Hiromichi Nakazato - Waseda Univ.

Hiromichi Nakazato
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Hiromichi Nakazato
Waseda Univ.

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Quantum Physics (39)
High Energy Physics - Theory (8)
Physics - Superconductivity (3)
Mathematical Physics (3)
Mathematics - Mathematical Physics (3)
Nonlinear Sciences - Chaotic Dynamics (1)
High Energy Physics - Phenomenology (1)
Physics - Mesoscopic Systems and Quantum Hall Effect (1)
Physics - Other (1)

Publications Authored By Hiromichi Nakazato

In the Hong--Ou--Mandel interferometric scheme, two identical photons that illuminate a balanced beam splitter always leave through the same exit port. Similar effects have been predicted and (partially) experimentally confirmed for multi-photon Fock-number states. In the limit of large photon numbers, the output distribution follows a $(1-x^2)^{-1/2}$ law, where $x$ is the normalized imbalance in the output photon numbers at the two output ports. Read More

Interference is observed when two independent Bose-Einstein condensates expand and overlap. This phenomenon is typical, in the sense that the overwhelming majority of wave functions of the condensates, uniformly sampled out of a suitable portion of the total Hilbert space, display interference with maximal visibility. We focus here on the phases of the condensates and their (pseudo) randomization, which naturally emerges when two-body scattering processes are considered. Read More

We show that mere observation of a quantum system can turn its dynamics from a very simple one into a universal quantum computation. This effect, which occurs if the system is regularly observed at short time intervals, can be rephrased as a modern version of Plato's Cave allegory. More precisely, while in the original version of the myth, the reality perceived within the Cave is described by the projected shadows of some more fundamental dynamics which is intrinsically more complex, we found that in the quantum world the situation changes drastically as the "projected" reality perceived through sequences of measurements can be more complex than the one that originated it. Read More

Eigenvalues of a density matrix characterize well the quantum state's properties, such as coherence and entanglement. We propose a simple method to determine all the eigenvalues of an unknown density matrix of a finite-dimensional system in a single experimental setting. Without fully reconstructing a quantum state, eigenvalues are determined with the minimal number of parameters obtained by a measurement of a single observable. Read More

A connection is estabilished between the non-Abelian phases obtained via adiabatic driving and those acquired via a quantum Zeno dynamics induced by repeated projective measurements. In comparison to the adiabatic case, the Zeno dynamics is shown to be more flexible in tuning the system evolution, which paves the way to the implementation of unitary quantum gates and applications in quantum control. Read More

In this paper, we investigate the possibility of measuring the purity of a quantum state (and the overlap between two quantum states) within a minimal model where the measurement device is minimally composed. The minimality is based on the assumptions that (i) we use a yes-no measurement on a single system to determine the single value of the purity in order not to extract other redundant information, and (ii) we use neither ancilla nor random measurement. We show that the measurability of the purity within this model critically depends on the parity of dimension of the quantum system: the purity measurement is possible for odd dimensional quantum systems, while it is impossible for even dimensional cases. Read More

We have investigated the realizability of the controlled-NOT (CNOT) gate and characterized the gate operation by quantum process tomography for a chain of qubits, realized by electrons confined in self-assembled quantum dots embedded in the spin field-effect transistor. We have shown that the CNOT gate operation and its process tomography are performable by using the spin exchange interaction and several local qubit rotations within the coherence time of qubits. Moreover it is shown that when the fluctuation of operation time and the imperfection of polarization of channel electrons are considered as sources of decay of fidelity, the process fidelity of CNOT decreases at most 5% by the fluctuation of the operation time and its values of 0. Read More

A scheme for measuring the purity of a quantum system with a finite number of levels is presented. The method makes use of two square root of SWAP gates and only hinges on measurements performed on a reference system, prepared in a certain pure state and coupled with the target system. Neither tomographic methods, with the complete reconstruction of the state, nor interferometric setups is needed. Read More

Repeated measurements on a part of a bipartite system strongly affect the other part not measured, whose dynamics is regulated by an effective contracted evolution operator. When the spectrum of this operator is discrete, the latter system is driven into a pure state irrespective of the initial state, provided the spectrum satisfies certain conditions. We here show that even in the case of continuous spectrum an effective distillation can occur under rather general conditions. Read More

A Lindblad master equation for a harmonic oscillator, which describes the dynamics of an open system, is formally solved. The solution yields the spectral resolution of the Liouvillian, that is, all eigenvalues and eigenprojections are obtained. This spectral resolution is discussed in depth in the context of the biorthogonal system and the rigged Hilbert space, and the contribution of each eigenprojection to expectation values of physical quantities is revealed. Read More

The dynamics of a system, made of a particle interacting with a field mode, thwarted by the action of repeated projective measurements on the particle, is examined. The effect of the partial measurements is discussed by comparing it with the dynamics in the absence of the measurements. Read More

A scheme for preparing two fixed non-interacting qubits in a maximally entangled state is presented. By repeating on- and off-resonant scattering of ancilla qubits, the state of the target qubits is driven from an arbitrary initial state into the singlet state with probability 1 (perfect efficiency). Neither the preparation nor the post-selection of the ancilla spin state is required. Read More

The dynamics of a system, consisting of a particle initially in a Gaussian state interacting with a field mode, under the action of repeated measurements performed on the particle, is examined. It is shown that regardless of its initial state the field is distilled into a squeezed state. The dependence on the physical parameters of the dynamics is investigated. Read More

We discuss the state tomography of a fixed qubit (a spin-1/2 target particle), which is in general in a mixed state, through 1D scattering of a probe qubit off the target. Two strategies are presented, by making use of different degrees of freedom of the probe, spin and momentum. Remarkably, the spatial degree of freedom of the probe can be useful for the tomography of the qubit. Read More

A qubit (a spin-1/2 particle) prepared in the up state is scattered by local spin-flipping potentials produced by the two target qubits (two fixed spins), both prepared in the down state, to generate an entangled state in the latter when the former is found in the down state after scattering. The scattering process is analyzed in three dimensions, both to lowest order and in full order in perturbation, with an appropriate renormalization for the latter. The entanglement is evaluated in terms of the concurrence as a function of the incident and scattering angles, the size of the incident wave packet, and the detector resolution, to clarify the key elements for obtaining an entanglement with high quality. Read More

A scheme for generating an entangled state in a two spin-1/2 system by means of a spin-dependent potential scattering of another qubit is presented and analyzed in three dimensions. The entanglement is evaluated in terms of the concurrence both at the lowest and in full order in perturbation with an appropriate renormalization for the latter, and its characteristics are discussed in the context of (in)distinguishability of alternative paths for a quantum particle. Read More

Under appropriate circumstances the electrons emitted from a superconducting tip can be entangled. We analyze these nonlocal correlations by studying the coincidences of the field-emitted electrons and show that electrons emitted in opposite directions violate Bell's inequality. We scrutinize the interplay between the bosonic nature of Cooper pairs and the fermionic nature of electrons. Read More

As a possible physical realization of a quantum information processor, a system with stacked self-assembled InAs quantum dots buried in GaAs in adjacent to the channel of a spin field-effect transistor has been proposed. In this system, only one of the stacked qubits, i.e. Read More

A theoretical scheme to generate multipartite entangled states in a Josephson planar-designed architecture is reported. This scheme improves the one published in [Phys. Rev. Read More

Generation of entanglement between two qubits by scattering an entanglement mediator is discussed. The mediator bounces between the two qubits and exhibits a resonant scattering. It is clarified how the degree of the entanglement is enhanced by the constructive interference of such bouncing processes. Read More

We propose and analyze a scheme for the generation of multipartite entangled states in a system of inductively coupled Josephson flux qubits. The qubits have fixed eigenfrequencies during the whole process in order to minimize decoherence effects and their inductive coupling can be turned on and off at will by tuning an external control flux. Within this framework, we will show that a W state in a system of three or more qubits can be generated by exploiting the sequential one by one coupling of the qubits with one of them playing the role of an entanglement mediator. Read More

A simple scheme to prepare an entanglement between two separated qubits from a given mixed state is proposed. A single qubit (entanglement mediator) is repeatedly made to interact locally and consecutively with the two qubits through rotating-wave couplings and is then measured. It is shown that we need to repeat this kind of process only three times to establish a maximally entangled state directly from an arbitrary initial mixed state, with no need to prepare the state of the qubits in advance or to rearrange the setup step by step. Read More

A purification scheme which utilizes the action of repeated measurements on a (part of a total) quantum system is briefly reviewed and is applied to a few simple systems to show how it enables us to extract an entangled state as a target pure state. The scheme is rather simple (e.g. Read More

A novel method of purification, purification through Zeno-like measurements [H. Nakazato, T. Takazawa, and K. Read More

We present a novel procedure to purify quantum states, i.e., purification through Zeno-like measurements. Read More

We present a novel method to purify quantum states, i.e. purification through Zeno-like measurements, and show an application to entanglement purification. Read More

A neutron-spin experimental test of the quantum Zeno effect (QZE) is discussed from a practical point of view, when the nonideal efficiency of the magnetic mirrors, used for filtering the spin state, is taken into account. In the idealized case the number N of (ideal) mirrors can be indefinitely increased, yielding an increasingly better QZE. By contrast, in a practical situation with imperfect mirrors, there is an optimal number of mirrors, N_opt, at which the QZE becomes maximum: more frequent measurements would deteriorate the performance. Read More

A series of frequent measurements on a quantum system (Zeno-like measurements) is shown to result in the ``purification'' of another quantum system in interaction with the former. Even though the measurements are performed on the former system, their effect drives the latter into a pure state, irrespectively of its initial (mixed) state, provided certain conditions are satisfied. Read More

By making use of the Langevin equation with a kernel, it was shown that the Feynman measure exp(-S) can be realized in a restricted sense in a diffusive stochastic process, which diverges and has no equilibrium, for bottomless systems. In this paper, the dependence on the initial conditions and the temporal behavior are analyzed for 0-dim bottomless systems. Furthermore, it is shown that it is possible to find stationary quantities. Read More

The dynamics of a quantum system undergoing frequent "measurements", leading to the so-called quantum Zeno effect, is examined on the basis of a neutron-spin experiment recently proposed for its demonstration. When the spatial degrees of freedom are duely taken into account, neutron-reflection effects become very important and may lead to an evolution which is totally different from the ideal case. Read More

Affiliations: 1Dept. of Phys, Waseda Univ., Japan
Category: Quantum Physics

A one-dimensional scattering problem off a $\delta$-shaped potential is solved analytically and the time development of a wave packet is derived from the time-dependent Schr\"odinger equation. The exact and explicit expression of the scattered wave packet supplies us with interesting information about the "time delay" by potential scattering in the asymptotic region. It is demonstrated that a wave packet scattered by a spin-flipping potential can give us quite a different value for the delay times from that obtained without spin-degrees of freedom. Read More

Affiliations: 1Dept. of Phys., Waseda Univ., Japan, 2Dept. of Phys., Waseda Univ., Japan

The quantum mechanical transition amplitudes are calculated perturbatively on the basis of the stochastic quantization method of Parisi and Wu. It is shown that the stochastic scheme reproduces the ordinary result for the amplitude and systematically incorporates higher-order effects, even at the lowest order. Read More

Affiliations: 1Dipt. di Fisica, Univ. di Bari, Italy, 2Dept. of Phys, Waseda Univ., Japan, 3Dept. of Phys, Waseda Univ., Japan, 4Dipt. di Fisica, Univ. di Bari, Italy

We analyze a modified version of the Coleman-Hepp model, that is able to take into account energy-exchange processes between the incoming particle and the linear array made up of $N$ spin-1/2 systems. We bring to light the presence of a Wiener dissipative process in the weak-coupling, macroscopic ($N \rightarrow \infty$) limit. In such a limit and in a restricted portion of the total Hilbert space, the particle undergoes a sort of Brownian motion, while the free Hamiltonian of the spin array serves as a Wiener process. Read More

Affiliations: 1Dept. of Phys, Waseda Univ., Japan, 2Dept. of Phys, Waseda Univ., Japan, 3Dipt. di Fisica, Univ. di Bari and INFN, Bari, Italy, 4Dept. of Phys, Waseda Univ., Japan

We examine whether the chaotic behavior of classical systems with a limited number of degrees of freedom can produce quantum dephasing, against the conventional idea that dephasing takes place only in large systems with a huge number of constituents and complicated internal interactions. On the basis of this analysis, we briefly discuss the possibility of defining quantum chaos and of inventing a ``chaos detector". Read More

Affiliations: 1Dept. of Phys, Waseda Univ., Japan, 2Dept. of Phys, Waseda Univ., Japan, 3Dipt. di Fisica, Univ. di Bari and INFN, Bari, Italy, 4Atominstitut, Wien, Austria
Category: Quantum Physics

The quantum Zeno effect consists in the hindrance of the evolution of a quantum system that is very frequently monitored and found to be in its initial state at every single measurement. On the basis of the correct formula for the survival probability, i.e. Read More

The temporal behavior of quantum mechanical systems is reviewed. We study the so-called quantum Zeno effect, that arises from the quadratic short-time behavior, and the analytic properties of the ``survival" amplitude. It is shown that the exponential behavior is due to the presence of a simple pole in the second Riemannian sheet, while the contribution of the branch point yields a power behavior for the amplitude. Read More

An exponential behavior at all times is derived for a solvable dynamical model in the weak-coupling, macroscopic limit. Some implications for the quantum measurement problem are discussed, in particular in connection with dissipation. Read More

A new Langevin equation with a field-dependent kernel is proposed to deal with bottomless systems within the framework of the stochastic quantization of Parisi and Wu. The corresponding Fokker-Planck equation is shown to be a diffusion-type equation and is solved analytically. An interesting connection between the solution with the ordinary Feynman measure, which in this case is not normalizable, is clarified. Read More

By making use of Schwinger's oscillator model of angular momentum, we put forward an interesting connection among three solvable Hamiltonians, widely used for discussions on the quantum measurement problem. This connection implies that a particular macroscopic limit has to be taken for these models to be physically sensible. Read More

The interaction between an ultrarelativistic particle and a linear array made up of $N$ two-level systems (^^ ^^ AgBr" molecules) is studied by making use of a modified version of the Coleman-Hepp Hamiltonian. Energy-exchange processes between the particle and the molecules are properly taken into account, and the evolution of the total system is calculated exactly both when the array is initially in the ground state and in a thermal state. In the macroscopic limit ($N \rightarrow \infty$), the system remains solvable and leads to interesting connections with the Jaynes-Cummings model, that describes the interaction of a particle with a maser. Read More