H. Witala - Jagellonian University, Cracow

H. Witala
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H. Witala
Jagellonian University, Cracow

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Nuclear Theory (42)
Nuclear Experiment (10)
High Energy Physics - Theory (2)
Mathematics - Mathematical Physics (1)
Mathematical Physics (1)

Publications Authored By H. Witala

The muon capture on 3H leading to muonic neutrino and three neutrons in the final state is studied under full inclusion of final state interactions. Predictions for the three-body break-up of 3H are calculated with the AV18 potential, augmented by the Urbana IX three-nucleon force. Our results are based on the single nucleon weak current operator comprising the dominant relativistic corrections. Read More

We discuss the role of the three-nucleon isospin T=3/2 amplitude in elastic neutron-deuteron scattering and in the deuteron breakup reaction. The contribution of this amplitude originates from charge-independence breaking of the nucleon-nucleon potential and is driven by the difference between neutron-neutron (proton-proton) and neutron-proton forces. We study the magnitude of that contribution to the elastic scattering and breakup observables, taking the locally regularized chiral N4LO nucleon-nucleon potential supplemented by the chiral N2LO three-nucleon force. Read More

The recently developed semi-local improved chiral nucleon-nucleon interaction is used for the first time to study several electromagnetic and weak processes at energies below the pion production threshold. Cross sections and selected polarization observables for deuteron photodisintegration, nucleon-deuteron radiative capture, three-body $^3$He photodisintegration as well as capture rates for decays of the muonic $^2$H and $^3$He atoms are calculated. The Lippmann-Schwinger and Faddeev equations in momentum space are solved to obtain nuclear states. Read More

We report new measurements of the doubly-polarized photodisintegration of $^3$He at an incident photon energy of 16.5 MeV, carried out at the High Intensity $\gamma$-ray Source (HI$\gamma$S) facility located at Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL). The spin-dependent double-differential cross sections and the contribution from the three--body channel to the Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn (GDH) integrand were extracted and compared with the state-of-the-art three--body calculations. Read More

We apply improved nucleon-nucleon potentials up to fifth order in chiral effective field theory, along with a new analysis of the theoretical truncation errors, to study nucleon-deuteron (Nd) scattering and selected low-energy observables in 3H, 4He, and 6Li. Calculations beyond second order differ from experiment well outside the range of quantified uncertainties, providing truly unambiguous evidence for missing three-nucleon forces within the employed framework. The sizes of the required three-nucleon force contributions agree well with expectations based on Weinberg's power counting. Read More

The nucleon-deuteron radiative capture process is investigated using the chiral nuclear potentials and the electromagnetic currents developed by the Bochum-Bonn group. While the strong interaction is taken up to the next-to-next-to-leading order, the electromagnetic current consists of a single nucleon current, the leading one-pion exchange one and is supplemented by contributions from the long-range two-pion exchange current at next-to-leading-order. The theoretical predictions for the cross sections as well as analyzing powers show strong dependence on the values of regularization parameters. Read More

We solve three-nucleon Faddeev equations with nucleon-nucleon and three-nucleon forces derived consistently in the framework of chiral perturbation theory at next-to-next-to-next-to-leading order in the chiral expansion. In this first investigation we include only matrix elements of the three-nucleon force for partial waves with the total two-nucleon (three-nucleon) angular momenta up to 3 (5/2). Low-energy neutron-deuteron elastic scattering and deuteron breakup reaction are studied. Read More

The role of relativity and dynamics in defining the spin and orbital angular momentum content of hadronic systems is discussed. Read More

We present a precise measurement of double-polarization asymmetries in the $^3\vec{\mathrm{He}}(\vec{\mathrm{e}},\mathrm{e}'\mathrm{d})$ reaction. This particular process is a uniquely sensitive probe of hadron dynamics in $^3\mathrm{He}$ and the structure of the underlying electromagnetic currents. The measurements have been performed in and around quasi-elastic kinematics at $Q^2 = 0. Read More

The mu + 2H -> nu + n + n, mu + 3He -> nu + 3H, mu + 3He -> nu + n + d and mu + 3He -> nu + n + n + p capture reactions are studied with various realistic potentials under full inclusion of final state interactions. Our results for the two- and three-body break-up of 3He are calculated with a variety of nucleon-nucleon potentials, among which is the AV18 potential, augmented by the Urbana~IX three-nucleon potential. Most of our results are based on the single nucleon weak current operator. Read More

We discuss the application of the chiral N3LO forces to three-nucleon reactions and point to the challenges which will have to be addressed. Present approaches to solve three-nucleon Faddeev equations are based on a partial-wave decomposition. A rapid increase of the number of terms contributing to the chiral three-nucleon force when increasing the order of the chiral expansion from N2LO to N3LO forced us to develop a fast and effective method of automatized partial wave decomposition. Read More

The first measurement of the three-body photodisintegration of longitudinally-polarized ^3He with a circularly-polarized \gamma-ray beam was carried out at the High Intensity \gamma-ray Source (HI\gamma S) facility located at Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL). The spin-dependent double-differential cross sections and the contributions from the three-body photodisintegration to the ^3He GDH integrand are presented and compared with state-of-the-art three-body calculations at the incident photon energies of 12.8 and 14. Read More

We discuss the role of spin in Poincar\'e invariant formulations of quantum mechanics. Read More

We compare three methods to calculate the nucleon-nucleon t-matrix based on the three-dimensional formulation of J. Golak et al., Phys. Read More

We investigate how strong a hypothetical 1S0 bound state of two neutrons would affect different observables in the neutron-deuteron reactions. To that aim we extend our momentum space scheme of solving three-nucleon Faddeev equations to incorporate in addition to the deuteron also the 1S0 dineutron bound state. We discuss effects induced by dineutron on the angular distribution of the neutron-deuteron elastic scattering and cross sections of the deuteron breakup. Read More

Affiliations: 1Mandalay Uni., 2Kyushu Ins. Tech., 3Jagiellonian Uni., 4Mandalay Uni., 5Jagiellonian Uni., 6Ruhr-Uni. Bochum
Category: Nuclear Theory

Using the complex energy method, the problem of nucleon-deuteron scattering is solved with a simple three-body force having a separable form. Our results are compared with the results of modern direct two-variable calculations and a good agreement is found. This forms a firm base for other applications of the complex energy method. Read More

Long-range contributions to the three-nucleon force that have been recently worked out in chiral effective field theory at next-to-next-to-next-to-leading order are for the first time included in the triton and the doublet nucleon-deuteron scattering length calculations. The strengths of the two short-range terms available at this order in the chiral expansion are determined from the triton binding energy and the neutron-deuteron doublet scattering length. The structure of the resulting three-nucleon force is explored and effects for the two-nucleon correlation function in the triton are investigated. Read More

A complete high precision set of deuteron analyzing powers for elastic deuteron-proton ($dp$) scattering at 250 MeV/nucleon (MeV/N) has been measured. The new data are presented together with data from previous measurements at 70, 100, 135 and 200 MeV/N. They are compared with the results of three-nucleon (3N) Faddeev calculations based on modern nucleon-nucleon (NN) potentials alone or combined with two models of three nucleon forces (3NFs): the Tucson-Melbourne 99 (TM99) and Urbana IX. Read More

The recently derived long-range two-pion exchange (TPE) contributions to the nuclear current operator which appear at next-to-leading order (NLO) of the chiral expansion are used to describe electromagnetic processes. We study their role in the photodisintegration of 2H and 3He and compare our predictions with experimental data. The bound and scattering states are calculated using five different parametrizations of the chiral next-to-next-to-leading order (N2LO) nucleon-nucleon (NN) potential which allows us to estimate the theoretical uncertainty at a given order in the chiral expansion. Read More

We extend our formulation of relativistic three-nucleon Faddeev equations to include both pairwise interactions and a three-nucleon force. Exact Poincare invariance is realized by adding interactions to the mass Casimir operator (rest Hamiltonian) of the non-interacting system without changing the spin Casimir operator. This is achieved by using interactions defined by rotationally invariant kernels that are functions of internal momentum variables and single-particle spins that undergo identical Wigner rotations. Read More

A recently developed procedure for a partial wave decomposition of a three-nucleon force is applied to the pi-pi, pi-rho and rho-rho components of the Tucson-Melbourne three-nucleon potential. The resulting matrix elements for the pi-pi and pi-rho components are compared with the values obtained using the standard approach to the partial wave decomposition, in which the pi-rho expressions for the matrix elements are also derived and presented. Several numerical tests and results for the triton binding energy and the correlation function prove the reliability and efficiency of the new method. Read More

We extend our approach to incorporate the proton-proton (pp) Coulomb force into the three-nucleon (3N) momentum-space Faddeev calculations of elastic proton-deuteron (pd) scattering and breakup to the case when also a three-nucleon force (3NF) is acting. In addition we formulate that approach in the application to electron- and gamma-induced reactions on 3He. The main new ingredient is a 3-dimensional screened pp Coulomb t-matrix obtained by a numerical solution of a 3-dimensional Lippmann-Schwinger equation (LSE). Read More

Large discrepancies between quasi-free neutron-neutron (nn) cross section data from neutron-deuteron (nd) breakup and theoretical predictions based on standard nucleon-nucleon (NN) and three-nucleon (3N) forces are pointed out. The nn 1S0 interaction is shown to be dominant in that configuration and has to be increase to bring theory and data into agreement. Using the next-to-leading order (NLO) 1S0 interaction of chiral perturbation theory (chiPT) we demonstrate that the nn QFS cross section only slightly depends on changes of the nn scattering length but is very sensitive to variations of the effective range parameter. Read More

The six-nucleon problem for the bound state is formulated in the Yakubovsky scheme. Hints for a numerical implementation are provided. Read More

We review the construction and applications of exactly Poincar\'e invariant quantum mechanical models of few-degree of freedom systems. We discuss the construction of dynamical representations of the Poincar\'e group on few-particle Hilbert spaces, the relation to quantum field theory, the formulation of cluster properties, and practical considerations related to the construction of realistic interactions and the solution of the dynamical equations. Selected applications illustrate the utility of this approach. Read More

We extend a new treatment proposed for two-nucleon (2N) and three-nucleon (3N) bound states to 2N scattering. This technique takes momentum vectors as variables, thus, avoiding partial wave decomposition, and handles spin operators analytically. We apply the general operator structure of a nucleon-nucleon (NN) potential to the NN T-matrix, which becomes a sum of six terms, each term being scalar products of spin operators and momentum vectors multiplied with scalar functions of vector momenta. Read More

We demonstrate behaviour of the momentum space screened Coulomb t-matrix, obtained by a numerical solution of the three-dimensional Lippmann-Schwinger equation. Examples are given for different types of screening. They prove that it is possible to obtain numerically a reliable three-dimensional screened Coulomb t-matrix, what is important in view of its application in few-body calculations. Read More

A recently developed formulation for treating two- and three-nucleon bound states in a three-dimensional formulation based on spin-momentum operators is extended to nucleon-nucleon scattering. Here the nucleon-nucleon t-matrix is represented by six spin-momentum operators accompanied by six scalar functions of momentum vectors. We present the formulation and provide numerical examples for the deuteron and nucleon-nucleon scattering observables. Read More

We formulate a general and exact method of partial wave decomposition (PWD) of any nucleon-nucleon (NN) potential and any three-nucleon (3N) force. The approach allows one to efficiently use symbolic algebra software to generate the interaction dependent part of the program code calculating the interaction. We demonstrate the feasibility of this approach for the one-boson exchange BonnB potential, a recent nucleon-nucleon chiral force and the chiral two-pion-exchange three-nucleon force. Read More

A recently developed formulation for a direct treatment of the equations for two- and three-nucleon bound states as set of coupled equations of scalar functions depending only on vector momenta is extended to three-nucleon scattering. Starting from the spin-momentum dependence occurring as scalar products in two- and three-nucleon forces together with other scalar functions, we present the Faddeev multiple scattering series in which order by order the spin-degrees can be treated analytically leading to 3D integrations over scalar functions depending on momentum vectors only. Such formulation is especially important in view of awaiting extension of 3N Faddeev calculations to projectile energies above the pion production threshold and applications of chiral perturbation theory 3N forces, which are to be most efficiently treated directly in such three-dimensional formulation without having to expand these forces into a partial wave basis. Read More

In view of recent neutron-deuteron (nd) breakup data for neutron-neutron (nn) and neutron-proton (np) quasi-free-scattering (QFS) arrangements and the large discrepancy found between theoretical predictions and measured nn QFS cross sections, we analyze the sensitivity of the QFS cross sections to different partial wave components of the nucleon-nucleon (NN) interaction. We found that the QFS cross section is strongly dominated by the 1S0 and 3S1-3D1 contributions. Because the standard three-nucleon force (3NF) only weakly influence the QFS region, we conjecture, that it must be the nn 1S0 force component which is responsible for the discrepancy in the nn QFS peak. Read More

We extend our approach to incorporate the proton-proton (pp) Coulomb force into the three-nucleon (3N) Faddeev calculations from elastic proton-deuteron (pd) scattering to the breakup process. The main new ingredient is a 3-dimensional screened pp Coulomb t-matrix obtained by a numerical solution of the 3-dimensional Lippmann-Schwinger equation. We demonstrate numerically that the proton-deuteron breakup observables can be determined from the resulting on-shell 3N amplitudes increasing the screening radius. Read More

The direct treatment of the Faddeev equation for the three-boson system in 3 dimensions is generalized to nucleons. The one Faddeev equation for identical bosons is replaced by a strictly finite set of coupled equations for scalar functions which depend only on 3 variables. The spin-momentum dependence occurring as scalar products in 2N and 3N forces accompanied by scalar functions is supplemented by a corresponding expansion of the Faddeev amplitudes. Read More

The three-dimensional half-shell t-matrix for a sharply cut-off Coulomb potential is analytically derived together with its asymptotic form without reference to partial wave expansion. The numerical solutions of the three-dimensional Lippmann-Schwinger equation for increasing cut-off radii provide half-shell t-matrices which are in quite a good agreement with the asymptotic values. Read More

We propose a novel approach to incorporate the proton-proton (pp) Coulomb force into the three-nucleon (3N) Faddeev calculations. The main new ingredient is a 3-dimensional screened pp Coulomb t-matrix obtained by a numerical solution of the 3-dimensional Lippmann-Schwinger (LS) equation. We demonstrate numerically and provide analytical insight that the elastic proton-deuteron (pd) observables can be determined directly from the resulting on shell 3N amplitude increasing the screening radius. Read More

We demonstrate numerically that proton-proton (pp) scattering observables can be determined directly by standard short range methods using a screened pp Coulomb force without renormalization. In examples the appropriate screening radii are given. We also numerically investigate solutions of the 3-dimensional Lippmann-Schwinger (LS) equation for a screened Coulomb potential alone in the limit of large screening radii and confirm analytically predicted properties for off-shell, half-shell and on-shell Coulomb t-matrices. Read More

Cross sections for the ^{3}He(e,e'pn)p reaction were measured for the first time at energy transfers of 220 and 270 MeV for several momentum transfers ranging from 300 to 450 MeV/c. Cross sections are presented as a function of the momentum of the recoil proton and the momentum transfer. Continuum Faddeev calculations using the Argonne V18 and Bonn-B nucleon-nucleon potentials overestimate the measured cross sections by a factor 5 at low recoil proton momentum with the discrepancy becoming much smaller at higher recoil momentum. Read More

The 3-dimensional wave function for a sharply cut-off Coulomb potential is analytically derived. The asymptotic form of the related scattering amplitude reveals a failure of the standard renormalization factor which is believed to be generally valid for any type of screening. Read More

I summarize recent progress in the treatment of the Poincar\'e three-nucleon problem at intermediate energies Read More

The phase equivalent relativistic NN potential, which is related by a nonlinear equation to the original nonrelativistic potential, is used to construct the mass operator (rest Hamiltonian) of the 3-nucleon system. Employing the CD Bonn NN potential, the solution of the relativistic 3N Faddeev equation for $^3$H shows slightly less binding energy than the corresponding nonrelativistic result. The effect of the Wigner spin rotation on the binding is very small. Read More

A novel approach to solve the Faddeev equation for three-body scattering at arbitrary energies is proposed. This approach disentangles the complicated singularity structure of the free three-nucleon propagator leading to the moving and logarithmic singularities in standard treatments. The Faddeev equation is formulated in momentum space and directly solved in terms of momentum vectors without employing a partial wave decomposition. Read More

We propose a novel approach to solve the three-nucleon (3N) Faddeev equation which avoids the complicated singularity pattern going with the moving logarithmic singularities of the standard approach. In this new approach the treatment of the 3N Faddeev equation becomes essentially as simple as the treatment of the two-body Lippmann-Schwinger equation. Very good agreement of the new and old approaches in the application to nucleon-deuteron elastic scattering and the breakup reaction is found. Read More

We present a measurement of the spin-dependent cross sections for the \vec{^3He}(\vec{e},e')X} reaction in the quasielastic and resonance regions at four-momentum transfer 0.1 < Q^2< 0.9 GeV^2. Read More

The relativistic Faddeev equation for three-nucleon scattering is formulated in momentum space and directly solved in terms of momentum vectors without employing a partial wave decomposition. The equation is solved through Pad\'e summation, and the numerical feasibility and stability of the solution is demonstrated. Relativistic invariance is achieved by constructing a dynamical unitary representation of the Poincar\'e group on the three-nucleon Hilbert space. Read More

We solve the Faddeev equation in an exactly Poincare invariant formulation of the three-nucleon problem. The dynamical input is a relativistic nucleon-nucleon interaction that is exactly on-shell equivalent to the high precision CDBonn NN interaction. S-matrix cluster properties dictate how the two-body dynamics is embedded in the three-nucleon mass operator. Read More

High precision vector and tensor analyzing powers of elastic deuteron-proton d+p scattering have been measured at intermediate energies to investigate effects of three-nucleon forces (3NF). Angular distribution in the range of 70-120 degree in the center-of mass frame for incident-deuteron energies of 130 and 180 MeV were obtained using the RIKEN facility. The beam polarization was unambiguously determined by measuring the 12C(d,alpha)10B(2+) reaction at 0 degree. Read More

Present day chiral nucleon-nucleon potentials up to N3LO and three nucleon forces at N2LO are used to analyze nucleon-deuteron radiative capture at deuteron lab energies below E_d= 100 MeV. The differential cross section and the deuteron analyzing powers A_y(d) and A_{yy} are presented and compared to data. The theoretical predictions are obtained in the momentum-space Faddeev approach using the nuclear electromagnetic current operator with exchange currents introduced via the Siegert theorem. Read More

We estimate four-nucleon force effects between different 4He wave functions by calculating the expectation values of four-nucleon potentials which were recently derived within the framework of chiral effective field theory. We find that the four-nucleon force is attractive for the wave functions with a totally symmetric momentum part. The additional binding energy provided by the long-ranged part of the four-nucleon force is of the order of a few hundred keV. Read More

We formulate an approximate relativistic framework for an analysis of the 3He(e,e'p)pn and 3He(e,e'n)pp reactions with polarized electrons and 3He in the initial state. Restricting the rescattering series to one term linear in the two-nucleon t-matrix we incorporate various relativistic features when calculating a nuclear current matrix element. These relativistic ingredients encompass the relativistic 3He wave function based on the concept of the Lorentz boosted nucleon-nucleon potential together with the boosted 2N t-matrix, relativistic kinematics and relativistic single-nucleon current operator. Read More