti-dyon liquid model for the Yang-Mills confining vacuum discussed by Diakonov and Petrov, by retaining the effects of the classical interactions mediated by the streamline between the dyons and anti-dyons. In the SU(2) case the model describes a 4-component strongly interacting Coulomb liquid in the center symmetric phase. We show that in the linearized screening approximation the streamline interactions yield Debye-Huckel type corrections to the bulk parameters such as the pressure and densities, but do not alter significantly the large distance behavior of the correlation functions in leading order. Read More

We model the (holographic) QCD Pomeron as a long and stretched (fixed impact parameter) transverse quantum string in flat $D_\perp=3$ dimensions. After discretizing the string in $N$ string bits, we analyze its length, mass and spatial distribution for large $N$ or low-x ($x=1/N$), and away from its Hagedorn point. The string bit distribution shows sizable asymmetries in the transverse plane that may translate to azimuthal asymmetries in primordial particle production in the Pomeron kinematics, and the flow moments in minimum bias $pp$ and $pA$ events. Read More

We consider a holographic model of QCD in the Veneziano limit of a large number of colors $N_c$ and flavors $N_f$ but fixed $x=N_f/N_c$ (V-QCD). The model exhibits a first order deconfined but chirally broken transition, followed by a second order chirally restored transition in the $\mu-T$ plane for a range of plausible holographic parameters. We study the quasi-normal mode spectrum, and derive the pertinent vector and axial spectral functions across the transition regions. Read More

We model the soft pomeron in QCD using a scalar Polyakov string with extrinsic curvature in the bottom-up approach of holographic QCD. The overall dipole-dipole scattering amplitude in the soft pomeron kinematics is shown to be sensitive to the extrinsic curvature of the string for finite momentum transfer. The characteristics of the diffractive peak in the differential elastic $pp$ scattering are affected by a small extrinsic curvature of the string. Read More

We discuss the quark and gluon condensates in the presence of a rectangular Wilson loop using the QCD instanton vacuum with three light dynamical quarks. The scalar quark condensate is found to decrease while the gluon condensate to increase. We also derive the static potential between two QCD dipoles and show that it is attractive but short ranged at large distances. Read More

We use AdS/QCD to analyze the quark and gluon scalar and pseudo-scalar condensates around static color sources described by a circular Wilson loop. We also derive the static dipole-dipole interactions between rectangular Wilson loops in AdS/QCD and discuss their relevance for static string interactions in QCD at strong coupling. Read More

We revisit the large instanton contribution to the gluon Pauli form factor of the constituent quark noted by Kochelev. We check that it contributes sizably to the single spin asymmetry in polarized $p_\uparrow p \rightarrow \pi X$. We use it to predict a large double spin asymmetry in doubly polarized $p_\uparrow p_\uparrow\rightarrow \pi \pi X$. Read More

The Cheshire cat principle emerges naturally from the holographic approach of the nucleon in terms of a bulk instanton. The cat hides in the holographic direction. I briefly review the one-nucleon problem in the holographic limit. Read More

We discuss the general features of the electromagnetic radiation from a thermal hadronic gas as constrained by chiral symmetry. The medium effects on the electromagnetic spectral functions and the partial restoration of chiral symmetry are quantified in terms of the pion densities. The results are compared with the electromagnetic radiation from a strongly interacting quark-gluon plasma in terms of the leading gluon condensate operators. Read More

Holographic AdS/QCD models of the Pomeron unite a string-based description of hadronic reactions of the pre-QCD era with the perturbative BFKL approach. The specific version we will use due to Stoffers and Zahed, is based on a semiclassical quantization of a "tube" (closed string exchange or open string virtual pair production) in its Euclidean formulation using the scalar Polyakov action. This model has a number of phenomenologically successful results. Read More

A Fermi surface threaded by a Berry phase can be described by the Wess-Zumino-Witten (WZW) term. After gauging, it produces a five-dimensional Chern-Simons term in the action. We show how this Chern-Simons term captures the essence of the Abelian, non-Abelian, and mixed gravitational anomalies in describing both in- and off-equilibrium phenomena. Read More

We revisit the concept of chiral disorder in QCD in the presence of a QED magnetic field |eH|. Weak magnetism corresponds to |eH| < 1/rho^2 with rho\approx (1/3) fm the vacuum instanton size, while strong magnetism the reverse. Asymptotics (ultra-strong magnetism) is in the realm of perturbative QCD. Read More

With growing multiplicity, the pp and pA collisions enter the domain where the macroscopic description (thermodynamics and hydrodynamics) becomes applicable. We discuss this situation, first with simplified thought experiments, then with some idealized representative cases, and finally address the real data. For clarity, we don't do it numerically but analytically, using the Gubser solution. Read More

We model the soft pomeron contribution to dipole-dipole scattering as a closed string exchange in AdS5 with a wall. The exchange of closed and long strings is characterized by an apparent Unruh temperature and entropy that are caused by the rapidity interval chi of the collision. We show that the primordial transverse shear viscosity to transverse entropy density ratio is eta-perp/s-perp=(pi k/chi)^2/(8 pi) for scattering dipoles of N-ality k, vanishing at large chi. Read More

In dipole-dipole scattering at large rapidity \chi={\rm ln}(s/s_0), the induced instanton on the string worldsheet carries entropy S_k=2(\alpha_{Pk}-1)\chi with \alpha_{Pk}-1 the pomeron intercept for a dipole source of N-ality k. This stringy entropy is neither coherent nor thermal. We argue that it is released promptly over a time t_R\approx (b / \chi)^3 / (4 \alpha') with \alpha'/2 the pomeron slope and b the impact parameter. Read More

We briefly review the approach to dipole-dipole scattering in holographic QCD developed in ARXIV:1202.0831. The Pomeron is modeled by exchanging closed strings between the dipoles and yields Regge behavior for the elastic amplitude. Read More

We argue that the large instanton induced Pauli form factor in polarized proton-proton scattering may cause, through topological fluctuations, substantial charge-dependent azimuthal correlations for pi^+/pi^- production in peripheral heavy ion collisions both at RHIC and LHC, thanks to the large induced magnetic field. Our results compare favorably to the measured pion azimuthal correlations by the STAR and ALICE collaborations. Read More

We provide a geometrical argument for the emergence of a Wess-Zumino-Witten (WZW) term for a Fermi surface threaded by a Berry curvature. In the presence of external fields, the gauged WZW term yields a chiral (triangle) anomaly for the fermionic current at the edge of the Fermi surface. Fermion number is conserved though since the Berry curvatures occur always in pairs with opposite (monopole) charge. Read More

We revisit the problem of dipole-dipole scattering via exchanges of soft Pomerons in the context of holographic QCD. We show that a single closed string exchange contribution to the eikonalized dipole-dipole scattering amplitude yields a Regge behavior of the elastic amplitude; the corresponding slope and intercept are different from previous results obtained by a variational analysis of semi-classical surfaces. We provide a physical interpretation of the semi-classical worldsheets driving the Regge behavior for (-t)>0 in terms of worldsheet instantons. Read More

We revisit the effects of QCD instantons in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering (SIDIS). We show that large single spin asymmetry (SSA) effects can be induced in longitudinally and transversely polarized proton targets. The results are in agreement with most of the reported data for pion and kaon production. Read More

Classical electrodynamics in flat 3+1 space-time has a very special retarded propagator delta(x^2) localized on the light cone, so that a particle does not interact with its past field. However, this is an exception, and in flat odd-dimensional space-times as well as generic curved spaces this is not so. In this work we show that the so called self-force is not only non-zero, but it matches (in 2+1 dimensions) the radiation reaction force derived from the radiation intensity. Read More

We study the propagation of an ultrarelativistic light quark jet inside a shock wave using the holographic principle. The maximum stopping distance and its dependency on the energy of the jet is obtained. Read More

We use the holographic principle to study quark jets with trailing strings in an expanding plasma that asymptotes Bjorken hydrodynamics. We make use of the fact that the trailing string is the locus of the light delay in bulk to obtain the explicit form for quark jets in the expanding plasma. From the trailing string solution we calculate the drag coefficient of a heavy quark in the strongly coupled expanding plasma. Read More

We argue that classical bulk gravitational radiation effects in AdS/CFT, previously ignored because of their subleading nature in the 1/Nc-expansion, are magnified by powers of large Lorentz factors gamma for ultrarelativistic jets, thereby dominating other forms of jet energy loss in holography at finite temperature. We make use of the induced gravitational self-force in thermal AdS5 to estimate its effects. In a thermal medium, relativistic jets may loose most of their energy through longitudinal drag caused by the energy accumulated in their nearby field as they zip through the strongly coupled plasma. Read More

The recently measured $\gamma\gamma^*\rightarrow \pi^0$ anomalous form factor is analyzed using the $D4/D8\bar{D8}$ holographic approach to QCD. The half-on-shell transition form factor is vector meson dominated and is shown to exactly tie to the pion form factor. The holographic result compares well with the data for the lowest vector resonance. Read More

The neutrons cannot possess a quadrupole moment in the vacuum. Nevertheless, we show that in the presence of an external magnetic field the neutrons acquire a new type of quadrupole moment $Q^{ij}= \chi\,\sigma^i B^j$ involving the components of spin and magnetic field. This "chiral magnetic" quadrupole moment arises from the interplay of the chiral anomaly and the magnetic field; we estimate its value for the neutron in the static limit, and find $\chi \simeq 1. Read More

We present a holographic realization of large Nc massless QCD in two dimensions using a D2/D8 brane construction. The flavor axial anomaly is dual to a three dimensional Chern-Simons term which turns out to be of leading order, and it affects the meson spectrum and holographic renormalization in crucial ways. The massless flavor bosons that exist in the spectrum are found to decouple from the heavier mesons, in agreement with the general lore of non-Abelian bosonization. Read More

Recent developments in holography have provided a new vista to the nucleon composition. A strongly coupled core nucleon tied with vector mesons emerge in line with the Cheshire cat principle. The cat is found to hide in the holographic direction. Read More

Electromagnetic emission in the form of photons or dileptons provide important information on the onset and evolution of a heavy ion collision at ultrarelativistic energies. We briefly summarize the theoretical assessments of the thermalized electromagnetic emissivities from a hot partonic and hadronic medium, and compare them to current experiments at collider energies. Read More