Ho Lee - Pennsylvania State Univ.

Ho Lee
Are you Ho Lee?

Claim your profile, edit publications, add additional information:

Contact Details

Ho Lee
Pennsylvania State Univ.
State College
United States

Pubs By Year

Pub Categories

Physics - Materials Science (25)
Physics - Strongly Correlated Electrons (7)
Mathematics - Geometric Topology (6)
Astrophysics of Galaxies (5)
Mathematics - Mathematical Physics (5)
Mathematical Physics (5)
General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (3)
Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (2)
Physics - Mesoscopic Systems and Quantum Hall Effect (1)
Physics - Optics (1)
Quantitative Biology - Molecular Networks (1)

Publications Authored By Ho Lee

In this paper we study the future global existence and late-time behaviour of the Einstein-Boltzmann system with Bianchi I symmetry and a positive cosmological constant $\Lambda>0$. For the Boltzmann equation we consider the scattering kernel of Israel particles which are the relativistic counterpart of Maxwellian particles. Under a smallness assumption on initial data in a suitable norm we show that solutions exist globally in time and isotropize at late times. Read More

For the alternating knots or links, mutations do not change the arc index. In the case of nonalternating knots, some semi-alternating knots or links have this property. We mainly focus on the problem of mutation invariance of the arc index for nonalternating knots which are not semi-alternating. Read More

Knot mosaic theory was introduced by Lomonaco and Kauffman in the paper on `Quantum knots and mosaics' to give a precise and workable definition of quantum knots, intended to represent an actual physical quantum system. A knot (m,n)-mosaic is an $m \! \times \! n$ matrix whose entries are eleven mosaic tiles, representing a knot or a link by adjoining properly. In this paper we introduce two variants of knot mosaics: period knot mosaics and toroidal knot mosaics, which are common features in physics and mathematics. Read More

We have studied ferroelectricity and photovoltaic effects in atomic layer deposited (ALD) 40-nm thick SnTiO$_{x}$ films deposited directly onto p-type (001)Si substrate. These films showed well-saturated, square and repeatable hysteresis loops with remnant polarization of 1.5 $\mu$C/cm$^{2}$ at room temperature, as detected by out-of-plane polarization versus electric field (P-E) and field cycling measurements. Read More

In this paper we consider the Einstein-Vlasov system with Bianchi VII$_0$ symmetry. Under the assumption of small data we show that self-similarity breaking occurs for reflection symmetric solutions. This generalizes the previous work concerning the non-tilted fluid case \cite{WHU} to the Vlasov case, and we obtain detailed information about the late-time behaviour of metric and matter terms. Read More

Direct observations using scanning transmission electron microscopy unveil an intriguing interfacial bi-layer that enables epitaxial growth of a strain-free, monoclinic, bronze-phase VO2(B) thin film on a perovskite SrTiO3 (STO) substrate. We observe an ultrathin (2-3 unit cells) interlayer best described as highly strained VO2(B) nanodomains combined with an extra (Ti,V)O2 layer on the TiO2 terminated STO (001) surface. By forming a fully coherent interface with the STO substrate and a semi-coherent interface with the strain-free epitaxial VO2(B) film above, the interfacial bi-layer enables the epitaxial connection of the two materials despite their large symmetry and lattice mismatch. Read More

Ferroelectric control of interfacial magnetism has attracted much attention. However, the coupling of these two functionalities has not been understood well at the atomic scale. The lack of scientific progress is mainly due to the limited characterization methods by which the interface's magnetic properties can be probed at an atomic level. Read More

In this paper we study the relativistic Boltzmann equation in a spatially flat FLRW spacetime. We consider Israel particles, which are the relativistic counterpart of the Maxwellian particles, and obtain global-in-time existence and the asymptotic behaviour of solutions. The main argument of the paper is to use the energy method of Guo, and we observe that the method can be applied to study small solutions in a cosmological case. Read More

Strong Coulomb repulsion and spin-orbit coupling are known to give rise to exotic physical phenomena in transition metal oxides. Initial attempts to investigate systems where both of these fundamental interactions are comparably strong, such as 3d and 5d complex oxide superlattices, have revealed properties that only slightly differ from the bulk ones of the constituent materials. Here, we observe that the interfacial coupling between the 3d antiferromagnetic insulator SrMnO3 and the 5d paramagnetic metal SrIrO3 is enormously strong, yielding an anomalous Hall response as the result of charge transfer driven interfacial ferromagnetism. Read More

Oxygen vacancies in transition metal oxides facilitate catalysis critical for energy storage and generation. However, it has proven elusive to promote vacancies at the lower temperatures required for operation in devices such as metal-air batteries and portable fuel cells. Here, we use thin films of the perovskite-based strontium cobaltite (SrCoOx) to show that epitaxial strain is a powerful tool towards manipulating the oxygen content under conditions consistent with the oxygen evolution reaction, yielding increasingly oxygen deficient states in an environment where the cobaltite would normally be fully oxidized. Read More

As a Newtonian cosmological model the Vlasov-Poisson-Boltzmann system is considered, and a slightly modified Boltzmann equation, which describes the stability of an expanding universe, is derived. Asymptotic behaviour of solutions turns out to depend on the expansion of the universe, and in this paper we consider the soft potential case and will obtain asymptotic behaviour. Read More

The availability of low-index rutile TiO2 single crystal substrates with atomically flat surfaces is essential for enabling epitaxial growth of rutile transition metal oxide films. The high surface energy of the rutile (001) surface often leads to surface faceting, which precludes the sputter and annealing treatment commonly used for the preparation of clean and atomically flat TiO2(110) substrate surfaces. In this work, we reveal that stable and atomically flat rutile TiO2(001) surfaces can be prepared with an atomically ordered reconstructed surface already during a furnace annealing treatment in air. Read More

In many transition metal oxides (TMOs), oxygen stoichiometry is one of the most critical parameters that plays a key role in determining the structural, physical, optical, and electrochemical properties of the material. However, controlling the growth to obtain high quality single crystal films having the right oxygen stoichiometry, especially in a high vacuum environment, has been viewed as a challenge. In this work, we show that through proper control of the plume kinetic energy, stoichiometric crystalline films can be synthesized without generating oxygen defects, even in high vacuum. Read More

The ability to manipulate oxygen anion defects rather than metal cations in complex oxides can facilitate creating new functionalities critical for emerging energy and device technologies. However, the difficulty in activating oxygen at reduced temperatures hinders the deliberate control of important defects, oxygen vacancies. Here, strontium cobaltite (SrCoOx) is used to demonstrate that epitaxial strain is a powerful tool for manipulating the oxygen vacancy concentration even under highly oxidizing environments and at annealing temperatures as low as 300 C. Read More

Strain is known to greatly influence low temperature oxygen electrocatalysis on noble metal films, leading to significant enhancements in bifunctional activity essential for fuel cells and metal-air batteries. However, its catalytic impact on transition metal oxide thin films, such as perovskites, is not widely understood. Here, we epitaxially strain the conducting perovskite LaNiO3 to systematically determine its influence on both the oxygen reduction and oxygen evolution reaction. Read More

Control of oxygen stoichiometry in complex oxides via topotactic phase transition is an interesting avenue to not only modifying the physical properties, but utilizing in many energy technologies, such as energy storage and catalysts. However, detailed structural evolution in the close proximity of the topotactic phase transition in multivalent oxides has not been much studied. In this work, we used strontium cobaltites (SrCoOx) epitaxially grown by pulsed laser epitaxy (PLE) as a model system to study the oxidation-driven evolution of the structure, electronic, and magnetic properties. Read More

Metasurfaces composed of planar arrays of sub-wavelength artificial structures show promise for extraordinary light manipulation; they have yielded novel ultrathin optical components such as flat lenses, wave plates, holographic surfaces and orbital angular momentum manipulation and detection over a broad range of electromagnetic spectrum. However the optical properties of metasurfaces developed to date do not allow for versatile tunability of reflected or transmitted wave amplitude and phase after fabrication, thus limiting their use in a wide range of applications. Here, we experimentally demonstrate a gate-tunable metasurface that enables dynamic electrical control of the phase and amplitude of the plane wave reflected from the metasurface. Read More

The protein-protein interaction (PPI) network is crucial for cellular information processing and decision-making. With suitable inputs, PPI networks drive the cells to diverse functional outcomes such as cell proliferation or cell death. Here we characterize the structural controllability of a large directed human PPI network comprised of 6,339 proteins and 34,813 interactions. Read More

Many of the recent advancements in oxide heterostructures have been attributed to modification of spin, charge, lattice, and orbital order parameters at atomically well-defined interfaces. However, the details on the structural, chemical, and electrostatic evolution of interfaces comprised of materials with different crystallographic symmetries remain to be understood. In this work, we have mapped out the interfacial connectivity of atoms of two dissimilar materials, the perovskite SrTiO3 and the brownmillerite SrCoO2. Read More

The VO2 polymorphs, i.e., VO2(A), VO2(B), VO2(M1) and VO2(R), have a wide spectrum of functionalities useful for many potential applications in information and energy technologies. Read More

Oxygen-defect control has long been considered an influential tuning knob for producing various property responses in complex oxide films. In addition to physical property changes, modification to the lattice structure, specifically lattice expansion, with increasing oxygen vacancy concentrations has been reported often and has become the convention for oxide materials. However, the current understanding of the lattice behavior in oxygen-deficient films becomes disputable when considering compounds containing different bonding environments or atomic layering. Read More

In ABO3 perovskites, oxygen octahedron rotations are common structural distortions that can promote large ferroelectricity in BiFeO3 with an R3c structure [1], but suppress ferroelectricity in CaTiO3 with a Pbnm symmetry [2]. For many CaTiO3-like perovskites, the BiFeO3 structure is a metastable phase. Here, we report the stabilization of the highly-polar BiFeO3-like phase of CaTiO3 in a BaTiO3/CaTiO3 superlattice grown on a SrTiO3 substrate. Read More

Resonant tunnelling is a quantum mechanical process that has long been attracting both scientific and technological attention owing to its intriguing underlying physics and unique applications for high-speed electronics. The materials system exhibiting resonant tunnelling, however, has been largely limited to the conventional semiconductors, partially due to their excellent crystalline quality. Here we show that a deliberately designed transition metal oxide superlattice exhibits a resonant tunnelling behaviour with a clear negative differential resistance. Read More

In this paper we study the Einstein-Boltzmann system with Bianchi I symmetry. Isotropization of Bianchi I spacetimes was proved in [13] in the Vlasov case, and asymptotic behaviour of the relativistic Boltzmann equation was studied in [9] in the isotropic case. These results are generalized in the present paper to the non-isotropic and Boltzmann case. Read More

We investigated the crystal and electronic structures of ferroelectric Bi4Ti3O12 (BiT) single crystalline thin films site-specifically substituted with LaCoO3 (LCO). The epitaxial films were grown by pulsed laser epitaxy on NdGaO3 and SrTiO3 substrates to vary the degree of strain. With increasing the LCO substitution, we observed a systematic increase in the c-axis lattice constant of the Aurivillius phase related with the modification of pseudo-orthorhombic unit cells. Read More

In the evolutionary path of interstellar medium inquiry, many new species of interstellar dust have been modeled and discovered. The modes by which these species interact and evolve are beginning to be understood, but in recent years a peculiar new feature has appeared in microwave surveys. Anomalous microwave emission (AME), appearing between 10 and 90 GHz, has been correlated with thermal dust emission, leading to the popular suggestion that this anomaly is electric dipole emission from spinning dust. Read More

We consider the Born-Infeld nonlinear electromagnetic field equations and study its Cauchy problem in the case that the Vlasov equation is considered as a matter model. In the present paper, the Vlasov equation is considered on the so-called one and one-half dimensional phase space, and in consequence the Born-Infeld equations are reduced to a quasilinear hyperbolic system with two unknowns. A transformation is introduced in order to make the field equations easy to handle, and suitable assumptions are made on initial data so that the nonlinearity of the field is controlled. Read More

Manipulating the orbital state in a strongly correlated electron system is of fundamental and technological importance for exploring and developing novel electronic phases. Here, we report an unambiguous demonstration of orbital occupancy control between t2g and eg multiplets in quasi-twodimensional transition metal oxide superlattices (SLs) composed of a Mott insulator LaCoO3 and a band insulator LaAlO3. As the LaCoO3 sublayer thickness approaches its fundamental limit (i. Read More

Lomonaco and Kauffman developed a knot mosaic system to introduce a precise and workable definition of a quantum knot system. This definition is intended to represent an actual physical quantum system. A knot (m,n)-mosaic is an $m \times n$ matrix of mosaic tiles ($T_0$ through $T_{10}$ depicted in the introduction) representing a knot or a link by adjoining properly that is called suitably connected. Read More


IRC+10216 is the nearest carbon star with a very high mass-loss rate. The existence of a binary companion has been hinted by indirect observational evidence, such as the bipolar morphology of its nebula and a spiral-like pattern in its circumstellar material; however, to date, no companion has been identified. We have examined archival Hubble Space Telescope images of IRC+10216, and find that the images taken in 2011 exhibit dramatic changes in its innermost region from those taken at earlier epochs. Read More

Precise control of the chemical valence or oxidation state of vanadium in vanadium oxide thin films is highly desirable for not only fundamental research, but also technological applications that utilize the subtle change in the physical properties originating from the metal- insulator transition (MIT) near room temperature. However, due to the multivalent nature of vanadium and the lack of a good understanding on growth control of the oxidation state, stabilization of phase pure vanadium oxides with a single oxidation state is extremely challenging. Here, we systematically varied the growth conditions to clearly map out the growth window for preparing phase pure epitaxial vanadium oxides by pulsed laser deposition for providing a guideline to grow high quality thin films with well-defined oxidation states of V2(+3)O3, V(+4)O2, and V2(+5)O5. Read More

To date, high-resolution electron microscopy has largely relied on using the phase of the exit wave function at the exit surface to form a high-resolution electron microscopic image. We have for the first time used chromatic aberration correction to implement a new imaging mode to achieve amplitude contrast imaging in high-resolution electron microscopy, allowing us to obtain directly interpretable high-resolution electron microscopic images with discrimination between light and heavy atomic columns. Using this imaging approach, we have successfully visualized the atomic structure in a BaTiO3/CaTiO3 superlattice with high spatial accuracy and discrimination between Ba and Ca columns, providing direct visualization of the Ca and Ba associated oxygen octahedral tilt that controls ferroelectric behavior in these superlattice structures. Read More

To design and discover new materials for next-generation energy materials such as solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), a fundamental understanding of their ionic properties and behaviors is essential. The potential applicability of a material for SOFCs is critically determined by the activation energy barrier of oxygen along various diffusion pathways. In this work, we investigate interstitial-oxygen (Oi) diffusion in brownmillerite oxide SrCoO2. Read More

We have investigated two-dimensional thermoelectric properties in transition metal oxide heterostructures. In particular, we adopted an unprecedented approach to direct tuning of the 2D carrier density using fractionally {\delta}-doped oxide superlattices. By artificially controlling the carrier density in the 2D electron gas that emerges at a LaxSr1-xTiO3 {\delta}-doped layer, we demonstrate that a thermopower as large as 408 {\mu}V K-1 can be reached. Read More

We present the results of unbiased 22 GHz H2O water and 44 GHz class I CH3OH methanol maser surveys in the central 7x10 arcmin area of NGC 1333 and two additional mapping observations of a 22 GHz water maser in a ~3x3arcmin area of the IRAS4A region. In the 22 GHz water maser survey of NGC 1333 with sensitivity of sigma~0.3Jy, we confirmed masers toward H2O(B) in the region of HH 7-11 and IRAS4B. Read More

The United Kingdom Infrared Telescope (UKIRT) Widefield Infrared Survey for Fe$^+$ (UWIFE) is a 180 deg$^2$ imaging survey of the first Galactic quadrant (7$^{\circ}$ < l < 62$^{\circ}$; |b| < 1.5$^{\circ}$) using a narrow-band filter centered on the [Fe II] 1.644 {\mu}m emission line. Read More

Lomonaco and Kauffman introduced knot mosaic system to give a definition of quantum knot system. This definition is intended to represent an actual physical quantum system. A knot $(m,n)$-mosaic is an $m \times n$ matrix of mosaic tiles which are $T_0$ through $T_{10}$ depicted as below, representing a knot or a link by adjoining properly that is called suitably connected. Read More

The ferroelectric (FE) control of electronic transport is one of the emerging technologies in oxide heterostructures. Many previous studies in FE tunnel junctions (FTJs) exploited solely the differences in the electrostatic potential across the FTJs that are induced by changes in the FE polarization direction. Here, we show that in practice the junction current ratios between the two polarization states can be further enhanced by the electrostatic modification in the correlated electron oxide electrodes, and that FTJs with nanometer thin layers can effectively produce a considerably large electroresistance ratio at room temperature. Read More

Catalysis is indispensable to chemical processes and relevant to many aspects of modern life. Owing to the intriguing electronic structures and good ionic properties, multivalent transition metal oxides have attracted attention as key catalysts for various energy and environmental applications. Here, we demonstrate that brownmillerite strontium cobaltite (SrCoO2. Read More

We theoretically investigate the ground state magnetic properties of the brownmillerite phase of SrCoO2.5. Strong correlations within Co d electrons are treated within the local spin density approximations of Density Functional theory (DFT) with Hubbard U corrections (LSDAU) and results are compared with the Heyd Scuzeria Ernzerhof (HSE) functional. Read More

Fast, reversible redox reactions in solids at low temperatures without thermomechanical degradation are a promising strategy for enhancing the overall performance and lifetime of many energy materials and devices. However, the robust nature of the cation's oxidation state and the high thermodynamic barrier have hindered the realization of fast catalysis and bulk diffusion at low temperatures. Here, we report a significant lowering of the redox temperature by epitaxial stabilization of strontium cobaltites (SrCoOx) grown directly as one of two distinct crystalline phases, either the perovskite SrCoO3-{\delta} or the brownmillerite SrCoO2. Read More

We present [Fe II] 1.64 {\mu}m imaging observations for jets and outflows from young stellar objects (YSOs) over the northern part (~ 24'x45') of the Carina Nebula, a massive star forming region. The observations were performed with IRIS2 of Anglo-Australian Telescope and the seeing was ~1. Read More

Using real-time spectroscopic ellipsometry, we directly observed a reversible lattice and electronic structure evolution in SrCoOx (x = 2.5 - 3) epitaxial thin films. Drastically different electronic ground states, which are extremely susceptible to the oxygen content x, are found in the two topotactic phases, i. Read More

In this paper, we study the relativistic Boltzmann equation in the spatially flat Robertson-Walker spacetime. For a certain class of scattering kernels, global existence of classical solutions is proved. We use the standard method of Illner and Shinbrot for the global existence and apply the splitting technique of Guo and Strain for the regularity of solutions. Read More

Oxygen stoichiometry is one of the most important elements in determining the physical properties of transition metal oxides (TMOs). A small fractional change in the oxygen content, resulting in the variation of valence state of the transition metal, can drastically modify the materials functionalities. In particular, TMOs with mixed valences have attracted attention for many energy applications. Read More

Organic spintronic devices have been appealing because of the long spin life time of the charge carriers in the organic materials and their low cost, flexibility and chemical diversity. In previous studies, the control of resistance of organic spin valves is generally achieved by the alignment of the magnetization directions of the two ferromagnetic electrodes, generating magnetoresistance.1 Here we employ a new knob to tune the resistance of organic spin valves by adding a thin ferroelectric interfacial layer between the ferromagnetic electrode and the organic spacer. Read More

We present the result of near-infrared (near-IR) [Fe II] line mapping of the supernova remnant IC443 with the IRSF/SIRIUS, using the two narrow-band filters tuned for the [Fe II] 1.257 micron and [Fe II] 1.644 micron lines. Read More

Lomonaco and Kauffman introduced a knot mosaic system to give a definition of a quantum knot system which can be viewed as a blueprint for the construction of an actual physical quantum system. A knot $n$-mosaic is an $n \times n$ matrix of 11 kinds of specific mosaic tiles representing a knot or a link by adjoining properly that is called suitably connected. $D_n$ denotes the total number of all knot $n$-mosaics. Read More

Lomonaco and Kauffman developed knot mosaics to give a definition of a quantum knot system. This definition is intended to represent an actual physical quantum system. A knot $n$-mosaic is an $n \times n$ matrix of 11 kinds of specific mosaic tiles representing a knot or a link. Read More