Ira Z. Rothstein - CMU

Ira Z. Rothstein
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Ira Z. Rothstein

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Pub Categories

High Energy Physics - Phenomenology (44)
High Energy Physics - Theory (28)
General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (16)
Nuclear Theory (8)
Astrophysics (5)
High Energy Physics - Experiment (5)
High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (4)
Physics - Statistical Mechanics (3)
Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (3)
Physics - Classical Physics (2)
Physics - Soft Condensed Matter (2)
High Energy Physics - Lattice (1)
Physics - Strongly Correlated Electrons (1)

Publications Authored By Ira Z. Rothstein

We discuss the source of the apparent ambiguities arising in the calculation of the dynamics of binary black holes within the Post-Newtonian framework. Divergences appear in both the near and far zone calculations, and may be of either ultraviolet (UV) or infrared (IR) nature. The effective field theory (EFT) formalism elucidates the origin of the singularities which may introduce apparent ambiguities. Read More

We utilize the dynamical renormalization group formalism to calculate the real space trajectory of a compact binary inspiral for long times via a systematic resummation of secularly growing terms. This method generates closed form solutions without orbit averaging, and the accuracy can be systematically improved. The expansion parameter is $v^5 \nu \Omega(t-t_0)$ where $t_0$ is the initial time, $t$ is the time elapsed, and $\Omega$ and $v$ are the angular orbital frequency and initial speed, respectively, and $\nu$ is the binary's symmetric mass ratio. Read More

Starting with QCD, we derive an effective field theory description for forward scattering and factorization violation as part of the soft-collinear effective field theory (SCET) for high energy scattering. These phenomena are mediated by long distance Glauber gluon exchanges, which are static in time, localized in the longitudinal distance, where $|t| \ll s$. In hard scattering, Glauber gluons can induce corrections which invalidate factorization. Read More

We study the effective field theory of 2D fermions with a short-range interaction in the presence of a van Hove singularity. We find that there are additional divergences associated with the singularity that necessitate regularization beyond the usual Wilsonian cut-off. In the full theory these divergences are cut off by the finite size of the Brillouin zone. Read More

In this letter, we present the NNLL-NNLO transverse momentum Higgs distribution arising from gluon fusion. In the regime $p_\perp\ll m_H$ we include the resummation of the large logs at next to next-to leading order and then match on to the $\alpha_s^2$ fixed order result near $p_\perp \sim m_h$. By utilizing the rapidity renormalization group (RRG) we are able to smoothly match between the resummed, small $p_\perp$ regime and the fixed order regime. Read More

We systematically compute the annihilation rate for neutral winos into the final state gamma + X, including all leading radiative corrections. This includes both the Sommerfeld enhancement (in the decoupling limit for the Higgsino) and the resummation of the leading electroweak double logarithms. Adopting an analysis of the HESS experiment, we place constraints on the mass as a function of the wino fraction of the dark matter and the shape of the dark matter profile. Read More

We develop a formalism that allows one to systematically calculate the WIMP annihilation rate into gamma rays whose energy far exceeds the weak scale. A factorization theorem is presented which separates the radiative corrections stemming from initial state potential interactions from loops involving the final state. This separation allows us to go beyond the fixed order calculation, which is polluted by large infrared logarithms. Read More

We use fragmenting jet functions (FJFs) in the context of quarkonia to study the production channels predicted by NRQCD (3S_1^(1), 3S_1^(8), 1S_0^(8), 3P_J^(8)). We choose a set of FJFs that give the probability to find a quarkonium with a given momentum fraction inside a cone-algorithm jet with fixed cone size and energy. This observable gives several lever arms that allow one to distinguish different production channels. Read More

We show that classical space-times can be derived directly from the S-matrix for a theory of massive particles coupled to a massless spin two particle. As an explicit example we derive the Schwarzchild space-time as a series in $G_N$. At no point of the derivation is any use made of the Einstein-Hilbert action or the Einstein equations. Read More

Double parton fragmentation is a process in which a pair of partons produced in the short-distance process hadronize into the final state hadron. This process is important for quarkonium production when the transverse momentum is much greater than the quark mass. Resummation of logarithms of the ratio of these two scales requires the evolution equations for double parton fragmentation functions (DPFF). Read More

We present a higher dimensional model where gravity is bound to a brane due to Anderson localization. The extra dimensions are taken to be a disordered crystal of branes, with randomly distributed tensions of order the fundamental scale. Such geometries bind the graviton and thus allow for arbitrarily large extra dimensions even when the curvature is small. Read More

We examine the real-time dynamics of a system of one or more black holes interacting with long wavelength gravitational fields. We find that the (classical) renormalizability of the effective field theory that describes this system necessitates the introduction of a time dependent mass counterterm, and consequently the mass parameter must be promoted to a dynamical degree of freedom. To track the time evolution of this dynamical mass, we compute the expectation value of the energy-momentum tensor within the in-in formalism, and fix the time dependence by imposing energy-momentum conservation. Read More

We discuss an effective field theory (EFT) approach to the computation of fluctuation-induced interactions between particles bound to a thermally fluctuating fluid surface controlled by surface tension. By describing particles as points, EFT avoids computing functional integrals subject to difficult constraints. Still, all information pertaining to particle size and shape is systematically restored by amending the surface Hamiltonian with a derivative expansion. Read More

In this paper we discuss the systematics of quarkonium production at the LHC. In particular, we focus on the necessity to sum logs of the form log(Q/p_perp) and log(p_perp/m_Q). We show that the former contributions are power suppressed, while the latter, whose contribution in fragmentation is well known, also arise in the short distance (i. Read More

Using the NRGR effective field theory formalism we calculate the remaining source multipole moments necessary to obtain the spin contributions to the gravitational wave amplitude to 2.5 Post-Newtonian (PN) order. We also reproduce the tail contribution to the waveform linear in spin at 2. Read More

Many observables in QCD rely upon the resummation of perturbation theory to retain predictive power. Resummation follows after one factorizes the cross section into the rele- vant modes. The class of observables which are sensitive to soft recoil effects are particularly challenging to factorize and resum since they involve rapidity logarithms. Read More

In this letter we calculate the exact partition function for free bosons on the plane with lacunae. First the partition function for a plane with two spherical holes is calculated by matching exactly for the infinite set of Wilson coefficients in an effective world line theory and then performing the ensuing Gaussian integration. The partition is then re-calculated using conformal field theory techniques, and the equality of the two results is made manifest. Read More

We introduce a systematic approach for the resummation of perturbative series which involve large logarithms not only due to large invariant mass ratios but large rapidities as well. Series of this form can appear in a variety of gauge theory observables. The formalism is utilized to calculate the jet broadening event shape in a systematic fashion to next to leading logarithmic order. Read More

We use a dispersion relation in conjunction with the operator product expansion (OPE) to derive model independent sum rules for the dynamic structure functions of systems with large scattering lengths. We present an explicit sum rule for the structure functions that control the density and spin response of the many-body ground state. Our methods are general, and apply to either fermions or bosons which interact through two-body contact interactions with large scattering lengths. Read More

We utilize an effective field theory approach to calculate Casimir interactions between objects bound to thermally fluctuating fluid surfaces or interfaces. This approach circumvents the complicated constraints imposed by such objects on the functional integration measure by reverting to a point particle representation. To capture the finite size effects, we perturb the Hamiltonian by DH that encapsulates the particles' response to external fields. Read More

Using effective field theory techniques we calculate the source multipole moments needed to obtain the spin contributions to the power radiated in gravitational waves from inspiralling compact binaries to third Post-Newtonian order (3PN). The multipoles depend linearly and quadratically on the spins and include both spin(1)spin(2) and spin(1)spin(1) components. The results in this paper provide the last missing ingredient required to determine the phase evolution to 3PN including all spin effects which we will report in a separate paper. Read More

We introduce an effective field theory approach that describes the motion of finite size objects under the influence of electromagnetic fields. We prove that leading order effects due to the finite radius $R$ of a spherically symmetric charge is order $R^2$ rather than order $R$ in any physical model, as widely claimed in the literature. This scaling arises as a consequence of Poincar\'e and gauge symmetries, which can be shown to exclude linear corrections. Read More

We propose a scenario where Dark Matter (DM) annihilates into an intermediate state which travels a distance $\lambda \equiv v/\Gamma$ on the order of galactic scales and then decays to Standard Model (SM) particles. The long lifetime disperses the production zone of the SM particles away from the galactic center and hence, relaxes constraints from gamma ray observations on canonical annihilation scenarios. We utilize this set up to explain the electron and positron excesses observed recently by PAMELA, ATIC, and FERMI. Read More

Using Tevatron bounds we derive upper limits on the LHC Higgs production rate under the assumption that no beyond the Standard Model (BSM) particles are being produced near their mass shell. A violation of these limits would constitute a smoking gun for light BSM particles. Furthermore, we demonstrate how R_T, the ratio of the partially integrated Higgs transverse momentum distribution to the inclusive rate, can also be used as a probe of light BSM particles. Read More

Using effective field theory techniques we compute the next to leading order Spin(1)Spin(1) terms in the potential of spinning compact objects at third Post-Newtonian order, including sub-leading self-induced finite size effects. This result represents the last ingredient to complete the relevant spin potentials to 3PN order from which the equations of motion follow via a canonical formalism. As an example we include the precession equation. Read More

We use effective field theory techniques to compute the potentials due to spin-spin and spin-orbit effects, from which the spin(1)spin(2) contribution to the motion of spinning compact binaries to third Post-Newtonian (PN) order follow. We use a formalism which allows us to impose the spin supplementarity condition (SSC) in a canonical framework to all orders in the PN expansion. We explicitly show the equivalence with our previous results, obtained using the Newton-Wigner SSC at the level of the action for spin-spin and spin-orbit potentials reported in arXiv:gr-qc/0604099 and arXiv:0712. Read More

We comment on several points concerning unparticles which have been overlooked in the literature. One regards Mack's unitarity constraint lower bounds on CFT operator dimensions,e.g. Read More

In this comment we explain the discrepancy found between the results in arXiv:0712.1716v1 for the 3PN spin-spin potential and those previously derived in gr-qc/0604099. We point out that to compare one must include sub-leading lower order spin-orbit effects which contribute to the spin-spin potential once one transforms to the PN frame. Read More

We compute standard model penguin amplitudes in nonleptonic B-decays to light charmless mesons using tree amplitude data to fix hadronic parameters. The leading calculation is carried out for the alphas(mb) penguin contributions from charm quark, up quark, and magnetic penguin loops in the NDR and HV renormalization schemes. Power suppressed penguins that are proportional to the chiral condensate are also computed using a new factorization formula for these terms, which is derived working to all orders in alphas(sqrt{mb\Lambda}). Read More

We compute annihilation amplitudes for charmless B decays that are proportional to the three-parton twist-3 light meson distribution amplitude phi_{3M}(x1,x2) with an active gluon. Due to an enhancement from a quark propagator at the scale p^2 ~ mb\Lambda_QCD these terms occur at the same parametric order in alpha_s(mb) and 1/mb as the known leading order annihilation involving fB and twist-2 meson distributions. With our calculation the leading order annihilation amplitude is now complete. Read More

We classify LambdaQCD/mb power corrections to nonleptonic B-> M1 M2 decays, where M1 and M2 are charmless non-isosinglet mesons. Using recent developments in soft-collinear effective theory, we prove that the leading contributions to annihilation amplitudes of O[alphas(mb) LambdaQCD/mb] are real. The leading annihilation amplitudes depend on twist-2 and twist-3 three parton distributions. Read More

In this essay we introduce a theoretical framework designed to describe black hole dynamics. The difficulties in understanding such dynamics stems from the proliferation of scales involved when one attempts to simultaneously describe all of the relevant dynamical degrees of freedom. These range from the modes that describe the black hole horizon, which are responsible for dissipative effects, to the long wavelength gravitational radiation that drains mechanical energy from macroscopic black hole bound states. Read More

We show that the coefficients of operators in the electroweak chiral Lagrangian can be bounded if the underlying theory obeys the usual assumptions of Lorentz invariance, analyticity, unitarity and crossing to arbitrarily short distances. Violations of these bounds can be explained by either the existence of new physics below the naive cut-off of the the effective theory, or by the breakdown of one of these assumptions in the short distance theory. As a corollary, if no light resonances are found, then a measured violation of the bound would falsify generic models of string theory. Read More

We use recently developed effective field theory techniques to calculate the third order post-Newtonian correction to the spin-spin potential between two spinning objects. This correction represents the first contribution to the spin-spin interaction due to the non-linear nature of general relativity and will play an important role in forthcoming gravity wave experiments. Read More

We study the thermodynamics of small black holes in compactified spacetimes of the form R^(d-1)x S^1. This system is analyzed with the aid of an effective field theory (EFT) formalism in which the structure of the black hole is encoded in the coefficients of operators in an effective worldline Lagrangian. In this effective theory, there is a small parameter $\lambda$ that characterizes the corrections to the thermodynamics due to both the non-linear nature of the gravitational action as well as effects arising from the finite size of the black hole. Read More

We derive a long wavelength effective point particle description of four-dimensional Schwarzschild black holes. In this effective theory, absorptive effects are incorporated by introducing degrees of freedom localized on the worldline that mimic the interaction between the horizon and bulk fields. The correlation functions of composite operators in this worldline theory can be obtained by standard matching calculations. Read More

B -> K pi and related decays are studied in the heavy quark limit of QCD using the soft collinear effective theory (SCET). We focus on results that follow solely from integrating out the scale mb, without expanding the amplitudes for the physics at smaller scales such as alphas(sqrt{Epi LambdaQCD}). The reduction in the number of hadronic parameters in SCET leads to multiple predictions without the need of SU(3). Read More

A precision method for determining |Vub| using the full range in q^2 of B-> pi \ell nu data is presented. At large q^2 the form factor is taken from unquenched lattice QCD, at q^2=0 we impose a model independent constraint obtained from B-> pi pi using the soft-collinear effective theory, and the shape is constrained using QCD dispersion relations. We find |Vub| =(3. Read More

We give a detailed description of the differences between the factorization and results derived from SCET and QCDF for decays B -> M1 M2. This serves as a reply to a comment about our work "B-> M1 M2: Factorization, charming penguins, strong phases, and polarization" [1] made by the authors in [2]. We disagree with their criticisms. Read More

Factorization based on the soft-collinear effective theory (SCET) can be used to reduce the number of hadronic parameters in an isospin analysis of B-> pi pi decays by one. This gives a theoretically precise method for determining the CP violating phase gamma by fitting to the B-> pi pi data without C_{pi0 pi0}. SCET predicts that gamma lies close to the isospin bounds. Read More

We present an Effective Field Theory (EFT) formalism which describes the dynamics of non-relativistic extended objects coupled to gravity. The formalism is relevant to understanding the gravitational radiation power spectra emitted by binary star systems, an important class of candidate signals for gravitational wave observatories such as LIGO or VIRGO. The EFT allows for a clean separation of the three relevant scales: r_s, the size of the compact objects, r the orbital radius and r/v, the wavelength of the physical radiation (where the velocity v is the expansion parameter). Read More

Using the soft-collinear effective theory we derive the factorization theorem for the decays B-> M1 M2 with M{1,2}= pi,K, rho,K*, at leading order in Lambda/E_M and Lambda/mb. The results derived here apply even if alpha_s(E_M Lambda) is not perturbative, and we prove that the physics sensitive to the E*Lambda scale is the same in B-> M1 M2 and B-> M form factors. We argue that c-cbar penguins could give long-distance effects at leading order. Read More

These notes are a written version of a set of lectures given at TASI-02 on the topic of effective field theories. They are meant as an introduction to some of the latest techniques and applications in the field. Read More

We give an effective field theory derivation, based on the running of Planck brane gauge correlators, of the large logarithms that arise in the predictions for low energy gauge couplings in compactified AdS}_5 backgrounds, including the one-loop effects of bulk scalars, fermions, and gauge bosons. In contrast to the case of charged scalars coupled to Abelian gauge fields that has been considered previously in the literature, the one-loop corrections are not dominated by a single 4D Kaluza-Klein mode. Nevertheless, in the case of gauge field loops, the amplitudes can be reorganized into a leading logarithmic contribution that is identical to the running in 4D non-Abelian gauge theory, and a term which is not logarithmically enhanced and is analogous to a two-loop effect in 4D. Read More

This letter is an investigation of the pion form factor utilizing recently developed effective field theory techniques. The primary results reported are: Both the transition and electromagnetic form factors are corrected at order $\Lambda/Q$. However, these corrections only arise due to time ordered products which are sensitive to soft components of the pion. Read More

This work is an extension of our previous work, hep-th/0204160, which showed how to systematically calculate the high energy evolution of gauge couplings in compact AdS_5 backgrounds. We first directly compute the one-loop effects of massive charged scalar fields on the low energy couplings of a gauge theory propagating in the AdS background. It is found that scalar bulk mass scales (which generically are of order the Planck scale) enter only logarithmically in the corrections to the tree-level gauge couplings. Read More

In this letter we show that, in five-dimensional anti-deSitter space (AdS) truncated by boundary branes, effective field theory techniques are reliable at high energy (much higher than the scale suggested by the Kaluza-Klein mass gap), provided one computes suitable observables. We argue that in the model of Randall and Sundrum for generating the weak scale from the AdS warp factor, the high energy behavior of gauge fields can be calculated in a {\em cutoff independent manner}, provided one restricts Green's functions to external points on the Planck brane. Using the AdS/CFT correspondence, we calculate the one-loop correction to the Planck brane gauge propagator due to charged bulk fields. Read More

In this paper we show how gauge symmetries in an effective theory can be used to simplify proofs of factorization formulae in highly energetic hadronic processes. We use the soft-collinear effective theory, generalized to deal with back-to-back jets of collinear particles. Our proofs do not depend on the choice of a particular gauge, and the formalism is applicable to both exclusive and inclusive factorization. Read More

In this talk I review recent progress made in extracting V_{ub} from the cut electron energy and hadronic mass spectra of inclusive B meson decays utilizing the data from radiative decays. It is shown that an extraction is possible without modeling the B meson structure function. I discuss the issues involving the assumptions of local duality in various extractions. Read More