H. Baer - University of Oklahoma, Department of Physics and Astronomy

H. Baer
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H. Baer
University of Oklahoma, Department of Physics and Astronomy

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High Energy Physics - Phenomenology (50)
Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (12)
High Energy Physics - Experiment (8)
High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (4)
Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics (1)

Publications Authored By H. Baer

Weak scale supersymmetry (SUSY) remains a compelling extension of the Standard Model because it stabilizes the quantum corrections to the Higgs and W, Z boson masses. In natural SUSY models these corrections are, by definition, never much larger than the corresponding masses. Natural SUSY models all have an upper limit on the gluino mass, too high to lead to observable signals even at the high luminosity LHC. Read More

This paper addresses the question of whether the International Linear Collider has the capability of discovering new particles that have not already been discovered at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. We summarize the various paths to discovery offered by the ILC, and discuss them in the context of three different scenarios: 1. LHC does not discover any new particles, 2. Read More

The Affleck-Dine leptogenesis scenario along the LHu flat direction is reconsidered. It is known that successful Affleck-Dine leptogenesis requires that the lightest neutrino mass is extremely small. This situation can be significantly relaxed if the neutrino mass in the early universe is different from the present one. Read More

Radiatively-driven natural SUSY (RNS) models enjoy electroweak naturalness at the $10\%$ level while respecting LHC sparticle and Higgs mass constraints. Gluino and top squark masses can range up to several TeV (with other squarks even heavier) but a set of light Higgsinos are required with mass not too far above $m_h\sim 125$ GeV. Within the RNS framework, gluinos dominantly decay via ${\tilde g} \to t{\tilde t}_1^{*},\ \bar{t}{\tilde t}_1 \to t\bar{t}{\widetilde Z}_{1,2}$ or $t\bar{b}{\widetilde W}_1^-+c. Read More

In supersymmetric models with radiatively-driven naturalness and light higgsinos, the top squarks may lie in the 0.5- 3TeV range and thus only a fraction of natural parameter space is accessible to LHC searches. We outline the range of top squark and lightest SUSY particle masses preferred by electroweak naturalness in the standard parameter space plane. Read More

A core prediction of natural Supersymmetry is the existence of four light higgsinos not too far above the mass of the $Z$ boson. The small mass splittings amongst the higgsinos -- typically 5-20\,GeV -- imply very little visible energy release from decays of heavier higgsinos. In particular, if other SUSY particles are quite heavy, as can be the case in SUSY with radiatively-driven naturalness, the higgsinos are extremely hard to detect at hadron colliders. Read More

In the supersymmetric scenario known as mirage mediation (MM), the soft SUSY breaking terms receive comparable anomaly-mediation and moduli-mediation contributions leading to the phenomenon of mirage unification. The simplest MM SUSY breaking models which are consistent with the measured Higgs mass and sparticle mass constraints are strongly disfavoured by fine-tuning considerations. However, while MM makes robust predictions for gaugino masses, the scalar sector is quite sensitive to specific mechanisms for moduli stabilization and potential uplifting. Read More

We examine updated prospects for detecting WIMPs in supersymmetric models via direct and indirect dark matter search experiments. We examine several historical and also still viable scenarios: projections for well-tempered neutralinos (WTN), projections from the MasterCode (MC), BayesFits (BF) and Fittino (FO) collaborations, non-thermal wino dark matter (NThW) and finally mixed axion-higgsino dark matter from SUSY with radiatively-driven naturalness (RNS). The WTN is ruled out by recent limits from XENON and LUX collaborations. Read More

In supersymmetric models with radiatively-driven naturalness, higgsino-like electroweak-inos (EW-inos) are expected to lie in a mass range 100--300 GeV, the lighter the more natural. Such states can be pair-produced at high rates at ILC where their masses are nearly equal to the value of the superpotential mu parameter while their mass splittings depend on the gaugino masses M_1 and M_2. The gaugino masses in turn depend on trilinear soft terms---the A parameters, which are expected to lie in the multi-TeV range owing to the 125 GeV Higgs mass---via two-loop contributions to renormalization group running. Read More

Recent clarifications of naturalness in supersymmetry robustly require the presence of four light higgsinos with mass ~100-300 GeV while gluinos and (top)-squarks may lie in the multi-TeV range, possibly out of LHC reach. We project the high luminosity (300-3000 fb^{-1}) reach of LHC14 via gluino cascade decays and via same-sign diboson production. We compare these to the reach for neutralino pair production \tz_1\tz_2 followed by \tz_2\to\tz_1\ell^+\ell^- decay to soft dileptons which recoil against a hard jet. Read More

In supersymmetric models where the superpotential mu term is generated with mu<< m_{soft} (e.g. from radiative Peccei-Quinn symmetry breaking or compactified string models with sequestration and stabilized moduli), and where the string landscape 1. Read More

Supergravity grand unified models (SUGRA GUTs) are highly motivated and allow for a high degree of electroweak naturalness when the superpotential parameter mu~ 100-300 GeV (preferring values closer to 100 GeV). We first illustrate that models with radiatively-driven naturalness enjoy a generalized focus-point behavior wherein all soft terms are correlated instead of just scalar masses. Next, we generate spectra from four SUGRA GUT archetypes: 1. Read More

The strong CP problem of QCD is at heart a problem of naturalness: why is the F\tilde{F} term highly suppressed in the QCD Lagrangian when it seems necessary to explain why there are three and not four light pions? The most elegant solution posits a spontaneously broken Peccei-Quinn (PQ) symmetry which requires the existence of the axion field a. The axion field settles to the minimum of its potential thus removing the offensive term but giving rise to the physical axion whose coherent oscillations can make up the cold dark matter. Only now are experiments such as ADMX beginning to explore QCD axion parameter space. Read More

The discovery of the Higgs boson along with the vigorous confirmation of the SM coupled with non-appearance of new (SUSY) particles has led to an apparent naturalness crisis. We argue the crisis stems from overestimates of finetuning. A proper evaluation of naturalness in SUSY leads to light higgsinos with mass mu~ 100-300 GeV while other sparticles may inhabit the multi-TeV range at little cost to naturalness. Read More

Supersymmetric models with radiatively-driven electroweak naturalness require light higgsinos of mass ~ 100-300 GeV. Naturalness in the QCD sector is invoked via the Peccei-Quinn (PQ) axion leading to mixed axion-higgsino dark matter. The SUSY DFSZ axion model provides a solution to the SUSY mu problem and the Little Hierarchy \mu << m_{3/2} may emerge as a consequence of a mismatch between PQ and hidden sector mass scales. Read More

While it is often stated that the notion of electroweak (EW) naturalness in supersymmetric models is subjective, fuzzy and model-dependent, here we argue the contrary: electroweak naturalness can be elevated to a {\it principle} which is both objective and predictive. We demonstrate visually when too much fine-tuning sets in at the electroweak scale which corresponds numerically to the measure \Delta_{BG}~\Delta_{EW}> 30. While many constrained SUSY models are already excluded by this value, we derive updated upper bounds on sparticle masses within the two-extra parameter non-universal Higgs model (NUHM2). Read More

The search for supersymmetry at Run 1 of LHC has resulted in gluino mass limits m(gluino)>~ 1.3 TeV for the case where m(gluino)<Read More

In the post-LHC8 world-- where a Standard Model-like Higgs boson has been established but there is no sign of supersymmetry (SUSY)-- the detailed profiling of the Higgs boson properties has emerged as an important road towards discovery of new physics. We present calculations of the expected deviations in Higgs boson couplings $\kappa_{\tau ,b}$, $\kappa_t$, $\kappa_{W,Z}$, $\kappa_g$ and $\kappa_\gamma$ versus the naturalness measure $\Delta_{\rm EW}$. Low values of $\Delta_{\rm EW}\sim 10-30$ give rise to a natural Little Hierarchy characterized by light higgsinos with a mass of $\mu\sim m_Z$ while top squarks are highly mixed but lie in the several TeV range. Read More

A comprehensive review of physics at an e+e- Linear Collider in the energy range of sqrt{s}=92 GeV--3 TeV is presented in view of recent and expected LHC results, experiments from low energy as well as astroparticle physics.The report focuses in particular on Higgs boson, Top quark and electroweak precision physics, but also discusses several models of beyond the Standard Model physics such as Supersymmetry, little Higgs models and extra gauge bosons. The connection to cosmology has been analyzed as well. Read More

By insisting on naturalness in both the electroweak and QCD sectors of the MSSM, the portrait for dark matter production is seriously modified from the usual WIMP miracle picture. In SUSY models with radiatively-driven naturalness (radiative natural SUSY or RNS) which include a DFSZ-like solution to the strong CP and SUSY mu problems, dark matter is expected to be an admixture of both axions and higgsino-like WIMPs. The WIMP/axion abundance calculation requires simultaneous solution of a set of coupled Boltzmann equations which describe quasi-stable axinos and saxions. Read More

A variety of supersymmetric models give rise to a split mass spectrum characterized by very heavy scalars but sub-TeV gauginos, usually with a wino-like LSP. Such models predict a thermally-produced underabundance of wino-like WIMP dark matter so that non-thermal DM production mechanisms are necessary. We examine the case where theories with a wino-like LSP are augmented by a Peccei-Quinn sector including an axion-axino-saxion supermultiplet in either the SUSY KSVZ or SUSY DFSZ models and with/without saxion decays to axions/axinos. Read More

More than 30 years ago, Arnowitt-Chamseddine-Nath (ACN) and others established the compelling framework of supergravity gauge theories (SUGRA) as a picture for the next step in beyond the Standard Model physics. We review the current SUGRA scenario in light of recent data from LHC8 collider searches and the Higgs boson discovery. While many SUSY and non-SUSY scenarios are highly disfavored or even excluded by LHC, the essential SUGRA scenario remains intact and as compelling as ever. Read More

In natural SUSY models higgsinos are always light because \mu^2 cannot be much larger than M_Z^2, while squarks and gluinos may be very heavy. Unless gluinos are discovered at LHC13, the commonly assumed unification of gaugino mass parameters will imply correspondingly heavy winos and binos, resulting in a higgsino-like LSP and small inter-higgsino mass splittings. The small visible energy release in higgsino decays makes their pair production difficult to detect at the LHC. Read More

While LHC8 Higgs mass and sparticle search constraints favor a multi-TeV value of gravitino mass m_{3/2}, electroweak naturalness favors a superpotential higgsino mass \mu ~100-200 GeV: the mis-match results in an apparent Little Hierarchy characterized by \mu << m_{3/2}. It has been suggested that the Little Hierarchy arises from a mis-match between Peccei-Quinn (PQ) and hidden sector intermediate scales v_{PQ}<< m_{\rm hidden}. We examine the Murayama-Suzuki-Yanagida (MSY) model of radiatively-driven PQ symmetry breaking which not only generates a weak scale value of \mu but also produces intermediate scale Majorana masses for right-hand neutrinos. Read More

We examine dark matter production rates in supersymmetric axion models typified by the mass hierarchy m_gravitino << m_neutralino << m_axino. In such models, one expects the dark matter to be composed of an axion/gravitino admixture. After presenting motivation for how such a mass hierarchy might arise, we examine dark matter production in the SUSY Kim-Shifman-Vainshtein-Zakharov (KSVZ) model, the SUSY Dine-Fischler-Srednicki-Zhitnitsky (DFSZ) model and a hybrid model containing contributions from both KSVZ and DFSZ. Read More

Naturalness arguments imply the existence of higgsinos lighter than 200-300 GeV. However, because these higgsinos are nearly mass degenerate, they release very little visible energy in their decays, and (even putting aside triggering issues) signals from electroweak higgsino pair production typically remain buried under Standard Model backgrounds. Prospects for detecting higgsino pair production via events with monojets or mono-photons from initial state radiation are also bleak because of signal-to-background rates typically at the 1% level. Read More

Recently, it has been argued that various measures of SUSY naturalness-- electroweak, Higgs mass and EENZ/BG-- when applied consistently concur with one another and make very specific predictions for natural supersymmetric spectra. Highly natural spectra are characterized by light higgsinos with mass not too far from m_h and well-mixed but TeV-scale third generation squarks. We apply the unified naturalness measure to the case of heavy Higgs bosons A, H and H^\pm. Read More

Increasingly stringent limits from LHC searches for new physics, coupled with lack of convincing signals of weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) in dark matter searches, have tightly constrained many realizations of the standard paradigm of thermally produced WIMPs as cold dark matter. In this article, we review more generally both thermally and non-thermally produced dark matter (DM). One may classify DM models into two broad categories: one involving bosonic coherent motion (BCM) and the other involving WIMPs. Read More

The supersymmetrized DFSZ axion model is highly motivated not only because it offers solutions to both the gauge hierarchy and strong CP problems, but also because it provides a solution to the SUSY mu problem which naturally allows for a Little Hierarchy. We compute the expected mixed axion-neutralino dark matter abundance for the SUSY DFSZ axion model in two benchmark cases-- a natural SUSY model with a standard neutralino underabundance (SUA) and an mSUGRA/CMSSM model with a standard overabundance (SOA). Our computation implements coupled Boltzmann equations which track the radiation density along with neutralino, axion (produced thermally (TH) and via coherent oscillations (CO)), saxion (TH- and CO-produced), axino and gravitino densities. Read More

Naturalness arguments applied to supersymmetric theories imply a spectrum containing four light higgsinos \tz_{1,2} and \tw_1^+- with masses ~ 100-300 GeV (the closer to M_Z the more natural). The compressed mass spectrum and associated low energy release from \tw_1 and \tz_2 three-body decay makes higgsinos difficult to detect at LHC14, while the other sparticles might be heavy, and possibly even beyond LHC14 reach. In contrast, the International Linear e^+e^- Collider (ILC) with \sqrt{s}>2m(higgsino) would be a {\it higgsino factory} in addition to a Higgs boson factory and would serve as a discovery machine for natural SUSY! In this case, both chargino and neutralino production %which give rise to distinct event topologies, occur at comparable rates, and lead to observable signals above SM backgrounds. Read More

Recent null results from LHC8 SUSY searches along with the discovery of a SM-like Higgs boson with mass m(h) ~ 125.5 GeV indicates sparticle masses in the TeV range, causing tension with conventional measures of electroweak fine-tuning. We propose a simple Fine-tuning Rule which should be followed under any credible evaluation of fine-tuning. Read More

Naturalness arguments imply the existence of higgsinos lighter than 200-300 GeV. However, because these higgsinos are nearly mass degenerate, they release very little visible energy in their decays, and signals from electroweak higgsino pair production typically remain buried under Standard Model backgrounds. Moreover, gluinos, squarks and winos may plausibly lie beyond the reach of the LHC14, so that signals from naturalness-inspired supersymmetric models may well remain hidden via conventional searches. Read More

The SUSY flavor, CP, gravitino and proton-decay problems are all solved to varying degrees by a decoupling solution wherein first/second generation matter scalars would exist in the multi-TeV regime. Recent models of natural SUSY presumably allow for a co-existence of naturalness with the decoupling solution. We show that: if sfermions are heavier than $\sim 10$ TeV, then a small first/second generation contribution to electroweak fine-tuning (EWFT) requires a rather high degree of intra-generational degeneracy of either 1. Read More

In this Report we discuss the four complementary searches for the identity of dark matter: direct detection experiments that look for dark matter interacting in the lab, indirect detection experiments that connect lab signals to dark matter in our own and other galaxies, collider experiments that elucidate the particle properties of dark matter, and astrophysical probes sensitive to non-gravitational interactions of dark matter. The complementarity among the different dark matter searches is discussed qualitatively and illustrated quantitatively in several theoretical scenarios. Our primary conclusion is that the diversity of possible dark matter candidates requires a balanced program based on all four of those approaches. Read More

Radiatively-driven natural supersymmetry (RNS) potentially reconciles the Z and Higgs boson masses close to 100 GeV with gluinos and squarks lying beyond the TeV scale. Requiring no large cancellations at the electroweak scale in constructing M_Z=91.2 GeV while maintaining a light Higgs scalar with m_h 125 GeV implies a sparticle mass spectrum including light higgsinos with mass 100-300 GeV, electroweak gauginos in the 300-1200 GeV range, gluinos at 1-4 TeV and top/bottom squarks in the 1-4 TeV range (probably beyond LHC reach), while first/second generation matter scalars can exist in the 5-30 TeV range (far beyond LHC reach). Read More

In the post-LHC8 era, it is perceived that what is left of SUSY model parameter space is highly finetuned in the EW sector (EWFT). We discuss how conventional measures overestimate EWFT in SUSY theory. Radiatively-driven natural SUSY (RNS) models maintain the SUSY GUT paradigm with low EWFT at 10% level, but are characterized by light higgsinos ~100-300 GeV and a thermal underabundance of WIMP dark matter. Read More

We examine mixed axion/neutralino cold dark matter production in the SUSY DFSZ axion model where an axion superfield couples to Higgs superfields. We calculate a wide array of axino and saxion decay modes along with their decay temperatures, and thermal and non-thermal production rates. For a SUSY benchmark model with a standard underabundance (SUA) of Higgsino-like dark matter (DM), we find for the PQ scale f_a< 10^{12} GeV that the DM abundance is mainly comprised of axions as the saxion/axino decay occurs before the standard neutralino freeze-out and thus its abundance remains suppressed. Read More

The lack of evidence for superparticles at the CERN LHC, along with the rather high value of the Higgs mass, has sharpened the perception that supersymmetric model parameter space is highly electroweak fine-tuned (EWFT). We compare three measures of fine-tuning in SUSY models. 1. Read More

By eschewing finetuning from the electroweak and QCD sectors of supersymmetry (natural supersymmetry or SUSY), and by invoking the Kim-Nilles solution to the SUSY mu problem, one is lead to models wherein the dark matter is comprised of a mixture of axions and higgsino-like WIMPs. Over a large range of Peccei-Quinn breaking scale f_a~ 10^9-10^{12} GeV, one then expects about 90-95% axion dark matter. In such a scenario, both axion and WIMP direct detection may be expected. Read More

The International Linear Collider (ILC) has recently proven its technical maturity with the publication of a Technical Design Report, and there is a strong interest in Japan to host such a machine. We summarize key aspects of the Beyond the Standard Model physics case for the ILC in this contribution to the US High Energy Physics strategy process. On top of the strong guaranteed physics case in the detailed exploration of the recently discovered Higgs boson, the top quark and electroweak precision measurements, the ILC will offer unique opportunities which are complementary to the LHC program of the next decade. Read More

We re-evaluate prospects for supersymmetry at the proposed International Linear e^+e^- Collider (ILC) in light of the first two years of serious data taking at LHC: LHC7 with ~5 fb^{-1} of pp collisions at sqrt{s}=7 TeV and LHC8 with ~20 fb^{-1} at \sqrt{s}=8 TeV. Strong new limits from LHC8 SUSY searches, along with the discovery of a Higgs boson with m_h~125 GeV, suggest a paradigm shift from previously popular models to ones with new and compelling signatures. After a review of the current status of supersymmetry, we present a variety of new ILC benchmark models, including: natural SUSY, radiatively-driven natural SUSY (RNS), NUHM2 with low m_A, a focus point case from mSUGRA/CMSSM, non-universal gaugino mass (NUGM) model, stau-coannihilation, Kallosh-Linde/spread SUSY model, mixed gauge-gravity mediation, normal scalar mass hierarchy (NMH), and one example with the recently discovered Higgs boson being the heavy CP-even state H. Read More

Affiliations: 1University of Oklahoma, Department of Physics and Astronomy, 2SLAC, 3KEK, 4TUHEP, 5Universität Wien, Theoretische Physik, 6University of Toyama, Department of Physics, 7DESY, 8Carleton University, Department of Physics, 9University of Oxford, Particle Physics Department, 10Cornell University, Laboratory for Elementary-Particle Physics, 11SLAC, 12LAL, 13DESY, 14DESY, 15APC, CNRS/IN2P3, 16CERN, 17University of California, Department of Physics and Astronomy, 18University of Texas, Center for Accelerator Science and Technology

The International Linear Collider Technical Design Report (TDR) describes in four volumes the physics case and the design of a 500 GeV centre-of-mass energy linear electron-positron collider based on superconducting radio-frequency technology using Niobium cavities as the accelerating structures. The accelerator can be extended to 1 TeV and also run as a Higgs factory at around 250 GeV and on the Z0 pole. A comprehensive value estimate of the accelerator is give, together with associated uncertainties. Read More

We examine the discovery reach of LHC14 for supersymmetry for integrated luminosity ranging from 0.3 to 3 ab^{-1}. In models with gaugino mass unification and M_1,\ M_2<< |\mu| (as for mSUGRA/CMSSM), we find a reach of LHC14 with 3 ab^{-1} for gluino pair production extends to m_{\tg} 2. Read More

Supersymmetric models with low electroweak fine-tuning contain light higgsinos with mass not too far from m_h\simeq 125 GeV, while other sparticles can be much heavier. In the R-parity conserving MSSM, the lightest neutralino is then a higgsino-like WIMP (albeit with non-negligible gaugino components), with thermal relic density well below measured values. This leaves room for axions (or other, perhaps not as well motivated, stable particles) to function as co-dark matter particles. Read More

We show that the electroweak fine-tuning parameter \Delta_{\rm EW} derived from the well-known electroweak symmetry breaking condition written in terms of weak scale parameters leads to {\it a bound on fine-tuning in the MSSM} and explain its utility for phenomenological analyses. We argue that a small magnitude of the mu parameter, and the concomitant presence of light higgsinos, is the most basic consequence of naturalness in SUSY models, and list the resulting implications of this for experiments at the LHC and at future e^+e^- colliders. Read More

Imposing electroweak scale naturalness constraints (low \Delta_{EW}) on SUSY models leads to mass spectra characterized by light higgsinos ~100-300 GeV, highly mixed top-squarks and gluinos at the 1-5 TeV scale and allows for m_h ~125 GeV. First and second generation squarks can easily live at the 5-20 TeV scale, thus providing at least a partial solution to the SUSY flavor/CP problems. For such models at the LHC, gluino pair production is followed by cascade decays to t- and b-quark rich final states along with multileptons. Read More

If one simultaneously invokes the SUSY solution to the gauge hierarchy problem and the PQ solution to the strong CP problem, then one might expect mixed axion/neutralino dark matter (DM), i.e. two dark matter particles. Read More

Recently, two measures of electroweak finetuning (EWFT) have been introduced for SUSY models: \Delta_{EW} compares the Z mass to each separate weak scale contribution to m_Z while \Delta_{HS} compares the Z mass to high scale input parameters and their consequent renormalizaton group evolution (1/\Delta is the % of fine tuning). While the paradigm mSUGRA/CMSSM model has been shown to be highly finetuned under both parameters (\Delta_{EW}> 10^2 and \Delta_{HS}> 10^3), the two-parameter non-universal Higgs model (NUHM2) in the context of radiatively-driven natural SUSY (RNS) enjoys \Delta_{EW} as low as 10, while \Delta_{HS} remains > 10^3. We investigate finetuning in the 19-free-parameter SUGRA model (SUGRA19). Read More

Supersymmetric models which fulfill the conditions of electroweak naturalness generally contain light higgsinos with mass not too far from m_h ~125 GeV, while other sparticles can be much heavier. In R-parity conserving models, the lightest neutralino is then a higgsino-like WIMP (albeit with non-negligible gaugino components), with thermal relic density well below measured values. This leaves room for axions to function as co-dark matter particles. Read More