Hiroshi Kimura

Hiroshi Kimura
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Hiroshi Kimura

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Earth and Planetary Astrophysics (9)
Astrophysics of Galaxies (3)
Astrophysics (3)
Physics - Soft Condensed Matter (1)

Publications Authored By Hiroshi Kimura

Recent space missions have provided information on the physical and chemical properties of interstellar grains such as the ratio $\beta$ of radiation pressure to gravity acting on the grains in addition to the composition, structure, and size distribution of the grains. Numerical simulation on the trajectories of interstellar grains captured by Stardust and returned to Earth constrained the $\beta$ ratio for the Stardust samples of interstellar origin. However, recent accurate calculations of radiation pressure cross sections for model dust grains have given conflicting stories in the $\beta$ ratio of interstellar grains. Read More

Photoelectron emission is crucial to electric charging of dust particles around main-sequence stars and gas heating in various dusty environments. An estimate of the photoelectric processes contains an ill-defined parameter called the photoelectric quantum yield, which is the total number of electrons ejected from a dust particle per absorbed photon. Here we revisit the so-called small particle effect of photoelectron emission and provide an analytical model to estimate photoelectric quantum yields of small dust particles in sizes down to nanometers. Read More

Adhesion forces between submicrometer-sized silicate grains play a crucial role in the formation of silicate dust agglomerates, rocky planetesimals, and terrestrial planets. The surface energy of silicate dust particles is the key to their adhesion and rolling forces in a theoretical model based on the contact mechanics. Here we revisit the cohesion of amorphous silica spheres by compiling available data on the surface energy for hydrophilic amorphous silica in various circumstances. Read More

This review focuses on numerical approaches to deducing the light-scattering and thermal-emission properties of primitive dust particles in planetary systems from astronomical observations. The particles are agglomerates of small grains with sizes comparable to visible wavelength and compositions being mainly magnesium-rich silicates, iron-bearing metals, and organic refractory materials in pristine phases. These unique characteristics of primitive dust particles reflect their formation and evolution around main-sequence stars of essentially solar composition. Read More

The trajectories of dust particles ejected from a comet are affected by solar radiation pressure as a function of their ratios of radiation pressure cross section to mass. Therefore, a study on the orbital evolution of the particles caused by the radiation pressure reveals the physical properties of dust on the surface of the comet nucleus. In the course of NASA's Deep Impact mission, the ejecta plume evolved under the influence of the radiation pressure. Read More

Dust particles in orbit around a star drift toward the central star by the Poynting-Robertson effect and pile up by sublimation. We analytically derive the pile-up magnitude, adopting a simple model for optical cross sections. As a result, we find that the sublimation temperature of drifting dust particles plays the most important role in the pile-up rather than their optical property does. Read More

We construct a theoretical model for low-temperature crystallization of amorphous silicate grains induced by exothermic chemical reactions. As a first step, the model is applied to the annealing experiments, in which the samples are (1) amorphous silicate grains and (2) amorphous silicate grains covered with an amorphous carbon layer. We derive the activation energies of crystallization for amorphous silicate and amorphous carbon from the analysis of the experiments. Read More

According to our common understandings, the original surface of a short-period comet nucleus has been lost by sublimation processes during its close approaches to the Sun. Sublimation results in the formation of a dust mantle on the retreated surface and in chemical differentiation of ices over tens or hundreds of meters below the mantle. In the course of NASA's Deep Impact mission, optical and infrared imaging observations of the ejecta plume were conducted by several researchers, but their interpretations of the data came as a big surprise: (1) The nucleus of comet 9P/Tempel 1 is free of a dust mantle, but maintains its pristine crust of submicron-sized carbonaceous grains; (2) Primordial materials are accessible already at a depth of several tens of cm with abundant silicate grains of submicrometer sizes. Read More

High-resolution K band imaging polarimetry of the beta Pic dust disk has been conducted with adaptive optics and a coronagraph using the Subaru 8.2-m telescope. Polarization of ~10 % is detected out to r ~ 120 AU with a centro-symmetric vector pattern around the central star, confirming that the disk is seen as an infrared reflection nebula. Read More

An extensive photometric monitoring of KH 15D, an enigmatic variable in the young star cluster NGC 2264, has been conducted. Simultaneous and accurate near-infrared (JHKs-bands) photometry is presented between 2003 December and 2005 March covering most of the variable phase. The infrared variability is characterized by large-amplitude and long-lasting eclipse, as observed at optical. Read More