# Haitang Yang

## Publications Authored By Haitang Yang

In this paper, we use Born-Infeld black holes to test two recent holographic conjectures of complexity, the "Complexity = Action" (CA) duality and "Complexity = Volume 2.0" (CV) duality. The complexity of a boundary state is identified with the action of the Wheeler-deWitt patch in CA duality, while this complexity is identified with the spacetime volume of the WdW patch in CV duality. Read More

In this paper, we demonstrate that locally, the $\alpha^{\prime}$ expansion of a string propagating in AdS can be summed into a closed expression, where the $\alpha'$ dependence is manifested. The T-dual of this sum exactly matches the expression controlling all genus expansion in the Goparkumar-Vafa formula, which in turn also matches the loop expansion of the Chern-Simons gauge theory. We therefore find an exact correspondence between the $\alpha^{\prime}$ expansion for a string moving in AdS and the genus expansion of a string propagating in four dimensional flat spacetime. Read More

In this paper, we use the WKB approximation method to approximately solve a deformed Schrodinger-like differential equation: $\left[ -\hbar^{2} \partial_{\xi}^{2}g^{2}\left( -i\hbar\alpha\partial_{\xi}\right) -p^{2}\left( \xi\right) \right] \psi\left( \xi\right) =0$, which are frequently dealt with in various effective models of quantum gravity, where the parameter $\alpha$ characterizes effects of quantum gravity. For an arbitrary function $g\left( x\right) $ satisfying several properties proposed in the paper, we find the WKB solutions, the WKB connection formulas through a turning point, the deformed Bohr--Sommerfeld quantization rule, and the deformed tunneling rate formula through a potential barrier. Several examples of applying the WKB approximation to the deformed quantum mechanics are investigated. Read More

To study quantum effects on the bulk tachyon dynamics, we replace $R$ with $f(R)$ in the low-energy effective action that couples gravity, the dilaton, and the bulk closed string tachyon of bosonic closed string theory and study properties of their classical solutions. The $\alpha^{\prime}$ corrections of the graviton-dilaton-tachyon system are implemented in the $f(R)$. We obtain the tachyon-induced rolling solutions and show that the string metric does not need to remain fixed in some cases. Read More

Doubly special relativity (DSR) is an effective model for encoding quantum gravity in flat spacetime. To incorporate DSR into general relativity, one could use "Gravity's rainbow", where the spacetime background felt by a test particle would depend on its energy. In this scenario, one could rewrite the rainbow metric $g_{\mu\nu}\left( E\right) $ in terms of some orthonormal frame fields and use the modified equivalence principle to determine the energy dependence of $g_{\mu\nu}\left( E\right) $. Read More

The existence of a minimum measurable length could deform not only the standard quantum mechanics but also classical physics. The effects of the minimal length on classical orbits of particles in a gravitation field have been investigated before, using the deformed Poisson bracket or Schwarzschild metric. In this paper, we use the Hamilton-Jacobi method to study motions of particles in the context of deformed Newtonian mechanics and general relativity. Read More

Doubly special relativity (DSR) is an effective model for encoding quantum gravity in flat spacetime. As a result of the nonlinearity of the Lorentz transformation, the energy-momentum dispersion relation is modified. One simple way to import DSR to curved spacetime is \textquotedblleft Gravity's rainbow", where the spacetime background felt by a test particle would depend on its energy. Read More

Due to the exponential high gravitational red shift near the event horizon of a black hole, it might appear that the Hawking radiation would be highly sensitive to some unknown high energy physics. To study effects of any unknown physics at the Planck scale on the Hawking radiation, the dispersive field theory models have been proposed, which are variations of Unruh's sonic black hole analogy. In this paper, we use the Hamilton-Jacobi method to investigate the dispersive field theory models. Read More

Due to the exponential high gravitational red shift near the event horizon of a black hole, it might appears that the Hawking radiation would be highly sensitive to some unknown high energy physics. To study possible deviations from the Hawking's prediction, the dispersive field theory models have been proposed, following the Unruh's hydrodynamic analogue of a black hole radiation. In the dispersive field theory models, the dispersion relations of matter fields are modified at high energies, which leads to modifications of equations of motion. Read More

In this paper, we prove that the open and closed strings are $O(D,D)$ equivalent. The equivalence requires an AdS geometry near the boundaries. The $O(D,D)$ invariance is introduced into the Polyakov action by the Tseytlin's action. Read More

We compute the black hole horizon entanglement entropy for a massless scalar field in the brick wall model by incorporating the minimal length. Taking the minimal length effects on the occupation number $n(\omega,l)$ and the Hawking temperature into consideration, we obtain the leading UV divergent term and the subleading logarithmic term in the entropy. The leading divergent term scales with the horizon area. Read More

In this paper, we investigate effects of the minimal length on the Schwinger mechanism using the quantum field theory (QFT) incorporating the minimal length. We first study the Schwinger mechanism for scalar fields in both usual QFT and the deformed QFT. The same calculations are then performed in the case of Dirac particles. Read More

In this paper, we investigate effects of the minimal length on quantum tunnelling from spherically symmetric black holes using the Hamilton-Jacobi method incorporating the minimal length. We first derive the deformed Hamilton-Jacobi equations for scalars and fermions, both of which have the same expressions. The minimal length correction to the Hawking temperature is found to depend on the black hole's mass and the mass and angular momentum of emitted particles. Read More

We show how non-commutativity arises from commutativity in the double sigma model. We demonstrate that this model is intrinsically non-commutative by calculating the propagators. In the simplest phase configuration, there are two dual copies of commutative theories. Read More

The original derivation of Hawking radiation shows the complete evaporation of black holes. However, theories of quantum gravity predict the existence of the minimal observable length. In this paper, we investigate the tunneling radiation of the scalar particles by introducing quantum gravity effects influenced by the generalized uncertainty principle. Read More

In this review, we discuss effects of quantum gravity on black hole physics. After a brief review of the origin of the minimal observable length from various quantum gravity theories, we present the tunneling method. To incorporate quantum gravity effects, we modify the Klein-Gordon equation and Dirac equation by the modified fundamental commutation relations. Read More

We first briefly revisit the original Hamilton-Jacobi method and show that the Hamilton-Jacobi equation for the action $I$ of tunnelings of a fermionic particle from a charged black hole can be written in the same form as that of a scalar particle. For the low energy quantum gravity effective models which respect covariance of the curved spacetime, we derive the deformed model-independent KG/Dirac and Hamilton-Jacobi equations using the methods of effective field theory. We then find that, to all orders of the effective theories, the deformed Hamilton-Jacobi equations can be obtained from the original ones by simply replacing the mass of emitted particles $m$ with a parameter $m_{eff}$ that includes all the quantum gravity corrections. Read More

It is believed that the invariance of the generalised diffeomorphisms prevents any non-trivial dilaton potential from double field theory. It is therefore difficult to include loop corrections in the formalism. We show that by redefining a non-local dilaton field, under strong constraint which is necessary to preserve the gauge invariance of double field theory, the theory does permit non-constant dilaton potentials and loop corrections. Read More

In cosmology, it has been a long-standing problem to establish a \emph{parameter insensitive} evolution from an anisotropic phase to an isotropic phase. On the other hand, it is of great importance to construct a theory having extra dimensions as its intrinsic ingredients. We show that these two problems are closely related and can naturally be solved simultaneously in double field theory cosmology. Read More

The remnants are investigated by fermions' tunnelling from a 4-dimensional charged dilatonic black hole and a 5-dimensional black string. Based on the generalized uncertainty principle, effects of quantum gravity are taken into account. The quantum numbers of the emitted fermions affects the Hawking temperatures. Read More

Double field theory proposes a generalized spacetime action possessing manifest T-duality on the level of component fields. We calculate the cosmological solutions of double field theory with vanishing Kalb-Ramond field. It turns out that double field theory provides a more consistent way to construct cosmological solutions than the standard string cosmology. Read More

The standard Hawking formula predicts the complete evaporation of black holes. In this paper, we introduce effects of quantum gravity into fermions' tunneling from Reissner-Nordstrom and Kerr black holes. The quantum gravity effects slow down the increase of Hawking temperatures. Read More

In this paper, using Hamilton-Jacobi method, we address the tunnelling of fermions in a 4-dimensional Schwarzschild spacetime. Base on the generalized uncertainty principle, we introduce the influence of quantum gravity. After solving the equation of motion of the spin 1/2 field, we derive the corrected Hawking temperature. Read More

In the framework of the deformed quantum mechanics with minimal length, we consider the motion of a non-relativistic particle in a homogeneous external field. We find the integral representation for the physically acceptable wave function in the position representation. Using the method of steepest descent, we obtain the asymptotic expansions of the wave function at large positive and negative arguments. Read More

The entropy spectrum of a spherically symmetric black hole was derived without the quasinormal modes in the work of Majhi and Vagenas. Extending this work to rotating black holes, we quantize the entropy and the horizon area of a Kerr anti-de Sitter black hole by two methods. The spectra of entropy and area are obtained via the Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization rule and the adiabatic invariance in the first way. Read More

The entropy spectrum of a spherically symmetric black hole was derived via the Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization rule in Majhi and Vagenas's work. Extending this work to charged and rotating black holes, we quantize the horizon area and the entropy of an Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton-Axion (EMDA) black hole via the Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization rule and the adiabatic invariance. The result shows the area spectrum and the entropy spectrum are respectively equally spaced and independent on the parameters of the black hole. Read More

Using the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equation and the equation of state of zero temperature ultra-relativistic Fermi gas based on generalized uncertainty principle (GUP), the quantum gravitational effects on the cores of compact stars are discussed. Our results show that ${2m(r)}/ {r}$ varies with $r$. Quantum gravity plays an important role in the region $ r\sim 10^3 r_0$, where $r_0\sim \beta_0 l_p $, $l_p$ is the Planck length and $\beta_0$ is a dimensionless parameter accounting for quantum gravity effects. Read More

In this letter, we show that superluminal neutrinos announced by OPERA could be explained by the existence of a monopole, which is left behind after the spontaneous symmetry breaking (SSB) phase transition of some scalar fields in the universe. We assume the 't Hooft-Polyakov monopole couples to the neutrinos but not photon fields. The monopole introduces a different effective metric to the neutrinos from the one experienced by photons. Read More

In this letter, we propose that the recent measurement of superluminal neutrinos in OPERA could be explained by the existence of a domain wall which is left behind after the phase transition of some scalar field in the universe. The scalar field couples to the neutrino and photon field with different effective couplings. It causes different effective metrics and the emergence of superluminal neutrinos. Read More

In this paper, we review the one-dimensional quantum channel and investigate Hawking radiation of bosons and fermions in Kerr and Kerr-Newman black holes. The result shows the Hawking radiation can be described by the quantum channel. The thermal conductances are derived and related to the black holes' temperatures. Read More

The thermodynamics of classical and quantum ideal gases based on the Generalized uncertainty principle (GUP) are investigated. At low temperatures, we calculate corrections to the energy and entropy. The equations of state receive small modifications. Read More

The hidden conformal symmetry of extreme and non-extreme Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton-Axion (EMDA) black holes is addressed in this paper. For the non-extreme one, employing the wave equation of massless scalars, the conformal symmetry with left temperature $T_{L}=\frac{M}{2\pi a}$ and right temperature $T_{R}=\frac{\sqrt{M^{2}-a^{2}}}{2\pi a}$ in the near region is found. The conformal symmetry is spontaneously broken due to the periodicity of the azimuthal angle. Read More

Motivated by the recent work of the hidden conformal symmetry of the Kerr black hole, we investigate the hidden conformal symmetry of a Kerr-Sen black hole and a Kerr-Newman-Kasuya black hole. Our result shows the conformal symmetry is spontaneously broken due to the periodicity of the azimuthal angle. The absorption across section is in consistence with the finite temperature absorption cross section for a 2D CFT. Read More

Motivated by Maggiore's new interpretation of quasinormal modes, starting from the first law of thermodynamics of black holes, we investigate area spectra of a near extremal Schwarzschild de sitter black hole and a higher dimensional near extremal Reissner-Nordstrom de sitter black hole. We show that the area spectra of all these black holes are equally spaced and irrelevant to the parameters of black holes. Read More

We investigate the Hawking radiation of 3+1 and 4+1 dimensional black holes in the $z = 4$ Horava-Lifshitz gravity with fermion tunnelling. It turns out that the Hawking temperatures are recovered and are in consistence with those obtained by calculating surface gravity of the black holes. For the 3+1 dimensional black holes, the Hawking temperatures are related to the fundamental parameters of Horava-Lifshitz gravity. Read More

We argue that in the Generalized Uncertainty Principle (GUP) model, the parameter $\beta_0$ whose square root, multiplied by Planck length $\ell_p$, approximates the minimum measurable distance, varies with energy scales. Since minimal measurable length and extra dimensions are both suggested by quantum gravity theories, we investigate models based on GUP and one extra dimension, compactified with radius $\rho$. We obtain an inspiring relation $\sqrt{\beta_0} \ell_p/\rho \sim {\cal O}(1)$. Read More

We compute the action of closed bosonic string field theory at quartic order with fields up to level ten. After level four, the value of the potential at the minimum starts oscillating around a nonzero negative value, in contrast with the proposition made in [5]. We try a different truncation scheme in which the value of the potential converges faster with the level. Read More

We study the low-energy effective field equations that couple gravity, the dilaton, and the bulk closed string tachyon of bosonic closed string theory. We establish that whenever the tachyon induces the rolling process, the string metric remains fixed while the dilaton rolls to strong coupling. For negative definite potentials we show that this results in an Einstein metric that crunches the universe in finite time. Read More

In bosonic closed string field theory the "tachyon potential" is a potential for the tachyon, the dilaton, and an infinite set of massive fields. Earlier computations of the potential did not include the dilaton and the critical point formed by the quadratic and cubic interactions was destroyed by the quartic tachyon term. We include the dilaton contributions to the potential and find that a critical point survives and appears to become more shallow. Read More

The dilaton theorem implies that the contribution to the dilaton potential from cubic interactions of all levels must be cancelled by the elementary quartic self-coupling of dilatons. We use this expectation to test the quartic structure of closed string field theory and to study the rules for level expansion. We explain how to use the results of Moeller to compute quartic interactions of states that, just like the dilaton, are neither primary nor have a simple ghost dependence. Read More

We study the feasibility of level expansion and test the quartic vertex of closed string field theory by checking the flatness of the potential in marginal directions. The tests, which work out correctly, require the cancellation of two contributions: one from an infinite-level computation with the cubic vertex and the other from a finite-level computation with the quartic vertex. The numerical results suggest that the quartic vertex contributions are comparable or smaller than those of level four fields. Read More

Following Okawa, we insert operators at the boundary of regulated star algebra projectors to construct the leading order tachyon vacuum solution of open string field theory. We also calculate the energy density of the solution and the ratio between the kinetic and the cubic terms. A universal relationship between these two quantities is found. Read More

We construct the stress tensors for the p-adic string model and for the pure tachyonic sector of open string field theory by naive metric covariantization of the action. Then we give the concrete energy density of a lump solution of the p-adic model. In the cubic open bosonic string field theory, we also give the energy density of a lump solution and pressure evolution of a rolling tachyon solution. Read More