# H. Stoecker - FIAS, University Frankfurt

## Contact Details

NameH. Stoecker |
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AffiliationFIAS, University Frankfurt |
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CityFrankfort |
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CountryUnited States |
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## Pubs By Year |
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## Pub CategoriesHigh Energy Physics - Phenomenology (36) Nuclear Theory (35) Nuclear Experiment (12) Astrophysics (3) High Energy Physics - Experiment (3) High Energy Physics - Lattice (3) High Energy Physics - Theory (2) Mathematical Physics (1) General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (1) Mathematics - Mathematical Physics (1) |

## Publications Authored By H. Stoecker

We study the sensitivities of the directed flow in Au+Au collisions on the equation of state (EoS), employing the transport theoretical model JAM. The EoS is modified by introducing a new collision term in order to control the pressure of a system by appropriately selecting an azimuthal angle in two-body collisions according to a given EoS. It is shown that this approach is an efficient method to modify the EoS in a transport model. Read More

The equation of state of a baryon-symmetric hadronic matter with hard-sphere interactions is studied. It is assumed that mesons are point-like, but baryons and antibaryons have the same hard-core radius rB. Three possibilities are considered: 1) the baryon-baryon and antibaryon-baryon interactions are the same; 2) baryons do not interact with antibaryons; 3) the baryon-antibaryon and meson-(anti)baryon interactions are negligible. Read More

We analyze the sensitivity of thermal fits to heavy-ion hadron yield data of ALICE and NA49 collaborations to the systematic uncertainties in the hadron resonance gas (HRG) model related to the modeling of the eigenvolume interactions. We find a surprisingly large sensitivity in extraction of chemical freeze-out parameters to the assumptions regarding eigenvolumes of different hadrons. We additionally study the effect of including yields of light nuclei into the thermal fits to LHC data and find even larger sensitivity to the modeling of their eigenvolumes. Read More

Particle number fluctuations are considered within the van der Waals (VDW) equation, which contains both attractive (mean-field) and repulsive (eigenvolume) interactions. The VDW equation is used to calculate the scaled variance of particle number fluctuations in generic Boltzmann VDW system and in nuclear matter. The strongly intensive measures $\Delta[E^*,N]$ and $\Sigma[E^*,N]$ of the particle number and excitation energy fluctuations are also considered, and, similarly, show singular behavior near the critical point. Read More

An extension of the ideal hadron resonance gas (HRG) model is constructed which includes the attractive and repulsive van der Waals (VDW) interactions between baryons. This VDW-HRG model yields the nuclear liquid-gas transition at low temperatures and high baryon densities. The VDW parameters $a$ and $b$ are fixed by the ground state properties of nuclear matter, and the temperature dependence of various thermodynamic observables at zero chemical potential are calculated within VDW-HRG model. Read More

Partonic matter produced in the early stage of ultrarelativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions is assumed to be composed mainly of gluons, and quarks and antiquarks are produced at later times. The comparable hydrodynamic simulations of heavy-ion collisions for (2+1)-flavor and Yang-Mills equations of state performed by using three different hydrodynamic codes are presented. Assuming slow chemical equilibration of quarks, the spectra and elliptic flows of thermal dileptons and photons are calculated for central Pb+Pb collisions at the LHC energy of $\sqrt{s_{_{\rm NN}}} = 2. Read More

The hadron-resonance gas (HRG) model with eigenvolume corrections is employed to fit the hadron yield data of the NA49 collaboration for central Pb+Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 6.3, 7.6, 8. Read More

We study the eigenvolume effects in the hadron resonance gas (HRG) model on hadron yields at zero chemical potential. Using different mass-volume relations for strange and nonstrange hadrons we observe a remarkable improvement in the quality of the fit of the mean hadron multiplicities measured by the ALICE Collaboration in the central Pb+Pb collisions at the collision energy $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}} = 2.76$~TeV. Read More

The hadron resonance gas model with hadron-type dependent eigenvolume corrections is employed to fit the hadron yield data of the NA49 collaboration for central Pb+Pb collisions at the c.m. energy per nucleon pair Ecm=6. Read More

Partonic matter produced in the early stage of ultrarelativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions is assumed to be composed mainly of gluons, and quarks and antiquarks are produced at later times. To study the implications of such a scenario, the dynamical evolution of a chemically nonequilibrated system is described by the ideal (2+1)-dimensional hydrodynamics with a time dependent (anti)quark fugacity. The equation of state interpolates linearly between the lattice data for the pure gluonic matter and the lattice data for the chemically equilibrated quark-gluon plasma. Read More

Electromagnetism, the strong and the weak interaction are commonly formulated as gauge theories in a Lagrangian description. In this paper we present an alternative formal derivation of U(1)-gauge theory in a manifestly covariant Hamilton formalism. We make use of canonical transformations as our guiding tool to formalize the gauging procedure. Read More

We analyze the directed flow of protons and pions in high-energy heavy-ion collisions in the incident energy range from $\sqrt{s_{{\scriptscriptstyle NN}}}=7.7$ to 27 GeV within a microscopic transport model. Standard hadronic transport approaches do not describe the collapse of directed flow below $\sqrt{s_{{\scriptscriptstyle NN}}}\simeq 20$ GeV. Read More

Hagedorn states are the key to understand how all hadrons observed in high energy heavy ion collisions seem to reach thermal equilibrium so quickly. An assembly of Hagedorn states is formed in elementary hadronic or heavy ion collisions at hadronization. Microscopic simulations within the transport model UrQMD allow to study the time evolution of such a pure non-equilibrated Hagedorn state gas towards a thermally equilibrated Hadron Resonance Gas by using dynamics, which unlike strings, fully respect detailed balance. Read More

The conventional hadron-resonance gas (HRG) model with the Particle Data Group (PDG) hadron input, full chemical equilibrium, and the hadron type dependent eigenvolume interactions is employed to fit the hadron mid-rapidity yield data of ALICE Collaboration for the most central Pb+Pb collisions. For the case of point-like hadrons the well-known fit result $T = 154 \pm 2$ MeV is reproduced. However, the situation changes if hadrons have different eigenvolumes. Read More

We study the possibility that partonic matter produced at early stage of ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions is out of chemical equilibrium. It is assumed that initially this matter is mostly composed of gluons, but quarks and antiquarks are produced at later times. The dynamical evolution of partonic system is described by the Bjorken-like ideal hydrodynamics with a time dependent quark fugacity. Read More

The early stage of high multiplicity nuclear collisions is represented by a nearly quarkless, hot, deconfined pure gluon plasma. This new scenario should be characterized by a suppression of high $p_T$ photons and dileptons as well as by reduced baryon to meson ratios. We present the numerical results for central Pb+Pb collisions at the LHC energies by using the ideal Bjorken hydrodynamics with time-dependent quark fugacity. Read More

**Authors:**Horst Stoecker, Kai Zhou, Stefan Schramm, Florian Senzel, Carsten Greiner, Maxim Beitel, Kai Gallmeister, Mark Gorenstein, Igor Mishustin, David Vasak, Jan Steinheimer, Juergen Struckmeier, Volodymyr Vovchenko, Leonid Satarov, Zhe Xu, Pengfei Zhuang, Laszlo P. Csernai, Bikash Sinha, Sibaji Raha, Tamás Sándor Biró, Marco Panero

The early stage of high multiplicity pp, pA and AA collider is represented by a nearly quarkless, hot, deconfined pure gluon plasma. According to pure Yang-Mills Lattice Gauge Theory, this hot pure glue matter undergoes, at a high temperature, $T_c = 270$ MeV, a first order phase transition into a confined Hagedorn-GlueBall fluid. These new scenario should be characterized by a suppression of high $p_T$ photons and dileptons, baryon suppression and enhanced strange meson production. Read More

Fluid dynamical models preceded the first heavy ion accelerator experiments, and led to the main trend of this research since then. In recent years fluid dynamical processes became a dominant direction of research in high energy heavy ion reactions. The Quark-gluon Plasma formed in these reactions has low viscosity, which leads to significant fluctuations and turbulent instabilities. Read More

In this paper we propose to thoroughly investigate asymmetric nuclear collisions both in the fixed target mode at the laboratory energy below 5 GeV per nucleon and in the collider mode with a center of mass energy below 11 GeV per nucleon. Using the UrQMD transport model, we demonstrate a strong enhancement of directed and elliptic flow coefficients for the midcentral asymmetric nuclear collisions compared to symmetric collisions. We argue that such an enhancement is due to the disappearance of the nuclear shadowing effect on the side of the smaller projectile nucleus. Read More

We present, using the statistical model, an analysis of the production of light nuclei, hypernuclei and their antiparticles in central collisions of heavy nuclei. Based on these studies we provide predictions for the production yields of multiply-strange light nuclei. Read More

We investigate the influence of a deconfinement phase transition on the dynamics of hot and dense nuclear matter. We apply a hybrid model where an intermediate hydrodynamics stage is employed for the the hot and dense stage of a system created in head-on collisions of Pb+Pb/Au+Au at beam energies from $2-160A $GeV. The initial and final interactions are performed by a microscopic transport approach (UrQMD). Read More

An integrated Boltzmann+hydrodynamics transport approach is applied to investigate the dependence of the mean transverse mass on the freeze-out and the equation of state over the energy range from $E_{\rm lab}=2-160A $GeV. This transport approach based on the Ultra-relativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics (UrQMD) with an intermediate hydrodynamic stage allows for a systematic comparison without adjusting parameters. We find that the multiplicities of pions and protons are rather insensitive to different freeze-out prescriptions and changes in the equation of state, but the yields are slightly reduced in the hybrid model calculation compared to a pure transport calculation while the (anti)kaon multiplicities are increased. Read More

Two microscopic models, UrQMD and QGSM, are used to extract the effective equation of state (EOS) of locally equilibrated nuclear matter produced in heavy-ion collisions at energies from 11.6 AGeV to 160 AGeV. Analysis is performed for the fixed central cubic cell of volume V = 125 fm**3 and for the expanding cell that followed the growth of the central area with uniformly distributed energy. Read More

A systematic study of HBT radii of pions, produced in heavy ion collisions in the intermediate energy regime (SPS), from an integrated (3+1)d Boltzmann+hydrodynamics approach is presented. The calculations in this hybrid approach, incorporating an hydrodynamic stage into the Ultra-relativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics transport model, allow for a comparison of different equations of state retaining the same initial conditions and final freeze-out. The results are also compared to the pure cascade transport model calculations in the context of the available data. Read More

Dilepton production in intermediate energy nucleus-nucleus collisions as well as in elementary proton-proton reactions is analysed within the UrQMD transport model. For C+C collisions at 1 AGeV and 2 AGeV the resulting invariant mass spectra are compared to recent HADES data. We find that the experimental spectrum for C+C at 2 AGeV is slightly overestimated by the theoretical calculations in the region around the vector meson peak, but fairly described in the low mass region, where the data is satisfactorily saturated by the Dalitz decay of the $\eta$ meson and the $\Delta$ resonance. Read More

We apply a coupled transport-hydrodynamics model to discuss the production of multi-strange meta-stable objects in Pb+Pb reactions at the FAIR facility. In addition to making predictions for yields of these particles we are able to calculate particle dependent rapidity and momentum distributions. We argue that the FAIR energy regime is the optimal place to search for multi-strange baryonic object (due to the high baryon density, favouring a distillation of strangeness). Read More

The upcoming high energy experiments at the LHC are one of the most outstanding efforts for a better understanding of nature. It is associated with great hopes in the physics community. But there is also some fear in the public, that the conjectured production of mini black holes might lead to a dangerous chain reaction. Read More

Fast thermalization and elliptic flow of QCD matter found at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) are understood as the consequence of perturbative QCD (pQCD) interactions within a (3+1) dimensional parton cascade. The main contributions stem from pQCD-inspired bremsstrahlung. We extract the shear viscosity to entropy ratio, which is between 0. Read More

**Authors:**L. Bravina, I. Arsene, J. Bleibel, M. Bleicher, G. Burau, Amand Faessler, C. Fuchs, M. S. Nilsson, H. Stoecker, K. Tywoniuk, E. Zabrodin

Two microscopic models, UrQMD and QGSM, were employed to study the formation of locally equilibrated hot and dense nuclear matter in heavy-ion collisions at energies from 11.6 AGeV to 160 AGeV. Analysis was performed for the fixed central cubic cell of volume V = 125 fm**3 and for the expanding cell which followed the growth of the central area with uniformly distributed energy. Read More

The project of the international Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR), co-located to the GSI facility in Darmstadt, has been officially started on November 7, 2007. The current plans of the facility and the planned research program will be described. An investment of about 1 billion euro will permit new physics programs in the areas of low and medium energy antiproton research, heavy ion physics complementary to LHC, as well as in nuclear structure and astrophysics. Read More

Within the framework of the dynamical recombination approach implemented in the partonic/hadronic quark Molecular Dynamics (qMD) model, we investigate numerous QGP signals constructed from the correlations and fluctuations of conserved charges, namely charged particle ratio fluctuations, charge transfer fluctuations as well as various ratios of susceptibilities. We argue that more generally, the covariances and the variances of the conserved charges divided by the number of charged particles are a measure of the quark number susceptibilities and are thus sensitive to the phase of the system. Computations carried within samples of central qMD events from low AGS energies on ($E_{lab}=2$ AGeV) up to the highest RHIC energies available ($\sqrt{s_{NN}}=200$ GeV) show that the final state calculations are always compatible with the hadronic result. Read More

Based on the microscopic transport model UrQMD in which hadronic and string degrees of freedom are employed, the HBT parameters in the longitudinal co-moving system are investigated for charged pion and kaon, and $\Lambda$ sources in heavy ion collisions (HICs) at SPS and RHIC energies. In the Cascade mode, $R_O$ and the $R_L$ at high SPS and RHIC energies do not follow the $m_T$-scaling, however, after considering a soft equation of state with momentum dependence (SM-EoS) for formed baryons and a density-dependent Skyrme-like potential for ``pre-formed'' particles, the HBT radii of pions and kaons and even those of $\Lambda$s with large transverse momenta follow the $m_T$-scaling function $R=3/\sqrt{m_T}$ fairly well. Read More

The parity doublet model, containing the SU(2) multiplets including the baryons identified as the chiral partners of the nucleons is applied to neutron stars. The maximum mass for the star is calculated for different stages of the cooling taking into account finite temperature/entropy effect, trapped neutrinos and fixed baryon number. Rotation effects are also included. Read More

The elliptic flow $v_2$ and the ratio of the shear viscosity over the entropy density, $\eta/s$, of gluon matter are calculated from the perturbative QCD (pQCD) based parton cascade Boltzmann approach of multiparton scatterings. For Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s}=200$A GeV the gluon plasma generates large $v_2$ values measured at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. Standard pQCD yields $\eta/s\approx 0. Read More

**Category:**Astrophysics

The Parity doublet model containing the SU(2) multiplets including the baryons identified as the chiral partners of the nucleons is applied for neutron star matter. The chiral restoration is analyzed and the maximum mass of the star is calculated. Read More

We study the propagation of sound-like perturbations created by a jet moving with supersonic velocity through the quark-gluon-plasma created in heavy-ion reactions within the model MACE (MAch Cone Evolution). Predictions for heavy-ion reactions at RHIC energies (Au+Au-collisions) and for Pb+Pb reactions at the LHC ($\sqrt s=5.5A$ TeV) are presented and potential observations by the STAR, PHENIX and ALICE experiments are discussed. Read More

Applying the HSD transport approach to charmonium dynamics within the 'hadronic comover model' and the 'QGP melting scenario', we show that the suppression pattern seen at RHIC cannot be explained by the interaction with baryons, comoving mesons and/or by color screening mechanism. The interaction with hadrons in the late stages of the collision (when the energy density falls below the critical) gives a sizable contribution to the suppression. On the other hand, it does not account for the observed additional charmonium dissociation and its dependence on rapidity. Read More

The interplay of charmonium production and suppression in In+In and Pb+Pb reactions at 158 AGeV and in Au+Au reactions at sqrt(s)=200 GeV is investigated with the HSD transport approach within the `hadronic comover model' and the `QGP melting scenario'. The results for the J/Psi suppression and the Psi' to J/Psi ratio are compared to the recent data of the NA50, NA60, and PHENIX Collaborations. We find that, at 158 AGeV, the comover absorption model performs better than the scenario of abrupt threshold melting. Read More

The nuclear stopping, the elliptic flow, and the HBT interferometry are calculated by the UrQMD transport model, in which potentials for "pre-formed" particles (string fragments) from color fluxtube fragmentation as well as for confined particles are considered. This description provides stronger pressure at the early stage and describes these observables better than the default cascade mode (where the "pre-formed" particles from string fragmentation are treated to be free-streaming). It should be stressed that the inclusion of potential interactions pushes down the calculated HBT radius $R_O$ and pulls up the $R_S$ so that the HBT time-related puzzle disappears throughout the energies from AGS, SPS, to RHIC. Read More

Neutron star matter is investigated in a hadronic chiral model approach using the lowest flavor-SU(3) multiplets for baryons and mesons. The parameters are determined to yield consistent results for saturated nuclear matter as well as for finite nuclei. The influence of baryonic resonances is discussed. Read More

The shape of Mach Cones in central lead on lead collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}} = 5.5$ TeV are calculated and discussed using MACE. Read More

We perform a systematic analysis of several HBT parameters in heavy ion collisions from $E_{\rm beam}=2$ AGeV to $\sqrt {s_{\rm NN}}=200$ GeV within the UrQMD transport approach and compare the results to experimental data where available. We find that the 'lifetime' of the emission source as calculated from $\tau \sim \sqrt{R_O^{2}-R_S^{2}}$, is larger than the experimentally observed values at all investigated energies. The calculated volume of the pion source ($V_f$) is found to increase monotonously with increasing beam energy and the experimentally observed decrease of the measured $V_f$ at AGS is not seen. Read More

The formation and suppression dynamics of J/Psi, Chi_c and Psi-Prime mesons is studied within the HSD transport approach for Au+Au reactions at the top RHIC energy of sqrt(S)=200 GeV. Two prominent models, which have been discussed for more than a decade, are incorporated, i.e. Read More

**Category:**High Energy Physics - Phenomenology

Strategies for identifying speculative mini black hole events (due to large extra dimensions) at future colliders are reviewed. Estimates for production cross sections, Hawking radiation, di-jet suppression and multi- mono-jet emission are surveyed. We further report on a class of effective entropy formulas that could lead to the formation of a final black hole remnant state, BHR. Read More

We obtain the D-meson spectral density at finite temperature for the conditions of density and temperature expected at FAIR. We perform a self-consistent coupled-channel calculation taking, as a bare interaction, a separable potential model. The $\Lambda_c$ (2593) resonance is generated dynamically. Read More

Charmonium production and suppression in In+In and Pb+Pb reactions at SPS energies is investigated with the HSD transport approach within the 'hadronic comover model' as well as the 'QGP threshold scenario'. The results of the transport calculations for J/Psi suppression and the Psi prime to J/Psi ratio are compared with the recent data of the NA50 and NA60 Collaborations. We find that the comover absorption model - with a single parameter |M_0|^2 for the matrix element squared for charmonium-meson dissociation - performs best with respect to all data sets. Read More

Based on the UrQMD transport model, the transverse momentum and the rapidity dependence of the Hanbury-Brown-Twiss (HBT) radii $R_L$, $R_O$, $R_S$ as well as the cross term $R_{OL}$ at SPS energies are investigated and compared with the experimental NA49 and CERES data. The rapidity dependence of the $R_L$, $R_O$, $R_S$ is weak while the $R_{OL}$ is significantly increased at large rapidities and small transverse momenta. The HBT "life-time" issue (the phenomenon that the calculated $\sqrt{R_O^{2}-R_S^{2}}$ value is larger than the correspondingly extracted experimental data) is also present at SPS energies. Read More

A 1+1 dimensional hydrodynamical model in the light-cone coordinates is used to describe central heavy-ion collisions at ultrarelativistic bombarding energies. Deviations from Bjorken's scaling are taken into account by choosing finite-size profiles for the initial energy density. The sensitivity of fluid dynamical evolution to the equation of state and the parameters of initial state is investigated. Read More

We propose to measure azimuthal correlations of heavy-flavor hadrons to address the status of thermalization at the partonic stage of light quarks and gluons in high-energy nuclear collisions. In particular, we show that hadronic interactions at the late stage cannot significantly disturb the initial back-to-back azimuthal correlations of DDbar pairs. Thus, a decrease or the complete absence of these initial correlations does indicate frequent interactions of heavy-flavor quarks and also light partons in the partonic stage, which are essential for the early thermalization of light partons. Read More

The experimental signatures of TeV-mass black hole (BH) formation in heavy ion collisions at the LHC is examined. We find that the black hole production results in a complete disappearance of all very high $p_T$ ({$> 500$} GeV) back-to-back correlated di-jets of total mass {$M > M_f \sim 1$}TeV. We show that the subsequent Hawking-decay produces multiple hard mono-jets and discuss their detection. Read More