# Iosif Bena

## Publications Authored By Iosif Bena

We find that the equations describing T-branes with constant worldvolume fields are identical to the equations found by Banks, Seiberg and Shenker twenty years ago to describe longitudinal five-branes in the BFSS matrix model. Besides giving new ways to construct T-brane solutions, this connection also helps elucidate the physics of T-branes in the regime of parameters where their worldvolume fields are larger than the string scale. We construct explicit solutions to the Banks-Seiberg-Shenker equations and show that the corresponding T-branes admit an alternative description as Abelian branes at angles. Read More

We introduce a solvable system of equations that describes non-extremal multicenter solutions to six-dimensional ungauged supergravity coupled to tensor multiplets. The system involves a set of functions on a three-dimensional base metric. We obtain a family of non-extremal axisymmetric solutions that generalize the known multicenter extremal solutions, using a particular base metric that introduces a bolt. Read More

T-branes are supersymmetric configurations described by multiple Dp-branes with worldvolume flux and non-commuting vacuum expectation values for two of the worldvolume scalars. When these values are much larger than the string scale this description breaks down. We show that in this regime the correct description of T-branes is in terms of a single Dp-brane, whose worldvolume curvature encodes the T-brane data. Read More

We construct the first family of horizonless supergravity solutions that have the same mass, charges and angular momenta as general supersymmetric rotating D1-D5-P black holes in five dimensions. This family includes solutions with arbitrarily small angular momenta, deep within the regime of quantum numbers and couplings for which a large classical black hole exists. These geometries are well-approximated by the black-hole solution, and in particular exhibit the same near-horizon throat. Read More

Antibranes provide some of the most generic ways to uplift Anti-de Sitter flux compactifications to de Sitter, and there is a growing body of evidence that antibranes placed in long warped throats such as the Klebanov-Strassler warped deformed conifold solution have a brane-brane-repelling tachyon. This tachyon was first found in the regime of parameters in which the backreaction of the antibranes is large, and its existence was inferred from a highly nontrivial cancellation of certain terms in the inter-brane potential. We use a brane effective action approach, similar to that proposed by Michel, Mintun, Polchinski, Puhm and Saad in arXiv:1412. Read More

Superstrata are bound states in string theory that carry D1, D5, and momentum charges, and whose supergravity descriptions are parameterized by arbitrary functions of (at least) two variables. In the D1-D5 CFT, typical three-charge states reside in high-degree twisted sectors, and their momentum charge is carried by modes that individually have fractional momentum. Understanding this momentum fractionation holographically is crucial for understanding typical black-hole microstates in this system. Read More

Collapsing shells form horizons, and when the curvature is small classical general relativity is believed to describe this process arbitrarily well. On the other hand, quantum information theory based (fuzzball/firewall) arguments suggest the existence of some structure at the black hole horizon. This structure can only form if classical general relativity stops being the correct description of the collapsing shell before it reaches the horizon size. Read More

We examine the AdS-CFT dual of arbitrary (non)supersymmetric fermionic mass deformations of N=4 SYM, and investigate how the backreaction of the RR and NS-NS two-form potentials dual to the fermion masses contribute to Coulomb-branch potential of D3 branes, which we interpret as the bulk boson mass matrix. Using representation-theory and supergravity arguments we show that the fermion masses completely determine the trace of this matrix, and that on the other hand its traceless components have to be turned on as non-normalizable modes. Our result resolves the tension between the belief that the AdS bulk dual of the trace of the boson mass matrix (which is not a chiral operator) is a stringy excitation with dimension of order $(g_s N)^{1/4}$ and the existence of non-stringy supergravity flows describing theories where this trace is nonzero, by showing that the stringy mode does not parameterize the sum of the squares of the boson masses but rather its departure from the trace of the square of the fermion mass matrix. Read More

We construct the first smooth horizonless supergravity solutions that have two topologically-nontrivial three-cycles supported by flux, and that have the same mass and charges as a non-extremal D1-D5-P black hole. Our configurations are solutions to six-dimensional ungauged supergravity coupled to a tensor multiplet, and uplift to solutions of Type IIB supergravity. The solutions represent multi-center generalizations of the non-BPS solutions of Jejjala, Madden, Ross, and Titchener, which have over-rotating angular momenta. Read More

One can obtain very large classes of horizonless microstate geometries corresponding to near-extremal black holes by placing probe supertubes whose action has metastable minima inside certain supersymmetric bubbling solutions. We show that these minima can lower their energy when the bubbles move in certain directions in the moduli space, which implies that these near-extremal microstates are in fact unstable once one considers the dynamics of all their degrees of freedom. The decay of these solutions corresponds to Hawking radiation, and we compare the emission rate and frequency to those of the corresponding black hole. Read More

It was argued in arXiv:1203.4227 that the five-dimensional near-horizon extremal Kerr (NHEK) geometry can be embedded in String Theory as the infrared region of an infinite family of non-supersymmetric geometries that have D1, D5, momentum and KK monopole charges. We show that there exists a method to embed these geometries into asymptotically-AdS_3 x S^3/Z_N solutions, and hence to obtain infinite families of flows whose infrared is NHEK. Read More

A common way to obtain standard-model-like Lagrangians in string theory is to place D3-branes inside flux compactifications. The bosonic and fermionic masses and couplings of the resulting gauge theory are determined by the ten-dimensional metric and the fluxes, respectively, and the breaking of supersymmetry is soft. However, not any soft-supersymmetry-breaking Lagrangian can be obtained this way since the string theory equations of motion impose certain relations between the soft couplings. Read More

Anti-M2 and anti-D3 branes placed in regions with charges dissolved in fluxes have a tachyon in their near-horizon region, which causes these branes to repel each other. If the branes are on the Coulomb branch this tachyon gives rise to a runaway behavior, but when the branes are polarized into five-branes this tachyon only appears to lower the energy of the polarized branes, without affecting its stability. We analyze brane polarization in the presence of a brane-brane-repelling tachyon and show that when the branes are polarized along the direction of the tachyon the polarized shell is unstable. Read More

We construct the first example of a superstratum: a class of smooth horizonless supergravity solutions that are parameterized by arbitrary continuous functions of (at least) two variables and have the same charges as the supersymmetric D1-D5-P black hole. We work in Type IIB string theory on T^4 or K3 and our solutions involve a subset of fields that can be described by a six-dimensional supergravity with two tensor multiplets. The solutions can thus be constructed using a linear structure, and we give an explicit recipe to start from a superposition of modes specified by an arbitrary function of two variables and impose regularity to obtain the full horizonless solutions in closed form. Read More

We study the dynamics of localized and fully backreacting anti-D3 branes at the tip of the Klebanov-Strassler geometry. We use a non-supersymmetric version of the Polchinski-Strassler analysis to compute the potential for anti-D3 branes to polarize into all kinds of five-brane shells in all possible directions. We find that generically there is a direction along which the brane-brane interaction is repulsive, which implies that anti-D3 branes are tachyonic. Read More

The perturbative $\alpha^{\prime}$ corrections to Type-IIA String Theory compactified on a Calabi-Yau three-fold allow the construction of regular three-charge supersymmetric black holes in four dimensions, whose entropy scales with the charges as $S \sim \left( p^1 p^2 p^3\right)^{\frac{2}{3}} $. We construct an M-theory uplift of these quantum black holes and show that they can be interpreted as arising from three stacks of M2 branes on a conical singularity. This in turns allow us relate them via a series of dualities to a system of D3 branes carrying momentum and thus to give a microscopic interpretation of their entropy. Read More

There are, by now, several arguments that superstrata, which represent D1-D5-P bound states that depend upon arbitrary functions of two variables and that preserve four supersymmetries, exist in string theory, and that their gravitational back-reaction results in smooth horizonless solutions. In this paper we examine the shape and density modes of the superstratum and give strong evidence that the back-reacted supergravity solution allows for fluctuation modes whose quantization reproduces the entropy growth of black holes as a function of the charges. In particular, we argue that the shape modes of the superstratum that lie purely within the non-compact space-time directions account for at least $1/\sqrt{6}$ of the entropy of the D1-D5-P black hole and propose a way in which the rest of the entropy could be captured by superstratum fluctuations. Read More

We describe a new type of hair on supersymmetric black string and black ring solutions, which produces the largest known violation of black hole uniqueness, parameterized by an arbitrary function and hence an infinite number of continuous parameters. The new solutions can have non-trivial density profiles for the electric fields along the horizon, and yet have a geometry that is regular, although generically not infinitely differentiable, at the horizon. Both neutral and charged probes can cross the horizon without experiencing divergent forces. Read More

We study the dynamics of anti-M2 branes in a warped Stenzel solution with M2 charges dissolved in fluxes by taking into account their full backreaction on the geometry. The resulting supergravity solution has a singular magnetic four-form flux in the near-brane region. We examine the possible resolution of this singularity via the polarization of anti-M2 branes into M5 branes, and compute the corresponding polarization potential for branes smeared on the finite-size four-sphere at the tip of the Stenzel space. Read More

We describe a new class of BPS objects called magnetubes: their supersymmetry is determined by their magnetic charges, while their electric charges can oscillate freely between different species. We show how to incorporate these objects into microstate geometries and create BPS solutions in which the charge densities rotate through different U(1) species as one moves around a circle within the microstate geometry. Our solutions have the same "time-like" supersymmetry as five-dimensional, three-charge black holes but, in various parts of the solution, the supersymmetry takes the "null" form that is normally associated with magnetic charges. Read More

We give a broad conceptual review of what we have learned about black holes and their microstate structure from the study of microstate geometries and their string theory limits. We draw upon general relativity, supergravity, string theory and holographic field theory to extract universal ideas and structural features that we expect to be important in resolving the information problem and understanding the microstate structure of Schwarzschild and Kerr black holes. In particular, we emphasize two conceptually and physically distinct ideas, with different underlying energy scales: a) the transition that supports the microstate structure and prevents the formation of a horizon and b) the representation of the detailed microstate structure itself in terms of fluctuations around the transitioned state. Read More

A key feature of BPS multi-center solutions is that the equations controlling the positions of these centers are not renormalized as one goes from weak to strong coupling. In particular, this means that brane probes can capture the same information as the fully back-reacted supergravity solution. We investigate this non-renormalization property for non-supersymmetric, extremal "almost-BPS" solutions at intermediate coupling when one of the centers is considered as a probe in the background created by the other centers. Read More

Solutions with anti-D3 branes in a Klebanov-Strassler geometry with positive charge dissolved in fluxes have a certain singularity corresponding to a diverging energy density of the RR and NS-NS three-form fluxes. There are many hopes and arguments for and against this singularity, and we attempt to settle the issue by examining whether this singularity can be cloaked by a regular event horizon. This is equivalent to the existence of asymptotically Klebanov-Tseytlin or Klebanov-Strassler black holes whose charge measured at the horizon has the opposite sign to the asymptotic charge. Read More

Anti-D3-branes at the tip of the Klebanov-Strassler solution with D3-charge dissolved in fluxes give rise, in the probe approximation, to a metastable state. The fully back-reacted smeared solution has singular three-form fluxes in the IR, whose presence suggests a stringy resolution by brane polarization a la Polchinski-Strassler. In this paper we show that there is no polarization into anti-D5-branes wrapping the $S^2$ of the conifold at a finite radius. Read More

We construct the first family of microstate geometries of near-extremal black holes, by placing metastable supertubes inside certain scaling supersymmetric smooth microstate geometries. These fuzzballs differ from the classical black hole solution macroscopically at the horizon scale, and for certain probes the fluctuations between various fuzzballs will be visible as thermal noise far away from the horizon. We discuss whether these fuzzballs appear to infalling observers as fuzzballs of fuzz or as fuzzballs of fire. Read More

We study the full backreaction of anti-D3 branes smeared over the tip of the deformed conifold. Requiring the 5-form flux and warp factor at the tip to be that of anti-D3 branes, we find a simple power counting argument showing that if the three-form fluxes have no IR singularity, they will be necessarily imaginary-anti-self-dual. Hence the only solution with anti-D3 branes at the tip of the conifold that is regular in the IR and the UV is the anti-Klebanov-Strassler solution, and there is no regular solution whose D3-charge is negative in the IR and positive in the UV. Read More

**Category:**High Energy Physics - Theory

We establish the relation between the structure governing supersymmetric and non-supersymmetric four- and five-dimensional black holes and multicenter solutions and Calabi-Yau flux compactifications of M-theory and type IIB string theory. We find that the known BPS and almost-BPS multicenter black hole solutions can be interpreted as GKP compactifications with (2,1) and (0,3) imaginary self-dual flux. We also show that the most general GKP compactification leads to new classes of BPS and non-BPS multicenter solutions. Read More

Depending on the value of the coupling, BPS states of type II string theory compactified on a Calabi-Yau manifold can be described as multicenter supergravity solutions or as states on the Coulomb or the Higgs branch of a quiver gauge theory. While the Coulomb-branch states can be mapped one-to-one to supergravity states, this is not automatically so for Higgs-branch states. In this paper we explicitly compute the BPS spectrum of the Higgs branch of a three-center quiver with a closed loop, and identify the subset of states that are in one-to-one correspondence with Coulomb/supergravity multicenter states. Read More

Anti-D-branes inserted in warped throat geometries (supported by fluxes that carry D-brane charges) develop unphysical singularities. It has been argued that these singularities could be resolved when one goes beyond the linearized approximation or includes the effects of brane polarization. In this paper we consider anti-D6 branes, whose singularities have been shown to exist at the full non-linear level, and demonstrate that there is no D8 brane polarization that can resolve the singularity. Read More

We show that the six-dimensional uplift of the five-dimensional Near-Horizon-Extremal-Kerr (NHEK) spacetime can be obtained from an AdS_3 X S^3 solution by a sequence of supergravity - but not string theory - dualities. We present three ways of viewing these pseudo-dualities: as a series of transformations in the STU model, as a combination of Melvin twists and T-dualities and, finally, as a sequence of two generalized spectral flows and a coordinate transformation. We then use these to find an infinite family of asymptotically flat embeddings of NHEK spacetimes in string theory, parameterized by the arbitrary values of the moduli at infinity. Read More

**Category:**High Energy Physics - Theory

We establish a relation between certain classes of flux compactifications and certain families of black hole microstate solutions. This connection reveals a rather unexpected result: there exist supersymmetric solutions of N=8 supergravity that live inside many N=2 truncations, but are not supersymmetric inside any of them. If this phenomenon is generic, it indicates the possible existence of much larger families of supersymmetric black rings and black hole microstates than previously thought. Read More

The equations underlying all supersymmetric solutions of six-dimensional minimal ungauged supergravity coupled to an anti-self-dual tensor multiplet have been known for quite a while, and their complicated non-linear form has hindered all attempts to systematically understand and construct BPS solutions. In this paper we show that, by suitably re-parameterizing these equations, one can find a structure that allows one to construct supersymmetric solutions by solving a sequence of linear equations. We then illustrate this method by constructing a new class of geometries describing several parallel spirals carrying D1, D5 and P charge and parameterized by four arbitrary functions of one variable. Read More

We study the dynamics of supertubes in smooth bubbling geometries with three charges and three dipole charges that can describe black holes, black rings and their microstates. We find the supertube Hamiltonian in these backgrounds and show that there exist metastable supertube configurations, that can decay into supersymmetric and non-supersymmetric ones via brane-flux annihilation. We also find stable non-supersymmetric configurations. Read More

We find a family of novel supersymmetric phases of the D1-D5 CFT, which in certain ranges of charges have more entropy than all known ensembles. We also find bulk BPS configurations that exist in the same range of parameters as these phases, and have more entropy than a BMPV black hole; they can be thought of as coming from a BMPV black hole shedding a "hair" condensate outside of the horizon. The entropy of the bulk configurations is smaller than that of the CFT phases, which indicates that some of the CFT states are lifted at strong coupling. Read More

We argue that there exists a new class of completely smooth 1/8-BPS, three-charge bound state configurations that depend upon arbitrary functions of two variables. These configurations are locally 1/2-BPS objects in that if they form an infinite flat sheet then they preserve 16 supersymmetries but even with arbitrary two-dimensional shape modes they still preserve 4 supersymmetries. They have three electric charges and can be thought of the result of two successive supertube transitions that involve adding two independent dipole moments and giving rise to the arbitrary two-dimensional shape modes. Read More

We present the full numerical solution for the 15-dimensional space of linearized deformations of the Klebanov-Strassler background which preserve the SU(2) X SU(2) X Z_2 symmetries. We identify within this space the solution corresponding to anti-D3 branes, (modulo the presence of a certain subleading singularity in the infrared). All the 15 integration constants of this solution are fixed in terms of the number of anti-D3 branes, and the solution differs in the UV from the supersymmetric solution into which it is supposed to decay by a mode corresponding to a rescaling of the field theory coordinates. Read More

A key property of many BPS solutions of supergravity is the fact that certain probe branes placed in these solutions feel no force, essentially because electric repulsion and gravitational attraction balance one another. In this letter we show that the existence of brane probes that feel no force is also a property of many non-supersymmetric, non-extremal solutions of supergravity. This observation requires a new class of brane probes that move with constant velocity along one or several internal directions of the solution but the zero-force condition that makes the branes "float along" at constant speed, or soar, requires the velocity to be purely imaginary. Read More

We use the recently-constructed explicit duality transformation that relates a rotating anti-D6-D4-D2-D0 black hole solution to a rotating M5-M2-P black string to construct a non-supersymmetric black ring in Taub-NUT that has two angular momenta, as well as M2 charges and M5 dipole moments. This is the first black ring solution that has both dipole charges and rotation along the S^2 of the horizon, and hence can be thought of as the "Pomeransky-Senkov" version of the M5-M2 black ring in Taub-NUT. Its physics should provide a testing ground for the applicability of the blackfold approach to charged rotating black branes, and should elucidate the phase space of charged dipole rings in various backgrounds. Read More

Continuing the programme of constructing the backreacted solution corresponding to smeared anti-D3 branes in the warped deformed conifold, we solve analytically the equations governing the space of first-order deformations around this solution. We express the results in terms of at most three nested integrals. These are the simplest expressions for the space of $SU(2) \times SU(2) \times \ZZ_2$-invariant deformations, in which the putative solution for smeared anti-D3 branes must live. Read More

We compute the force between a stack of smeared antibranes at the bottom of a warped throat and a stack of smeared branes at some distance up the throat, both for anti-D3 branes and for anti-M2 branes. We perform this calculation in two ways: first, by treating the antibranes as probes in the background sourced by the branes and second, by treating the branes as probes in the candidate background sourced by the antibranes. These two very different calculations yield exactly the same expression for the force, for all values of the brane-antibrane separation. Read More

We find the superpotential governing the supersymmetric warped M-theory solution with a transverse Stenzel space found by Cvetic, Gibbons, Lu and Pope in hep-th/0012011, and use this superpotential to extract and solve the twelve coupled equations underlying the first-order backreacted solution of a stack of anti-M2 branes in this space. These anti-M2 branes were analyzed recently in a probe approximation by Klebanov and Pufu, who conjectured that they should be dual to a metastable vacuum of a supersymmetric 2+1 dimensional theory. We find that the would-be supergravity dual to such a metastable vacuum must have an infrared singularity and discuss whether this singularity is acceptable or not. Read More

We study consistent Kaluza-Klein reductions of type IIB supergravity on T(1,1) down to five-dimensions. We find that the most general reduction containing singlets under the global SU(2)xSU(2) symmetry of T(1,1) is N=4 gauged supergravity coupled to three vector multiplets with a particular gauging due to topological and geometric flux. Key to this reduction is several modes which have not been considered before in the literature and our construction allows us to easily show that the Papadopoulos - Tseytlin ansatz for IIB solutions on T(1,1) is a consistent truncation. Read More

We construct the first explicit, smooth, horizonless black-hole microstate geometry whose moduli space is described by an arbitrary function of one variable and is thus infinite-dimensional. This is achieved by constructing the scalar Green function on a simple D6 anti-D6 background, and using this Green function to obtain the fully back-reacted solution for a supertube with varying charge density in this background. We show that this supertube can store parametrically more entropy than in flat space, confirming the entropy enhancement mechanism that was predicted using brane probes. Read More

We solve for the complete space of linearized deformations of the Klebanov-Strassler background consistent with the symmetries preserved by a stack of anti-D3 branes smeared on the $S^3$ of the deformed conifold. We find that the only solution whose UV physics is consistent with that of a perturbation produced by anti-D3 branes must have a singularity in the infrared, coming from NS and RR three-form field strengths whose energy density diverges. If this singularity is admissible, our solution describes the backreaction of the anti-D3 branes, and is thus likely to be dual to the conjectured metastable vacuum in the Klebanov-Strassler field theory. Read More

We solve the equations of motion of five-dimensional ungauged supergravity coupled to three U(1) gauge fields using a floating-brane Ansatz in which the electric potentials are directly related to the gravitational warp factors. We find a new class of non-BPS solutions, that can be obtained linearly starting from an Euclidean four-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell base. This class - the largest known so far - reduces to the BPS and almost-BPS solutions in certain limits. Read More

We construct a four-parameter family of smooth, horizonless, stationary solutions of ungauged five-dimensional supergravity by using the four-dimensional Euclidean Schwarzschild metric as a base space and "magnetizing" its bolt. We then generalize this to a five-parameter family based upon the Euclidean Kerr-Taub-Bolt. These "running Bolt" solutions are necessarily non-static. Read More

We construct multi-center, non-supersymmetric four-dimensional solutions describing a rotating anti-D6-D2 black hole and an arbitrary number of D4-D2-D0 black holes in a line. These solutions correspond to an arbitrary number of extremal non-BPS black rings in a Taub-NUT space with a rotating three-charge black hole in the middle. The positions of the centers are determined by solving a set of "bubble" or "integrability" equations that contain cubic polynomials of the inter-center distance, and that allow scaling solutions even when the total four-dimensional angular momentum of the scaling centers is non-zero. Read More

We solve the recently-proposed equations describing non-BPS extremal multi-center configurations, and construct explicit solutions describing non-supersymmetric extremal black rings in Taub-NUT, as well as the seed solution for the most general extremal non-BPS under-rotating black hole in four dimensions. We also find solutions that contain both a black hole and a black ring, which descend to four-dimensional extremal non-BPS two-center black holes with generic charges. Read More

We discuss two ways in which one can study two-charge supertubes as components of generic three-charge, three-dipole charge supergravity solutions. The first is using the Born-Infeld action of the supertubes, and the second is via the complete supergravity solution. Even though the Born-Infeld description is only a probe approximation, we find that it gives exactly the same essential physics as the complete supergravity solution. Read More

We study fluctuating two-charge supertubes in three-charge geometries. We show that the entropy of these supertubes is determined by their locally-defined effective charges, which differ from their asymptotic charges by terms proportional to the background magnetic fields. When supertubes are placed in deep, scaling microstate solutions, these effective charges can become very large, leading to a much larger entropy than one naively would expect. Read More