H. Dong - NOAO, UMass

H. Dong
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H. Dong

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Mathematics - Analysis of PDEs (10)
Physics - Materials Science (9)
Computer Science - Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (6)
Astrophysics of Galaxies (6)
Computer Science - Learning (4)
Statistics - Machine Learning (4)
Physics - Optics (4)
Physics - Mesoscopic Systems and Quantum Hall Effect (2)
Mathematics - Optimization and Control (2)
High Energy Physics - Experiment (2)
Physics - Accelerator Physics (2)
Quantum Physics (2)
Physics - Superconductivity (2)
Nuclear Experiment (1)
Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (1)
Physics - Soft Condensed Matter (1)
Mathematics - Numerical Analysis (1)
Quantitative Biology - Cell Behavior (1)
Physics - Fluid Dynamics (1)
Quantitative Biology - Neurons and Cognition (1)
Physics - Physics and Society (1)
Physics - Classical Physics (1)
Computer Science - Computation and Language (1)
Computer Science - Digital Libraries (1)
Computer Science - Neural and Evolutionary Computing (1)
Physics - Biological Physics (1)
Physics - Chemical Physics (1)
Physics - Atomic Physics (1)

Publications Authored By H. Dong

Fast Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is highly in demand for many clinical applications in order to reduce the scanning cost and improve the patient experience. This can also potentially increase the image quality by reducing the motion artefacts and contrast washout. However, once an image field of view and the desired resolution are chosen, the minimum scanning time is normally determined by the requirement of acquiring sufficient raw data to meet the Nyquist-Shannon sampling criteria. Read More

A major challenge in brain tumor treatment planning and quantitative evaluation is determination of the tumor extent. The noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique has emerged as a front-line diagnostic tool for brain tumors without ionizing radiation. Manual segmentation of brain tumor extent from 3D MRI volumes is a very time-consuming task and the performance is highly relied on operator's experience. Read More

We extend and improve the results in \cite{DK16}: showing that weak solutions to full elliptic equations in divergence form with zero Dirichlet boundary conditions are continuously differentiable up to the boundary when the leading coefficients have Dini mean oscillation and the lower order coefficients verify certain conditions. Similar results are obtained for non-divergence form equations. We extend the weak type-(1, 1) estimates in \cite{DK16} and \cite{Es94} up to the boundary and derive a Harnack inequality for non-negative adjoint solutions to non-divergence form elliptic equations, when the leading coefficients have Dini mean oscillation. Read More

Translating information between text and image is a fundamental problem in artificial intelligence that connects natural language processing and computer vision. In the past few years, performance in image caption generation has seen significant improvement through the adoption of recurrent neural networks (RNN). Meanwhile, text-to-image generation begun to generate plausible images using datasets of specific categories like birds and flowers. Read More

Objective: The present study proposes a deep learn- ing model, named DeepSleepNet, for automatic sleep stage scoring based on raw single-channel EEG, and a two-step training algorithm used to effectively train such model. Methods: Most of the existing methods rely on hand-engineered features which require prior knowledge about sleep stage scoring. Only a few of them encode the temporal information such as stage transition rules, which is important to correctly identify the next possible sleep stages, into the extracted features. Read More

Al2O3 is a potential dielectric material for metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) devices. Al2O3 films deposited on semiconductors usually exhibit amorphous due to lattice mismatch. Compared to two-dimensional graphene, MoS2 is a typical semiconductor, therefore, it has more extensive application. Read More

We prove the unique solvability of solutions in Sobolev spaces to the stationary Stokes system on a bounded Reifenberg flat domain when the coefficients are partially BMO functions, i.e., locally they are merely measurable in one direction and have small mean oscillations in the other directions. Read More

Hyperbolic metamaterials are strongly anisotropic artificial composite materials at a subwavelength scale and can greatly widen the engineering feasibilities for manipulation of wave propagation. However, limited by the empirical structure topologies, the previously reported hyperbolic elastic metamaterials (HEMMs) suffer from the limitations of relatively narrow frequency width, inflexible adjusting operating subwavelength scale and being difficult to further ameliorate imaging resolution. Here, we develop an inverse-design approach for HEMMs by topology optimization based on the effective medium theory. Read More

We prove mixed $L_{p}(L_{q})$-estimates, with $p,q\in(1,\infty)$, for higher-order elliptic and parabolic equations on the half space $\R^{d+1}_{+}$ with general boundary conditions which satisfy the Lopatinskii--Shapiro condition. We assume that the elliptic operators $A$ have leading coefficients which are in the class of vanishing mean oscillations in both the time and the space variable. In the proof, we produce mean oscillation estimates for equations on the half space with general boundary conditions. Read More

With the motivation of searching for new superconductors in the Mg-B system, we performed ab initio evolutionary searches for all the stable compounds in this binary system in the pressure range of 0-200 GPa. We found previously unknown, yet thermodynamically stable, compositions MgB$_3$ and Mg$_3$B$_{10}$. Experimentally known MgB$_2$ is stable in the entire pressure range 0-200 GPa, while MgB$_7$ and MgB$_{12}$ are stable at pressures below 90 GPa and 35 GPa, respectively. Read More

Thermoelectric (TE) materials achieve localised conversion between thermal and electric energies, and the conversion efficiency is determined by a figure of merit zT. Up to date, two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) related TE materials hold the records for zT near room-temperature. A sharp increase in zT up to ~2. Read More

(abridged) In this paper we revisit the problem of inferring the innermost structure of the Milky Way's nuclear star cluster via star counts, to clarify whether it displays a core or a cusp around the central black hole. Through image stacking and improved PSF fitting we push the completeness limit about one magnitude deeper than in previous, comparable work. Contrary to previous work, we analyse the stellar density in well-defined magnitude ranges in order to be able to constrain stellar masses and ages. Read More

This is the second of three papers that search for the predicted stellar cusp around the Milky Way's central black hole, Sagittarius A*, with new data and methods.We use adaptive optics assisted high angular resolution images obtained with the NACO instrument at the ESO VLT. Through optimised PSF fitting we remove the light from all detected stars above a given magnitude limit. Read More

Allometric scaling can reflect underlying mechanisms, dynamics and structures in complex systems; examples include typical scaling laws in biology, ecology and urban development. In this work, we study allometric scaling in scientific fields. By performing an analysis of the outputs/inputs of various scientific fields, including the numbers of publications, citations, and references, with respect to the number of authors, we find that in all fields that we have studied thus far, including physics, mathematics and economics, there are allometric scaling laws relating the outputs/inputs and the sizes of scientific fields. Read More

It's useful to automatically transform an image from its original form to some synthetic form (style, partial contents, etc.), while keeping the original structure or semantics. We define this requirement as the "image-to-image translation" problem, and propose a general approach to achieve it, based on deep convolutional and conditional generative adversarial networks (GANs), which has gained a phenomenal success to learn mapping images from noise input since 2014. Read More

We obtain Dini type estimates for a class of concave fully nonlinear nonlocal elliptic equations of order $\sigma\in (0,2)$ with rough and non-symmetric kernels. The proof is based on a novel application of Campanato's approach and a refined $C^{\sigma+\alpha}$ estimate in [8]. Read More

The magnetic-field dependence of the energy spectrum, wave function, binding energy and oscillator strength of exciton states confined in a circular graphene quantum dot (CGQD) are obtained within the configuration interaction (CI) method. We predict that: (1) excitonic effects are very significant in the CGQD as a consequence of a combination of geometric confinement, magnetic confinement and reduced screening; (2) two types of excitons (intravalley and intervalley excitons) are present in the CGQD because of the valley degree of freedom in graphene; (3) the intravalley and intervalley exciton states display different magnetic-field dependencies due to the different electron-hole symmetries of the single-particle energy spectra; (4) with increasing magnetic field, the exciton ground state in the CGQD undergoes an intravalley to intervalley transition accompanied by a change of angular momentum; (5) the exciton binding energy does not increase monotonically with the magnetic field due to the competition between geometric and magnetic confinements; and (6) the optical transitions of the intervalley and intravalley excitons can be tuned by the magnetic field and valley-dependent excitonic transitions can be realized in CGQD. Read More

Aiming at the promising superlensing for the medical ultrasonic and detection, the double-negative metamaterials which possess the negative mass density and elastic modulus simultaneously can be acted as the ideal superlens for breaking the diffraction limit. In this paper, we use topology optimization to design the two-dimensional single-phase anisotropic elastic metamaterials with broadband double-negative indices and numerically demonstrate the superlensing at the deep-subwavelength scale. We also discuss the impact of several parameters adopted in the objective function and constraints on the optimized results. Read More

Manipulation of orbital angular momentum (OAM) of light is essential in OAM-based optical systems. Especially, OAM divider, which can convert the incoming OAM mode into one or several new smaller modes in proportion at different spatial paths, is very useful in OAM-based optical networks. However, this useful tool was never reported yet. Read More

This paper proposes a practical approach to addressing limitations posed by use of single active electrodes in applications for sleep stage classification. Electroencephalography (EEG)-based characterizations of sleep stage progression contribute the diagnosis and monitoring of the many pathologies of sleep. Several prior reports have explored ways of automating the analysis of sleep EEG and of reducing the complexity of the data needed for reliable discrimination of sleep stages in order to make it possible to perform sleep studies at lower cost in the home (rather than only in specialized clinical facilities). Read More

We demonstrate theoretically the electric tunability due to coalescence of exceptional points in PT-symmetric waveguides bounded by imperfect conductive layers. Owing to the competition effect of multimode interaction, multiple exceptional points and PT phase transitions could be attained in such a simple system and their occurrences are strongly dependent on the boundary conductive layers. When the conductive layers become very thin, it is found that the oblique transmittance and reflectance of the same system can be tuned between zero and one by a small change in carrier density. Read More

Topology optimization of a waveguide-cavity structure in phononic crystals for designing narrow band filters under the given operating frequencies is presented in this paper. We show that it is possible to obtain an ultra-high-Q filter by only optimizing the cavity topology without introducing any other coupling medium. The optimized cavity with highly symmetric resonance can be utilized as the multi-channel filter, raising filter and T-splitter. Read More

One of the important nonclassical effects in quantum optics is the anti-bunching, which has been observed in a large class of physical systems - including light-harvesting antennas with cyclic structures. The units of the ring couple with adjacent ones through dipole-dipole interactions. We show how this strong dipole-dipole interaction leads to photon-blockade resulting in the suppression of double excitation pathway and anti-bunching in photosynthesis systems. Read More

We study the odd-wave interacting identical fermions in one-dimension with finite effective range. We show that to fully describe the high-momentum distribution $\rho(k)$ up to $k^{-4}$, one needs four parameters characterizing the properties when two particles {\it contact} with each other. Two parameters are related to the variation of energy with respect to the odd-wave scattering length and the effective range, respectively, determining the $k^{-2}$ tail and part of $k^{-4}$ tail in $\rho(k)$. Read More

We show that any weak solution to elliptic equations in divergence form is continuously differentiable provided that the modulus of continuity of coefficients in the $L^1$-mean sense satisfies the Dini condition. This in particular answers a question recently raised by Yanyan Li and allows us to improve a result of Brezis. We also prove a weak type-$(1,1)$ estimate under a stronger assumption on the modulus of continuity. Read More

The Polarized Electrons for Polarized Positrons experiment at the injector of the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility has demonstrated for the first time the efficient transfer of polarization from electrons to positrons produced by the polarized bremsstrahlung radiation induced by a polarized electron beam in a high-$Z$ target. Positron polarization up to 82\% have been measured for an initial electron beam momentum of 8.19~MeV/$c$, limited only by the electron beam polarization. Read More

There are two kinds of atomic vapor cell gyroscopes, one is nuclear-magnetic-resonance (NMR) gyroscope and the other is spin-exchange-relaxation-free (SERF) gyroscope. We demonstrate that there is a common model for these two kinds of gyroscope. The output signals of NMR and SERF gyroscopes are compared directly, which provides an important guidance for the scheme choosing and optimization of atomic gyroscope. Read More

Deep learning using multi-layer neural networks (NNs) architecture manifests superb power in modern machine learning systems. The trained Deep Neural Networks (DNNs) are typically large. The question we would like to address is whether it is possible to simplify the NN during training process to achieve a reasonable performance within an acceptable computational time. Read More

We theoretically investigate the ultrafast terahertz(THz) properties of monolayer graphene. The analytical formulations of the photon carrier, electric polarization and optical current are obtained by solving the Bloch-equations in present of the ultrafast THz Gaussian pulse. Graphene shows a large nonlinear and ultrafast optical response at THz frequencies due to the gapless and relativistic Dirac particles with nearly linear energy dispersion. Read More

We carried out a photometric and structural analysis in the rest-frame $V$ band of a mass-selected ($\log M/M_\odot >10.7$) sample of red-sequence galaxies in 14 galaxy clusters, 6 of which are at $z>1.45$. Read More

We study a class of second-order elliptic equations of divergence form, with discontinuous coefficients and data, which models the conductivity problem in composite materials. We establish optimal gradient estimates by showing the explicit dependence of the elliptic coefficients and the distance between interfacial boundaries of inclusions. The novelty of these estimates is that they unify the known results in the literature and answer open problem (b) proposed by Li-Vogelius (2000) for the isotropic conductivity problem. Read More

Structural colours have drawn wide attention for their potential as a future printing technology for various applications, ranging from biomimetic tissues to adaptive camouflage materials. However, an efficient approach to realise robust colours with a scalable fabrication technique is still lacking, hampering the realisation of practical applications with this platform. Here we develop a new approach based on large scale network metamaterials, which combine dealloyed subwavelength structures at the nanoscale with loss-less, ultra-thin dielectrics coatings. Read More

We study the stationary Stokes system with variable coefficients in the whole space, a half space, and on bounded Lipschitz domains. In the whole and half spaces, we obtain a priori $\dot W^1_q$-estimates for any $q\in [2,\infty)$ when the coefficients are merely measurable functions in one fixed direction. For the system on bounded Lipschitz domains with a small Lipschitz constant, we obtain a $W^1_q$-estimate and prove the solvability for any $q\in (1,\infty)$ when the coefficients are merely measurable functions in one direction and have locally small mean oscillations in the orthogonal directions in each small ball, where the direction is allowed to depend on the ball. Read More

Boron suboxide B6O, the hardest known oxide, has an R-3m crystal structure ({\alpha}-B6O) that can be described as an oxygen-intercalated structure of {\alpha}-boron, or, equivalently, as a cubic close packing of B12 icosahedra with two oxygen atoms occupying all octahedral voids in it. Here we show a new ground state of this compound at ambient conditions, Cmcm-B6O (\b{eta}-B6O), which in all quantum-mechanical treatments that we tested (GGA, LDA, and hybrid functional HSE06) comes out to be slightly but consistently more stable. Increasing pressure and temperature further stabilize it with respect to the known {\alpha}-B6O structure. Read More

Affiliations: 1IAA-CSIC, NOAO, 2Nanjing University, 3Umass, Amherst, Nanjing University, 4NOAO, 5NOAO, 6NOAO, 7University of Washington, Seattle, 8MPIA

We map the dust distribution in the central 180" (~680 pc) region of the M31 bulge, based on HST/WFC3 and ACS observations in ten bands from near-ultraviolet (2700 A) to near-infrared (1.5 micron). This large wavelength coverage gives us great leverage to detect not only dense dusty clumps, but also diffuse dusty molecular gas. Read More

We obtain Schauder estimates for a class of concave fully nonlinear nonlocal parabolic equations of order $\sigma\in (0,2)$ with rough and non-symmetric kernels. As a application, we prove that the solution to a translation invariant equation with merely bounded data is $C^\sigma$ in $x$ variable and $\Lambda^1$ in $t$ variable, where $\Lambda^1$ is the Zygmund space. Read More

We prove generalized Fefferman-Stein type theorems on sharp functions with $A_p$ weights in spaces of homogeneous type with either finite or infinite underlying measure. We then apply these results to establish mixed-norm weighted $L_p$-estimates for elliptic and parabolic equations/systems with (partially) BMO coefficients in regular or irregular domains. Read More

In this note we compare two recently proposed semidefinite relaxations for the sparse linear regression problem by Pilanci, Wainwright and El Ghaoui (Sparse learning via boolean relaxations, 2015) and Dong, Chen and Linderoth (Relaxation vs. Regularization A conic optimization perspective of statistical variable selection, 2015). We focus on the cardinality constrained formulation, and prove that the relaxation proposed by Dong, etc. Read More

Liquid dispensing and writing in the extremely small size regime are important for applications in many current technologies, such as micro/nano fabrication, biological/chemical patterning and analysis, and drug discovery. Most of current dispensing/writing methods can be sorted into a category of liquid flowing through tiny tubes or nozzles that requires inputting an impulse energy, which leads to complex procedures, expensive equipment and narrow material applicability, especially for biomaterials. Here, we report a method that may lead to a new category: liquid flows over the tapered surface of a pin with longitudinal nano grooves on the surface to uninterruptedly perform droplet dispensing and direct writing. Read More

With the motivation of discovering high-temperature superconductors, evolutionary algorithm is employed to search for all stable compounds in the Sn-H system. In addition to the traditional SnH$_4$, new hydrides SnH$_8$, SnH$_{12}$ and SnH$_{14}$ are found to be thermodynamically stable at high pressure. Dynamical stability and superconductivity of tin-hydrides are systematically investigated. Read More

Silicene, an analogue of graphene, was so far predicted to be the only two-dimensional silicon (2D-Si) with massless Dirac fermions. Here we predict a brand new 2D-Si Dirac semimetal, which we name siliconeet [silik'ni:t]. Unexpectedly, it has a much lower energy than silicene and robust direction-dependent Dirac cones with Fermi velocities comparable to those in graphene. Read More

T cell responses are regulated by multiple signals including costimulation and immune checkpoints along with antigen stimulation. Recently clinical trials demonstrated that blockade of immune checkpoint signals led to dramatic clinic responses in a fraction of cancer patients. To improve the therapeutic efficacy of regimens aimed to enhance T cell responses to cancers, a predictable mathematical model is needed for designing efficient therapy. Read More

Variable selection is a fundamental task in statistical data analysis. Sparsity-inducing regularization methods are a popular class of methods that simultaneously perform variable selection and model estimation. The central problem is a quadratic optimization problem with an l0-norm penalty. Read More

We map the distribution of dust in M31 at 25pc resolution, using stellar photometry from the Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury. We develop a new mapping technique that models the NIR color-magnitude diagram (CMD) of red giant branch (RGB) stars. The model CMDs combine an unreddened foreground of RGB stars with a reddened background population viewed through a log-normal column density distribution of dust. Read More

Using first-principles evolutionary simulations, we have systematically investigated phase stability in the Hf-O system at pressure up to 120 GPa. New compounds Hf5O2, Hf3O2, HfO and HfO3 are discovered to be thermodynamically stable at certain pressure ranges and a new stable high-pressure phase is found for Hf2O with space group Pnnm and anti-CaCl2-type structure. Both P62m-HfO and P4m2-Hf2O3 show semimetallic character. Read More

Following the discovery of the Higgs boson at LHC, new large colliders are being studied by the international high-energy community to explore Higgs physics in detail and new physics beyond the Standard Model. In China, a two-stage circular collider project CEPC-SPPC is proposed, with the first stage CEPC (Circular Electron Positron Collier, a so-called Higgs factory) focused on Higgs physics, and the second stage SPPC (Super Proton-Proton Collider) focused on new physics beyond the Standard Model. This paper discusses this second stage. Read More

Nitrogen oxides are textbook class of molecular compounds, with extensive industrial applications. Nitrogen and oxygen are also among the most abundant elements in the universe. We explore the N-O system at 0 K and up to 500 GPa though ab initio evolutionary simulations. Read More

Using systematic evolutionary structure searching we propose a new carbon allotrope, phagraphene, standing for penta-hexa-hepta-graphene, because the structure is composed of 5-6-7 carbon rings. This two-dimensional (2D) carbon structure is lower in energy than most of the predicted 2D carbon allotropes due to its sp2-hybridization and density of atomic packing comparable to graphene. More interestingly, the electronic structure of phagraphene has distorted Dirac cones. Read More

We explore the assembly history of the M31 bulge within a projected major-axis radius of 180" (~680 pc) by studying its stellar populations in Hubble Space Telescope WFC3 and ACS observations. Colors formed by comparing near-ultraviolet vs. optical bands are found to become bluer with increasing major-axis radius, which is opposite to that predicted if the sole sources of near-ultraviolet light were old extreme horizontal branch stars with a negative radial gradient in metallicity. Read More

In this paper, we derive an interior Schauder estimate for the divergence form elliptic equation \begin{equation*} D_i(a(x)D_iu)=D_if_i \end{equation*} in $\mathbb{R}^2$, where $a(x)$ and $f_i(x)$ are piecewise H\"older continuous in a domain containing two touching balls as subdomains. When $f_i\equiv 0$ and $a$ is piecewise constant, we prove that $u$ is piecewise smooth with bounded derivatives. This completely answers a question raised by Li and Vogelius [7] in dimension 2. Read More