Hagai B. perets

Hagai B. perets
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Hagai B. perets
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Astrophysics of Galaxies (21)
 
Earth and Planetary Astrophysics (18)
 
Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (18)
 
High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (8)
 
General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (1)
 
Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (1)

Publications Authored By Hagai B. perets

Nuclear spiral arms are small-scale transient spiral structures found in the centers of galaxies. Similarly to their galactic-scale counterparts, nuclear spiral arms exert torques on nearby objects. Within the central few hundred parsecs of a supermassive black hole (MBH), such torques affect the orbits of stars and binaries, causing orbital diffusion in energy and angular momentum. Read More

[abridged] In the typical giant-impact scenario for the Moon formation most of the Moon's material originates from the impactor. Any Earth-impactor composition difference should, therefore, correspond to a comparable Earth-Moon composition difference. Analysis of Moon rocks shows a close Earth-Moon composition similarity, posing a challenge for the giant-impact scenario, given that impactors were thought to significantly differ in composition from the planets they impact. Read More

The origin of pollution in white dwarf (WD) atmospheres is still debated. Most studies suggest the pollution arises from accretion of small minor planets, but the properties of polluting material, and in particular the evidence for water in some cases are not yet understood. Here we study the water retention of small icy bodies in exo-solar planetary systems, as their respective host stars evolve through and off the main sequence and eventually becomes WDs. Read More

UV and optically selected candidates for stellar tidal disruption events (TDE) often exhibit broad spectral features (HeII emission, H$\alpha$ emission, or absorption lines) on a blackbody-like continuum (1e4KRead More

The 2175 \AA\ UV extinction feature was discovered in the mid-1960s, yet its physical origin remains poorly understood. One suggestion is absorption by Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) molecules, which is supported by theoretical molecular structure computations and by laboratory experiments. PAHs are positively detected by their 3. Read More

Nuclear Star Clusters (NSCs) are commonly observed in the centres of most galactic nuclei, including our own Milky Way. While their study can reveal important information about the build-up of the innermost regions of galaxies, the physical processes that regulate their formation are still poorly understood. NSCs might have been formed through gas infall and subsequent in situ star formation, and/or through the infall and merging of multiple star clusters into the centre of the galaxy. Read More

Based on the observed high velocity of pulsars it is thought that neutron stars (NSs) receive a significant velocity kick at birth. Such natal kicks are considered to play an important role in the the evolution of binary-NS systems. The kick given to the NS (together with the effect of mass loss due to the supernova explosion of the NS progenitor) may result in the binary disruption or lead to a significant change of the binary orbital properties. Read More

A fundamental aspect of the three-body problem is its stability. Most stability studies have focused on the co-planar three-body problem, deriving analytic criteria for the dynamical stability of such pro/retrograde systems. Numerical studies of inclined systems phenomenologically mapped their stability regions, but neither complement it by theoretical framework, nor provided satisfactory fit for their dependence on mutual inclinations. Read More

Compact stellar objects inspiralling into massive black holes (MBHs) in galactic nuclei are some of the most promising gravitational wave (GWs) sources for next generation GW-detectors. The rates of such extreme mass ratio inspirals (EMRIs) depend on the dynamics and distribution of compact objects around the MBH. Here we study the impact of mass-segregation processes on EMRI rates. Read More

Most observations of polluted white dwarf atmospheres are consistent with accretion of water depleted planetary material. Among tens of known cases, merely two cases involve accretion of objects that contain a considerable mass fraction of water. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relative scarcity of these detections. Read More

The New-Horizons mission to the Kuiper Belt has recently revealed intriguing features on the surface of Charon, including a network of chasmata, cutting across or around a series of high topography features, conjoining to form a belt. It is proposed that this tectonic belt is a consequence of contraction/expansion episodes in the moon's evolution associated particularly with compaction, differentiation and geophysical reactions of the interior. The proposed scenario involves no need for solidification of a vast subsurface ocean and/or a warm initial state. Read More

We explore full/partial tidal disruption events (TDEs) of stars/planets by stellar compact objects (Black holes; BHs; or neutron stars; NSs), which we term micro-TDEs. Disruption of a star/planet with mass $M_{\star}$ may lead to the formation of a debris disk around the BH/NS. Efficient accretion of a fraction $(f_{acc}=0. Read More

One of first the stages of planet formation is the growth of small planetesimals and their accumulation into large planetesimals and planetary embryos. This early stage occurs much before the dispersal of most of the gas from the protoplanetary disk. At this stage gas-planetesimal interactions play a key role in the dynamical evolution of \emph{single} intermediate-mass planetesimals ($m_{p}\sim10^{21}-10^{25}g$) \emph{through gas dynamical friction} (GDF). Read More

We present a potentially efficient dynamical formation scenario for Low Mass X-ray Binaries (LMXBs) in the field, focusing on black-hole (BH) LMXBs. In this formation channel LMXBs are formed from wide binaries $(>1000$ AU) with a BH component and a stellar companion. The wide binary is perturbed by fly-by's of field stars and its orbit random-walks and changes over time. Read More

The tidal disruption of a star by a massive black hole (MBH) is thought to produce a transient luminous event. Such tidal disruption events (TDEs) may play an important role in the detection and characterization of MBHs and probe the properties and dynamics of their nuclear stellar clusters (NSCs) hosts. Previous studies estimated the recent rates of TDEs in the local universe. Read More

The dwarf planet Pluto is known to host an extended system of five co-planar satellites. Previous studies have explored the formation and evolution of the system in isolation, neglecting perturbative effects by the Sun. Here we show that secular evolution due to the Sun can strongly affect the evolution of outer satellites and rings in the system, if such exist. Read More

Globular Clusters (GCs) and Nuclear Star Clusters (NSCs) are typically composed by several stellar populations, characterized by different chemical compositions. Different populations show different ages in NSCs but not necessarily in GCs. The youngest populations in NSCs appear to reside in disk-like structures, as observed in our Galaxy and in M31. Read More

Transiting circumbinary planets are more easily detected around short-period than long-period binaries, but none have yet been observed by {\it Kepler} orbiting binaries with periods shorter than seven days. In triple systems, secular Kozai-Lidov cycles and tidal friction (KLCTF) have been shown to reduce the inner orbital period from $\sim 10^4$ to a few days. Indeed, the majority of short-period binaries are observed to possess a third stellar companion. Read More

We study the dynamical evolution of a stellar disk orbiting a massive black hole. We explore the role of two-body relaxation, mass segregation, stellar evolution and binary heating in affecting the disk evolution, and consider the impact of the nuclear cluster structure and the stellar-disk mass-function. We use analytic arguments and numerical calculations, and apply them to study the evolution of a stellar disk (similar to that observed in the Galactic center; GC), both on the short (few Myr) and longer (100 Myr) evolutionary timescales. Read More

The growth of small planetesimals into large planetary embryos occurs much before the dispersal of the gas from the protoplanetary disk. The planetesimal - gaseous-disk interactions give rise to migration and orbital evolution of the planetesimals/planets. Small planetesimals are dominated by aerodynamic gas drag. Read More

Most of the properties of the Earth-Moon system can be explained by a collision between a planetary embryo and the growing Earth late in the accretion process. Simulations show that most of the material that eventually aggregates to form the Moon originates from the impactor. However, analysis of the terrestrial and lunar isotopic composition show them to be highly similar. Read More

Models for supernovae (SNe) arising from thermonuclear explosions of white dwarfs (WDs) have been extensively studied over the last few decades, mostly focusing on the single degenerate (accretion of material of a WD) and double degenerate (WD-WD merger) scenarios. In recent years it was suggested that WD-WD direct collisions provide an additional channel for such explosions. Here we extend the studies of such explosions, and explore the role of Helium-shells in affecting the thermonuclear explosions. Read More

Nuclear stellar cluster (NSCs) are known to exist around massive black holes (MBHs) in galactic nuclei. Two formation scenarios were suggested for their origin: Build-up of NSCs and Continuous in-situ star-formation. Here we study the effects of star formation on the build-up of NSCs and its implications for their long term evolution and their resulting structure. Read More

The observed amplitude of the rotational photometric modulation of a star with spots should depend on the inclination of its rotational axis relative to our line of sight. Therefore, the distribution of observed rotational amplitudes of a large sample of stars depends on the distribution of their projected axes of rotation. Thus, comparison of the stellar rotational amplitudes of the Kepler KOIs with those of Kepler single stars can provide a measure to indirectly infer the properties of the spin-orbit obliquity of Kepler planets. Read More

We study the secular gravitational dynamics of quadruple systems consisting of a hierarchical triple system orbited by a fourth body. These systems can be decomposed into three binary systems with increasing semimajor axes, binaries A, B and C. The Hamiltonian of the system is expanded in ratios of the three binary separations, and orbit-averaged. Read More

Nuclear stellar cluster (NSCs) are known to exist around massive black holes (MBHs) in galactic nuclei. Two formation scenarios were suggested for their origin: (1) Build-up of NSCs from consecutive infall of stellar cluster and (2) Continuous in-situ star-formation. Though the cluster-infall scenario has been extensively studied in recent years, the in-situ formation scenario have been hardly explored. Read More

Gas giant planets in the Solar system host large satellite systems with multiple regular and irregular moons. Regular moons revolve around their host planet in circular, low inclination short period orbits, and are thought to form in-situ through coagulation processes. In contrast, irregular moons have highly inclined (and even retrograde), typically eccentric and long period orbits around their host planet. Read More

Gamma ray emission of 511 keV lines arising from electron-positron annihilation has been detected from the Galaxy since the 70s. Spatially resolved observations using the INTEGRAL satellite have shown its full sky distribution to be strongly concentrated in the Galactic bulge, with a smaller contribution from the disk, unlike the situation in any other wavelength. The puzzling distribution of the positrons gave rise to various suggestions, including stellar nucleosynthesis in core-collapse (CC) and type Ia thermonuclear supernovae (SNe), accreting compact objects, and more "exotic" explanations of annihilation of dark-matter particles. Read More

In this chapter we review the various suggested channels for the formation and evolution of blue straggler stars (BSSs) in different environments and their observational predictions. These include mass transfer during binary stellar evolution - case A/B/C and D (wind Roche-lobe overflow) mass transfer, stellar collisions during single and binary encounters in dense stellar cluster, and coupled dynamical and stellar evolution of triple systems. We also explore the importance of the BSS and binary dynamics in stellar clusters. Read More

Recent studies have shown that secular evolution of triple systems can play a major role in the evolution and interaction of their inner binaries. Very few studies explored the stellar evolution of triple systems, and in particular the mass loss phase of the evolving stellar components. Here we study the dynamical secular evolution of hierarchical triple systems undergoing mass loss. Read More

Here we discuss the evolution of binaries around MBH in nuclear stellar clusters. We focus on their secular evolution due to the perturbation by the MBH, while simplistically accounting for their collisional evolution. Binaries with highly inclined orbits in respect to their orbit around the MBH are strongly affected by secular processes, which periodically change their eccentricities and inclinations (e. Read More

In this paper, we consider how gas damping affects the dynamical evolution of gas-embedded star clusters. Using a simple three-component (i.e. Read More

Nuclear star clusters (NSCs) are dense stellar clusters observed in galactic nuclei, typically hosting a central massive black hole. Here we study the possible formation and evolution of NSCs through the inspiral of multiple star clusters hosting intermediate mass black holes (IMBHs). Using an N-body code we examine the dynamics of the IMBHs and their effects on the NSC. Read More

The center of our galaxy is home to a massive black hole, SgrA*, and a nuclear star cluster containing stellar populations of various ages. While the late type stars may be too old to have retained memory of their initial orbital configuration, and hence formation mechanism, the kinematics of the early type stars should reflect their original distribution. In this contribution we present a new statistic which uses directly-observable kinematical stellar data to infer orbital parameters for stellar populations, and is capable of distinguishing between different origin scenarios. Read More

Nuclear stellar cluster (NSCs) are known to exist around massive black holes (MBHs) in galactic nuclei. They are thought to have formed through in-situ star formation following gas inflow to the nucleus of the galaxy and/or through the infall of multiple stellar clusters. Here we study the latter, and explore the composite structure of the NSC, and its relation to the various stellar populations originating from its progenitor infalling clusters. Read More

We perform numerical integrations of four-body (star, planet, planet, satellite) systems to investigate the stability of satellites in planetary Systems with Tightly-packed Inner Planets (STIPs). We find that the majority of closely-spaced stable two-planet systems can stably support satellites across a range of parameter-space which is only slightly decreased compared to that seen for the single-planet case. In particular, circular prograde satellites remain stable out to $\sim 0. Read More

We present a study of the properties of the host galaxies of unusual transient objects of two types, both being sub-luminous compared with the major classes of supernovae. Those of one type exhibit unusually strong calcium features, and have been termed 'Ca-rich'. Those of the second type, with SN2002cx as the prototype and SN2008ha as the most extreme example to date, have some properties in common with the first, but show typically lower ejecta velocities, and different early spectra. Read More

We present a new directly-observable statistic which uses sky position and proper motion of stars near the Galactic center massive black hole to identify populations with high orbital eccentricities. It is most useful for stars with large orbital periods for which dynamical accelerations are difficult to determine. We apply this statistic to a data set of B-stars with projected radii 0. Read More

Globular clusters (GCs) and many nuclear clusters (NCs) show evidence for hosting multiple generations of stellar populations. Younger stellar populations in NCs appear to reside in disk like structures, including the nuclear cluster in our own Galactic center as well as in M31. Kinematic studies of the anomalous globular cluster Omega Centauri, thought to possibly be a former dwarf galaxy (or a galactic nucleus), show evidence for its hosting of a central, kinematically cold disk component. Read More

(abridged) We consider the effect of stellar remnants on the interstellar medium of a massive star cluster following the initial burst of star formation. We argue that accretion onto stellar-mass black holes (BHs) is an effective mechanism for rapid gas depletion in clusters of all masses, as long as they contain progenitor stars more massive than \gtrsim 50\msun. This scenario is attractive for the progenitor systems of present-day massive globular clusters (GCs) which likely had masses M \gtrsim 10^7\msun. Read More

(abridged) We use newly available empirical binary fractions for globular clusters to carry out a direct test of the binary evolution hypothesis, and of collisional channels that involve binary stars. More specifically, using the previously reported correlation between blue straggler numbers and core mass as a benchmark, we test for correlations with the number of binary stars, as well as with the rates of single-single, single-binary, and binary-binary encounters. Surprisingly, we find that the simple correlation with core mass remains by far the strongest predictor of blue straggler population size, even in our joint models. Read More

The inspiral of a turbulent molecular cloud in the Galactic Centre may result in the formation of a small, dense and moderately eccentric gas disc around the supermassive black hole (SMBH). Such a disc is unstable to fragmentation and may lead to the formation of young massive stars in the central parsec of the Galaxy. Here we perform high-accuracy direct summation N-body simulations of a ring of massive stars (with initial semi-major axes 0. Read More

Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) originate from the thermonuclear explosions of carbon-oxygen (C-O) white dwarfs (WDs). The single-degenerate scenario is a well-explored model of SNe Ia where unstable thermonuclear burning initiates in an accreting, Chandrasekhar-mass WD and forms an advancing flame. By several proposed physical processes the rising, burning material triggers a detonation, which subsequently consumes and unbinds the WD. Read More

Many planets are observed in stellar binary systems, and their frequency may be comparable to that of planetary systems around single stars. Binary stellar evolution in such systems influences the dynamical evolution of the resident planets. Here we study the evolution of a single planet orbiting one star in an evolving binary system. Read More

Physical collisions and close approaches between stars play an important role in the formation of exotic stellar systems. Standard theories suggest that collisions are rare, occurring only via random encounters between stars in dense clusters. We present a different formation pathway, the triple evolution dynamical instability (TEDI), in which mass loss in an evolving triple star system causes orbital instability. Read More

Mass transfer from an evolved donor star to its binary companion is a standard feature of stellar evolution in binaries. In wide binaries, the companion star captures some of the mass ejected in a wind by the primary star. The captured material forms an accretion disk. Read More

The environment near super massive black holes (SMBHs) in galactic nuclei contain a large number of stars and compact objects. A fraction of these are likely to be members of binaries. Here we discuss the binary population of stellar black holes and neutron stars near SMBHs and focus on the secular evolution of such binaries, due to the perturbation by the SMBH. Read More

Runaway stars are stars observed to have large peculiar velocities. Two mechanisms are thought to contribute to the ejection of runaway stars, both involve binarity (or higher multiplicity). In the binary supernova scenario a runaway star receives its velocity when its binary massive companion explodes as a supernova (SN). Read More

In recent years several planets have been discovered at wide orbits (>100 AU) around their host stars. Theoretical studies encounter difficulties in explaining their formation and origin. Here we propose a novel scenario for the production of planetary systems at such orbits, through the dynamical recapture of free floating planets (FFPs) in dispersing stellar clusters. Read More