H. Goldberg - Northeastern University

H. Goldberg
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Name
H. Goldberg
Affiliation
Northeastern University
City
Boston
Country
United States

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High Energy Physics - Phenomenology (47)
 
High Energy Physics - Theory (23)
 
High Energy Physics - Experiment (13)
 
High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (12)
 
Astrophysics (11)
 
Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (6)
 
General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (4)
 
Nuclear Theory (2)

Publications Authored By H. Goldberg

We argue that ultrahigh energy cosmic ray collisions in the Earth atmosphere can probe the strange quark density of the nucleon. These collisions have center-of-mass energies \agt 10^{4.6} A GeV, where A \geq 14 is the nuclear baryon number. Read More

We investigate left-right symmetric extensions of the standard model based on open strings ending on D-branes, with gauge bosons due to strings attached to stacks of D-branes and chiral matter due to strings stretching between intersecting D-branes. The left-handed and right-handed fermions transform as doublets under Sp(1)_L and Sp(1)_R, and so their masses must be generated by the introduction of Higgs fields in a bi-fundamental (2,2) representation under the two Sp(1) gauge groups. For such D-brane configurations the left-right symmetry must be broken by Higgs fields in the doublet representation of Sp(1)_R and therefore Majorana mass terms are suppressed by some higher physics scale. Read More

We present yet another composite model explaining the relatively broad peak in the diphoton invariant mass distribution around 750 GeV recently observed at the LHC experiments. We consider the excess originates in bound states of vector-like fermions Q transforming under the electroweak group (but not QCD) of the standard model and which are also charged under a new SU(N_{TC}) QCD-like confining force. Since the new uncolored fields transform as SU(2) doublets they can acquire a mass through Yukawa interactions with the electroweak Higgs doublet, as quarks and leptons. Read More

Motivated by the recent update on LHC searches for narrow and broad resonances decaying into diphotons we reconsider the possibility that the observed peak in the invariant mass spectrum at M_{\gamma \gamma} = 750 GeV originates from a closed string (possibly axionic) excitation \varphi (associated with low mass scale string theory) that has a coupling with gauge kinetic terms. We reevaluate the production of \varphi by photon fusion to accommodate recent developments on additional contributions to relativistic light-light scattering. We also study the production of \varphi via gluon fusion. Read More

We show that low-mass-scale string compactifications, with a generic D-brane configuration that realizes the standard model by open strings, can explain the relatively broad peak in the diphoton invariant mass spectrum at 750 GeV recently reported by the ATLAS and CMS collaborations. Under reasonable assumptions, we demonstrate that the excess could originate from a closed string (possibly axionic) excitation \varphi that has a coupling with gauge kinetic terms. We estimate the \varphi production rate from photon-photon fusion in elastic pp scattering, using the effective photon and narrow width approximations. Read More

Very recently, the ATLAS and CMS collaborations reported diboson and dijet excesses above standard model expectations in the invariant mass region of 1.8 -2.0 TeV. Read More

Cosmological parameters deduced from the Planck measurements of anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background are at some tension with direct astronomical measurements of various parameters at low redshifts. Very recently, it has been conjectured that this discrepancy can be reconciled if a certain fraction of dark matter is unstable and decays between recombination and the present epoch. Herein we show that if the superheavy relics have a branching into neutrinos B (X \to \nu \bar \nu) \sim 3 \times 10^{-9}, then this scenario can also accommodate the recently discovered extraterrestrial flux of neutrinos, relaxing the tension between IceCube results and Fermi LAT data. Read More

We study the vacuum stability of a minimal Higgs portal model in which the standard model (SM) particle spectrum is extended to include one complex scalar field and one Dirac fermion. These new fields are singlets under the SM gauge group and are charged under a global U(1) symmetry. Breaking of this U(1) symmetry results in a massless Goldstone boson, a massive CP-even scalar, and splits the Dirac fermion into two new mass-eigenstates, corresponding to Majorana fermions. Read More

Motivated by recent IceCube observations we re-examine the idea that microquasars are high energy neutrino emitters. By stretching to the maximum the parameters of the Fermi engine we show that the nearby high-mass X-ray binary LS 5039 could accelerate protons up to above about 20 PeV. These highly relativistic protons could subsequently interact with the plasma producing neutrinos up to the maximum observed energies. Read More

[Abridged] We consider extensions of the standard model based on open strings ending on D-branes. Assuming that the fundamental string mass scale M_s is in the TeV range and that the theory is weakly coupled, we discuss possible signals of string physics at the upcoming HL-LHC run (3000 fb^{-1}) with \sqrt{s} = 14 TeV, and at potential future pp colliders, HE-LHC and VLHC, operating at \sqrt{s} = 33 and 100 TeV, respectively. In such D-brane constructions, the dominant contributions to full-fledged string amplitudes for all the common QCD parton subprocesses leading to dijets and \gamma + jet are completely independent of the details of compactification, and can be evaluated in a parameter-free manner. Read More

There may be a high-energy cutoff of neutrino events in IceCube data. In particular, IceCube does not observe either continuum events above 2 PeV, or the Standard Model Glashow-resonance events expected at 6.3 PeV. Read More

We investigate the neutrino - cosmic ray connection for sources in the Galaxy in terms of two observables: the shape of the energy spectrum and the distribution of arrival directions. We also study the associated gamma ray emission from these sources. Read More

We show that S-dual inflationary potentials solve the unlikeliness problem manifested in Planck data and explain the excess B-mode power observed by the BICEP2 experiment as arising from primordial tensor fluctuations. Read More

The announcement by the IceCube Collaboration of the observation of 28 cosmic neutrino candidates has been greeted with a great deal of justified excitement. The data reported so far depart by 4.3\sigma from the expected atmospheric neutrino background, which raises the obvious question: "Where in the Cosmos are these neutrinos coming from?" We review the many possibilities which have been explored in the literature to address this question, including origins at either Galactic or extragalactic celestial objects. Read More

We discuss a number of experimental constraints on Weinberg's Higgs portal model. In this framework, the standard model (SM) particle spectrum is extended to include one complex scalar field S and one Dirac fermion \psi. These new fields are singlets under the SM gauge group and are charged under a global U(1) symmetry. Read More

Very recently the IceCube Collaboration has reported an observation of 28 neutrino candidates with energies between 50 TeV and 2 PeV, constituting a 4.1$\sigma$ excess compared to the atmospheric background. In this article we investigate the compatibility between the data and a hypothesized unbroken power-law neutrino spectrum for various values of spectral index \Gamma >= 2. Read More

Llight-element abundances probing big bang nucleosynthesis and precision data from cosmology probing the cosmic microwave background decoupling epoch have hinted at the presence of extra relativistic degrees of freedom. This is widely referred to as "dark radiation", suggesting the need for new light states in the UV completion of the standard model. We provide a brief and concise overview of the current observational status of such dark radiation and investigate the interplay between two possible interpretations of the extra light states: the right-handed partners of three Dirac neutrinos (which interact with all fermions through the exchange of a new heavy vector meson) and dark matter particles that were produced through a non-thermal mechanism, such us late time decays of massive relics. Read More

Precision data from cosmology (probing the CMB decoupling epoch) and light-element abundances (probing the BBN epoch) have hinted at the presence of extra relativistic degrees of freedom, the so-called "dark radiation." We present a model independent study to account for the dark radiation by means of the right-handed partners of the three, left-handed, standard model neutrinos. We show that milli-weak interactions of these Dirac states (through their coupling to a TeV-scale Z' gauge boson) may allow the \nu_R's to decouple much earlier, at a higher temperature, than their left-handed counterparts. Read More

The latest results of the ATLAS and CMS experiments point to a preferred narrow Higgs mass range (m_h \simeq 124 - 126 GeV) in which the effective potential of the Standard Model (SM) develops a vacuum instability at a scale 10^{9} -10^{11} GeV, with the precise scale depending on the precise value of the top quark mass and the strong coupling constant. Motivated by this experimental situation, we present here a detailed investigation about the stability of the SM^{++} vacuum, which is characterized by a simple extension of the SM obtained by adding to the scalar sector a complex SU(2) singlet that has the quantum numbers of the right-handed neutrino, H", and to the gauge sector an U(1) that is broken by the vacuum expectation value of H". We derive the complete set of renormalization group equations at one loop. Read More

We discuss the phenomenology and cosmology of a Standard-like Model inspired by string theory, in which the gauge fields are localized on D-branes wrapping certain compact cycles on an underlying geometry, whose intersection can give rise to chiral fermions. The energy scale associated with string physics is assumed to be near the Planck mass. To develop our program in the simplest way, we work within the construct of a minimal model with gauge-extended sector U (3)_B \times Sp (1)_L \times U (1)_{I_R} \times U (1)_L. Read More

The gauge-extended U(1)_C \times SU(2)_L \times U(1)_{I_R} \times U(1)_L model has the attractive property of elevating the two major global symmetries of the standard model (baryon number B and lepton number L) to local gauge symmetries. The U(1)_L symmetry prevents the generation of Majorana masses, leading to three superweakly interacting right-handed neutrinos. This also renders a B-L symmetry non-anomalous. Read More

Massive Z'-gauge bosons act as excellent harbingers for string compactifications with a low string scale. In D-brane models they are associated to U(1) gauge symmetries that are either anomalous in four dimensions or exhibit a hidden higher dimensional anomaly. We discuss the possible signals of massive Z'-gauge bosons at hadron collider machines (Tevatron, LHC) in a minimal D-brane model consisting out of four stacks of D-branes. Read More

The invariant mass distribution of dijets produced in association with W bosons, recently observed by the CDF Collaboration at Tevatron, reveals an excess in the dijet mass range 120-160 GeV/c^2, 3\sigma beyond Standard Model expectations. We show that such an excess is a generic feature of low mass string theory, due to the production and decay of a leptophobic Z', a singlet partner of SU(3) gluons coupled primarily to the U(1) baryon number. In this framework, U(1) and SU(3) appear as subgroups of U(3) associated with open strings ending on a stack of 3 D-branes. Read More

We propose that neutron emission from Cen A dominates the cosmic ray sky at the high end of the spectrum. Neutrons that are able to decay generate proton diffusion fronts, whereas those that survive decay produce a spike in the direction of the source. We use recent data reported by the Pierre Auger Collaboration to normalize the injection spectrum and estimate the required luminosity in cosmic rays. Read More

If the fundamental mass scale of superstring theory is as low as few TeVs, the massive modes of vibrating strings, Regge excitations, will be copiously produced at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). We discuss the complementary signals of low mass superstrings at the proposed electron-positron facility (CLIC), in e^+e^- and \gamma \gamma collisions. We examine all relevant four-particle amplitudes evaluated at the center of mass energies near the mass of lightest Regge excitations and extract the corresponding pole terms. Read More

Alignment of the main energy fluxes along a straight line in a target plane has been observed in families of cosmic ray particles detected in the Pamir mountains. The fraction of events with alignment is statistically significant for families with superhigh energies and large numbers of hadrons. This can be interpreted as evidence for coplanar hard-scattering of secondary hadrons produced in the early stages of the atmospheric cascade development. Read More

We consider string realizations of the Randall-Sundrum effective theory for electroweak symmetry breaking and explore the search for the lowest massive Regge excitation of the gluon and of the extra (color singlet) gauge boson inherent of D-brane constructions. In these curved backgrounds, the higher-spin Regge recurrences of Standard Model fields localized near the IR brane are warped down to close to the TeV range and hence can be produced at collider experiments. Assuming that the theory is weakly coupled, we make use of four gauge boson amplitudes evaluated near the first Regge pole to determine the discovery potential of LHC. Read More

The Pierre Auger (cosmic ray) Observatory provides a laboratory for studying fundamental physics at energies far beyond those available at colliders. The Observatory is sensitive not only to hadrons and photons, but can in principle detect ultrahigh energy neutrinos in the cosmic radiation. Interestingly, it may be possible to uncover new physics by analyzing characteristics of the neutrino flux at the Earth. Read More

The Large Hadron Collider presents an unprecedented opportunity to probe the realm of new physics in the TeV region and shed light on some of the core unresolved issues of particle physics. These include the nature of electroweak symmetry breaking, the origin of mass, the possible constituent of cold dark matter, new sources of CP violation needed to explain the baryon excess in the universe, the possible existence of extra gauge groups and extra matter, and importantly the path Nature chooses to resolve the hierarchy problem - is it supersymmetry or extra dimensions. Many models of new physics beyond the standard model contain a hidden sector which can be probed at the LHC. Read More

We consider extensions of the standard model based on open strings ending on D-branes, in which gauge bosons and their associated gauginos exist as strings attached to stacks of D-branes, and chiral matter exists as strings stretching between intersecting D-branes. Under the assumptions that the fundamental string scale is in the TeV range and the theory is weakly coupled, we study models of supersymmetry for which signals of annihilating neutralino dark matter are observable. In particular, we construct a model with a supersymmetric R-symmetry violating (but R-parity conserving) effective Lagrangian that allows for the s-wave annihilation of neutralinos, once gauginos acquire mass through an unspecified mechanism. Read More

We consider extensions of the standard model based on open strings ending on D-branes, with gauge bosons due to strings attached to stacks of D-branes and chiral matter due to strings stretching between intersecting D-branes. Assuming that the fundamental string mass scale is in the TeV range and the theory is weakly coupled, we review possible signals of string physics at the Large Hadron Collider. Read More

2009Jul
Affiliations: 1ICE, Barcelona & Wisconsin U., Milwaukee, 2Northeastern U., 3Wisconsin U., Milwaukee, 4CFTP-IST, Lisbon, 5ICE, Barcelona & ICREA, Barcelona, 6Vanderbilt U.

The MAGIC Collaboration has provided new observational data pertaining to the TeV J2032+4130 gamma-ray source (within the Cygnus OB2 region), for energies E_gamma >400 GeV. It is then appropriate to update the impact of these data on gamma-ray production mechanisms in stellar associations. We consider two mechanisms of gamma-ray emission, pion production and decay (PION) and photo-excitation of high-energy nuclei followed by prompt photo-emission from the daughter nuclei (A*). Read More

We consider extensions of the standard model based on open strings ending on D-branes, with gauge bosons due to strings attached to stacks of D-branes and chiral matter due to strings stretching between intersecting D-branes. Assuming that the fundamental string mass scale is in the TeV range and the theory is weakly coupled, we discuss possible signals of string physics at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). In previous works, direct channel excitations of Regge recurrences in parton-parton scattering supplied the outstanding new signature. Read More

We consider extensions of the standard model based on open strings ending on D-branes, with gauge bosons due to strings attached to stacks of D-branes and chiral matter due to strings stretching between intersecting D-branes. Assuming that the fundamental string mass scale is in the TeV range and the theory is weakly coupled, we discuss possible signals of string physics at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). In such D-brane constructions, the dominant contributions to full-fledged string amplitudes for all the common QCD parton subprocesses leading to dijets are completely independent of the details of compactification, and can be evaluated in a parameter-free manner. Read More

With the advent of the LHC there is widespread interest in the discovery potential for physics beyond the standard model. In TeV-scale open string theory, the new physics can be manifest in the excitation and decay of new resonant structures, corresponding to Regge recurrences of standard model particles. An essential input for the prediction of invariant mass spectra of the decay products (which could serve to identify the resonance as a string excitation) are the partial and total widths of the decay products. Read More

The LHC program will include the identification of events with single prompt high-k_\perp photons as probes of new physics. We show that this channel is uniquely suited to search for experimental evidence of TeV-scale open string theory. At the parton level, we analyze single photon production in gluon fusion, gg \to \gamma g, with open string states propagating in intermediate channels. Read More

The mass scale M_s of superstring theory is an arbitrary parameter that can be as low as few TeVs if the Universe contains large extra dimensions. We propose a search for the effects of Regge excitations of fundamental strings at LHC, in the process p p \to \gamma jet. The underlying parton process is dominantly the single photon production in gluon fusion, g g \to \gamma g, with open string states propagating in intermediate channels. Read More

Within the context of mass-varying neutrinos, we construct a cosmological model that has a phase transition in the electromagnetic fine structure constant \alpha at a redshift of 0.5. The model accommodates hints of a time variable \alpha in quasar spectra and the nonobservance of such an effect at very low redshifts. Read More

Interest has been directed recently towards low energy implications of a non-trivial conformal sector of an effective field theory with an IR fixed point (\Lambda), manifest in terms of ``unparticles'' with bizarre properties. We re-examine the implications of the limits on decay lifetimes of solar neutrinos for unparticle interactions. We study in detail the fundamental parameter space (\Lambda, M) and derive bounds on the energy scale M characterizing the new physics. Read More

The Pierre Auger Observatory (PAO) has measured the spectrum and composition of the ultrahigh energy cosmic rays with unprecedented precision. We use these measurements to constrain their spectrum and composition as injected from their sources and, in turn, use these results to estimate the spectrum of cosmogenic neutrinos generated in their propagation through intergalactic space. We find that the PAO measurements can be well fit if the injected cosmic rays consist entirely of nuclei with masses in the intermediate (C, N, O) to heavy (Fe, Si) range. Read More

Interest has focussed recently on low energy implications of a nontrivial scale invariant sector of an effective field theory with an IR fixed point, manifest in terms of ``unparticles'' with peculiar properties. If unparticle stuff exists it could couple to the stress tensor and mediate a new 'fifth' force which we call 'ungravity' arising from the exchange of unparticles between massive particles, which in turn could modify the inverse square law. Under the assumption of strict conformal invariance in the hidden sector down to low energies, we compute the lowest order ungravity correction to the Newtonian gravitational potential and find scale invariant power law corrections of type $(R_{G}/r)^{2d_{\cal U} -1}$ where $d_{\cal U}$ is an anomalous unparticle dimension and $R_{G}$ is a characteristic length scale where the ungravity interactions become significant. Read More

TeV gamma-rays can result from the photo-de-excitation of PeV cosmic ray nuclei after their parents have undergone photo-disintegration in an environment of ultraviolet photons. This process is proposed as a candidate explanation of the recently discovered HESS source at the edge of Westerlund 2. The UV background is provided by Lyman-alpha emission within the rich O and B stellar environment. Read More

We explore the cosmological content of Salam-Sezgin six dimensional supergravity, and find a solution to the field equations in qualitative agreement with observation of distant supernovae, primordial nucleosynthesis abundances, and recent measurements of the cosmic microwave background. The carrier of the acceleration in the present de Sitter epoch is a quintessence field slowly rolling down its exponential potential. Intrinsic to this model is a second modulus which is automatically stabilized and acts as a source of cold dark matter with a mass proportional to an exponential function of the quintessence field (hence realizing VAMP models within a String context). Read More

It is commonly assumed that high-energy gamma-rays are made via either purely electromagnetic processes or the hadronic process of pion production, followed by decay. We investigate astrophysical contexts where a third process (A*) may dominate, namely the photo-disintegration of highly boosted nuclei followed by daughter de-excitation. Starbust regions such as Cygnus OB2 appear to be promising sites for TeV gamma-ray emission via this mechanism. Read More

TeV gamma-rays may provide significant information about high energy astrophysical accelerators. Such gamma-rays can result from the photo-de-excitation of PeV nuclei after their parents have undergone photo-disintegration in an environment of ultraviolet photons. This process is proposed as a candidate explanation of the recently discovered HEGRA source at the edge of the Cygnus OB2 association. Read More

We emphasize the inelasticity distribution of events detected at the IceCube neutrino telescope as an important tool for revealing new physics. This is possible because the unique energy resolution at this facility allows to separately assign the energy fractions for emergent muons and taus in neutrino interactions. As a particular example, we explore the possibility of probing second and third generation leptoquark parameter space (coupling and mass). Read More

Models of late-time neutrino mass generation contain new interactions of the cosmic background neutrinos with supernova relic neutrinos (SRNs) through exchange of the on-shell light boson, leading to significant modification of the differential SRN flux observed at earth. We consider Abelian U(1) model for generating neutrino masses at low scales and we show that there is a large parameter space in this model for which the changes induced in the flux by the exchange of the light bosons might allow one to distinguish between neutrinos being Majorana or Dirac particles, the type of neutrino mass hierarchy (normal or inverted or quasi-degenerate), and could also possibly determine the absolute values of the neutrino masses. Measurements of the presence of these effects would be possible at the next-generation water Cerenkov detectors enriched with Gadolinium, or a large 100 kton liquid argon detector. Read More

Neutrino oscillations can be affected by decoherence induced e.g. by Planck scale suppressed interactions with the space-time foam predicted in some approaches to quantum gravity. Read More

In models in which neutrinos are light, due to a low scale of symmetry breaking, additional light bosons are generically present. We show that the interaction between diffuse relic supernova neutrinos (RSN) and the cosmic background neutrinos, via exchange of these light scalars, can result in a dramatic change of the supernova (SN) neutrinos flux. Measurement of this effect with current or future experiments can provide a spectacular direct evidence for the low scale models. Read More