# H. Arenhoevel - corresponding author

## Contact Details

NameH. Arenhoevel |
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Affiliationcorresponding author |
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## Pubs By Year |
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## External Links |
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## Pub CategoriesNuclear Theory (46) Nuclear Experiment (3) High Energy Physics - Phenomenology (1) Physics - Accelerator Physics (1) |

## Publications Authored By H. Arenhoevel

The problem of determining completely the spin amplitudes of photoproduction of two pseudoscalar mesons on a nucleon from observables is studied. The procedure of reconstruction of the scattering matrix elements from a complete set of observables is based on the expressions of all observables as quadratic hermitean forms in the reaction matrix elements which are derived explicitly. Their inversion allows one to find explicit solutions for the reaction matrix elements in terms of observables. Read More

A truncated partial wave analysis for the photoproduction of two pseudoscalar mesons on a nucleon is discussed with respect to the determination of a complete set of observables. For the selection of such a set we have applied a criterion previously developed for photo- and electrodisintegration of a deuteron, which allows one to find a 'minimal' set of observables for determining the partial wave amplitudes up to possible discrete ambiguities. The question of resolving the remaining ambiguities by invoking additional observables is discussed for the simplest case, when the partial wave expansion is truncated at the lowest total angular momentum of the final state $J_{max}=1/2$. Read More

The application of the Lorentz integral transform (LIT) method to photon scattering off nuclei is presented in general. As an example, elastic photon scattering off the deuteron in the unretarded dipole approximation is considered using the LIT method. The inversion of the integral transform is discussed in detail paying particular attention to the high-energy contributions in the resonance term. Read More

The general expressions for parity violation observables in elastic scattering of polarized and/or unpolarized electrons from unpolarized deuterons are given and are numerically evaluated for the kinematics of SAMPLE, PVA4 and G0 experiments. The dominant contribution from the interference of $\gamma$ and Z exchange as well as the smaller contributions from strangeness ($s{\bar{s}}$) components of the nucleon, parity odd admixtures in the deuteron wave function, anapole moments and radiative corrections are included and discussed in the context of parity violating electron scattering experiments of present interest. Read More

After a brief introduction into the general importance of polarization observables for the analysis of a reaction, the basic density matrix formalism for the description of polarization phenomena is outlined and illustrated by explicit examples for spin one-half and one. Then various electromagnetic processes like photoreactions and electron scattering are discussed in some detail. Finally, the question of how to determine a complete set of polarization observables providing the maximum information on a reaction is considered. Read More

**Authors:**E. Geis

^{1}, V. Ziskin

^{2}, T. Akdogan

^{3}, H. Arenhoevel

^{4}, R. Alarcon

^{5}, W. Bertozzi

^{6}, E. Booth

^{7}, T. Botto

^{8}, J. Calarco

^{9}, B. Clasie

^{10}, C. B. Crawford

^{11}, A. DeGrush

^{12}, T. W. Donnelly

^{13}, K. Dow

^{14}, M. Farkhondeh

^{15}, R. Fatemi

^{16}, O. Filoti

^{17}, W. Franklin

^{18}, H. Gao

^{19}, S. Gilad

^{20}, D. Hasell

^{21}, P. Karpius

^{22}, M. Kohl

^{23}, H. Kolster, T. Lee, A. Maschinot, J. Matthews, K. McIlhany, N. Meitanis, R. G. Milner, J. Rapaport, R. P. Redwine, J. Seely, A. Shinozaki, S. Sirca, A. Sindile, E. Six, T. Smith, M. Steadman, B. Tonguc, C. Tschalaer, E. Tsentalovich, W. Turchinetz, Y. Xiao, W. Xu, C. Zhang, Z. Zhou, T. Zwart

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^{18}corresponding author,

^{19}corresponding author,

^{20}corresponding author,

^{21}corresponding author,

^{22}corresponding author,

^{23}corresponding author

**Category:**Nuclear Experiment

We report new measurements of the neutron charge form factor at low momentum transfer using quasielastic electrodisintegration of the deuteron. Longitudinally polarized electrons at an energy of 850 MeV were scattered from an isotopically pure, highly polarized deuterium gas target. The scattered electrons and coincident neutrons were measured by the Bates Large Acceptance Spectrometer Toroid (BLAST) detector. Read More

We propose a method for polarising antiprotons in a storage ring by means of a polarised positron beam moving parallel to the antiprotons. If the relative velocity is adjusted to $v/c \approx 0.002$ the cross section for spin-flip is as large as about $2 \cdot 10^{13}$ barn as shown by new QED-calculations of the triple spin-cross sections. Read More

The influence of Coulomb distortion on the polarization transfer in elastic proton and antiproton electron scattering at low energies is calculated in a distorted wave Born approximation. For antiproton electron scattering Coulomb effects reduce substantially the spin transfer cross section compared to the plane wave Born approximation whereas for proton electron scattering they lead to a dramatic increase for kinetic proton lab energies below about 20 keV. Read More

Inclusive electron scattering off 4He is investigated for low and medium energy and momentum transfers. The final state interaction, given by the simple semirealistic Malfliet-Tjon potential, is treated rigorously applying the Lorentz Integral Transform (LIT) method. Besides the nonrelativistic one-body current a consistent meson exchange current is constructed and implemented. Read More

**Category:**Nuclear Theory

Inclusive electron scattering off 4He is calculated exactly with a complete treatment of the final state interaction within a simple semirealistic potential model. We discuss results for both the longitudinal and the transverse response functions, at various momentum transfers. A consistent meson exchange current is implemented. Read More

Formal expressions are developed for the general five-fold differential cross section of incoherent $\pi$-photoproduction on the deuteron including beam and target polarization. The polarization observables of the cross section are described by various beam, target and beam-target asymmetries for polarized photons and/or polarized deuterons. They are given as bilinear hermitean forms in the reaction matrix elements divided by the unpolarized cross section. Read More

Incoherent pion photoproduction on the deuteron is studied for photon energies from threshold up to 1 GeV with special emphasis on polarization observables. The elementary $\gamma N\to\pi N$ amplitude is taken from the MAID model. The influence of final state interactions on total and semi-exclusive cross sections $\vec d(\vec\gamma,\pi)NN$ is investigated by including complete rescattering in the final $NN$- and $\pi N$-subsystems. Read More

**Category:**Nuclear Theory

Photoproduction of two pions on nucleon and deuteron is studied for photon energies from threshold up to $E_\gamma = 1.5$ GeV. For the elementary operator an effective Lagrangean approach is used with resonance and Born contributions. Read More

This manuscript originated from the discussion at the workshop on the "Future of Few-body Low Energy Experimental Physics" (FFLEEP), which was held at the University of Trento on December 4-7, 2002 and has been written in its present form on March 19, 2003. It illustrates a selection of theoretical advancements in the nuclear few-body problem, including two- and many-nucleon interactions, the three-nucleon bound and scattering system, the four-body problem, the A-body (A$>$4) problem, and fields of related interest, such as reactions of astrophysical interest and few-neutron systems. Particular attention is called to the contradictory situation one experiences in this field: while theory is currently advancing and has the potential to inspire new experiments, the experimental activity is nevertheless rapidly phasing out. Read More

Kaon photoproduction on the deuteron is investigated by considering YN and KN rescattering and the two-step process gamma d --> pi NN --> KYN. A strong enhancement in the total cross section is found from the two-step process. YN rescattering has remarkable effects in the inclusive and exclusive cross section, while the effect of KN rescattering is much less important. Read More

Kaon photoproduction on the deuteron is studied with respect to a specific two-body contribution, namely a pion mediated production process, besides other final state interaction contributions from kaon-nucleon and hyperon-nucleon scattering. In this process, a pion is first photoproduced on one nucleon and then interacts with the spectator nucleon in a strangeness exchange reaction leading to a kaon and a hyperon. A sizeable effect from this pion mediated contribution is found, considerably larger than the previously studied hyperon-nucleon rescattering, whereas kaon-nucleon rescattering is much less important. Read More

The Li7 total photoabsorption cross section is calculated microscopically. As nucleon-nucleon interaction the semi-realistic central AV4' potential with S- and P-wave forces is taken. The interaction of the final 7-nucleon system is fully taken into account via the Lorentz Integral Transform (LIT) method. Read More

The generalized Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn sum rule $I^{GDH}_{\gamma^*d}(Q^2)$ for deuteron electrodisintegration $d(e,e')np$ as function of the squared four-momentum transfer $Q^2$ is evaluated by explicit integration. The calculation is based on a conventional nonrelativistic framework using a realistic $NN$-potential and including contributions from meson exchange currents, isobar configurations and leading order relativistic terms. Good convergence is achieved. Read More

The production of $\eta$ mesons in $NN$ collisions in the near threshold region is analyzed with special emphasis on the role of final state interaction which is calculated using three-body scattering theory. The three-body aspects are shown to be very important in interpreting experimental results for the total cross section of $pp\to\eta pp$. Furthermore, energy spectra and angular distributions of the emitted particles are calculated and compared to experimental data. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}Mainz, Germany,

^{2}Mainz, Germany

**Category:**Nuclear Theory

The role of final state interaction in $\eta$ photoproduction on a deuteron as well as on three-body nuclei is investigated within few-body scattering theory. Deviation of the theory from the available experimental results is briefly discussed. Read More

The effects of final state interaction in incoherent $\eta$ photoproduction on deuteron are studied within a three-body approach including a realistic $NN$ potential. The results are compared with available data, and differences with other theoretical predictions are analyzed. The role of the $\eta N$ interaction and the possibility of extracting the $\eta N$ scattering parameters from this reaction are discussed. Read More

The optical potential approach for low-energy scattering of $\eta$-mesons on three-body nuclei is compared to an exact treatment of the $\eta 3N$ system using four-body scattering theory with separable interactions in s-waves only. The higher-order terms including the interaction of the struck nucleon with the surrounding nuclear medium and virtual target excitations in between successive $\eta$-scatterings are found to cause important corrections. Effects of final state interaction in $\eta$-photoproduction on $^3$H and $^3$He are also studied and sizable contributions beyond the optical model approach are found. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}Mainz, Germany,

^{2}Mainz, Germany,

^{3}Mainz, Germany

**Category:**Nuclear Theory

The contribution of incoherent single pion photoproduction to the spin response of the deuteron, i.e., the asymmetry of the total photoabsorption cross section with respect to parallel and antiparallel spins of photon and deuteron, is calculated over the region of the $\Delta$-resonance with inclusion of final state $NN$- and $\pi N$-rescattering. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}Mainz, Germany,

^{2}Mainz, Germany

**Category:**Nuclear Theory

A model is developed for the hadronic and electromagnetic interaction in the two-nucleon system above pion threshold in the framework of meson, nucleon and $\Delta$ degrees of freedom. It is based on time-ordered perturbation theory and includes full meson retardation in potentials and exchange currents as well as loop contributions to the nucleonic one-body current. Results for some selected processes are discussed. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}Mainz, Germany,

^{2}Mainz, Germany

**Category:**Nuclear Theory

The importance of three-body dynamics in the $\eta np$ system in elastic and inelastic $\eta$-deuteron scattering as well as coherent and incoherent $\eta$ photoproduction on the deuteron in the energy region from threshold up to 30 MeV above has been investigated. It is shown that a restriction to first order rescattering with respect to the $NN$- and $\eta N$-final state interactions, i.e. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}Mainz, Germany,

^{2}Mainz, Germany,

^{3}Mainz, Germany

**Category:**Nuclear Theory

Incoherent photoproduction of pions on the deuteron in the Delta(1232) resonance region is studied, where besides the impulse approximation complete two-body rescattering in the nucleon-nucleon and pion-nucleon final state subsystems is included. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}Mainz, Germany,

^{2}Mainz, Germany,

^{3}Mainz, Germany,

^{4}Mainz, Germany

**Category:**Nuclear Theory

The present status of the theoretical description of electromagnetic reactions on the deuteron above pion threshold is reviewed. Three major topics are considered: (i) retardation effects in $\pi$-meson exchange contributions to $NN$-interaction and meson exchange currents in deuteron photodisintegration above $\pi$-threshold in the $\Delta$-resonance region, (ii) off-shell effects in the one-body current treated in a simple pion cloud model in deuteron photodisintegration in and above the $\Delta$-resonance region, and (iii) final state interaction effects in photoproduction of $\pi$ and $\eta$ mesons on the deuteron. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}Mainz, Germany,

^{2}Mainz, Germany,

^{3}Mainz, Germany

**Category:**Nuclear Theory

The influence of final state $NN$- and pi N-rescattering in incoherent pion photoproduction on the deuteron has been investigated. For the elementary photoproduction operator an effective Lagrangian model is used which describes well the elementary reaction. The interactions in the final two-body subsystems are taken in separable form. Read More

A study of the $\eta$-3N interaction in the energy region near the $\eta$-^3H elastic scattering threshold is presented. The calculational scheme is based on the four-body scattering formalism. A manageable form of the integral equations is achieved by using a separable ansatz for the driving two-body $\eta N$- and NN-forces as well as for the subamplitudes appearing in the (1+3) and (2+2) partitions of the $\eta$-3N system. Read More

Formal expressions are derived for the multipole expansion of the structure functions of a general polarization observable of exclusive electrodisintegration of the deuteron using a longitudinally polarized beam and/or an oriented target. This allows one to exhibit explicitly the angular dependence of the structure functions by expanding them in terms of the small rotation matrices $d^j_{m'm}(\theta)$, whose coefficients are given in terms of the electromagnetic multipole matrix elements. Furthermore, explicit expressions for the coefficients of the angular distributions of the differential cross section including multipoles up to $L_{max}=3$ are listed in tabular form. Read More

**Category:**Nuclear Theory

The $\eta$-3N-interaction is studied within the four-body Faddeev-Yakubovsky theory adopting purely separable forms for the two- and three-body subamplitudes, limiting the basic two-body interactions to s-waves only. The corresponding separable approximation for the integral kernels is obtained by using the Hilbert-Schmidt procedure. Results are presented for the $\eta$-$^3$H scattering amplitude and for the total elastic cross section for energies below the triton break-up threshold. Read More

**Authors:**P. E. Ulmer, K. A. Aniol, H. Arenhoevel, J. -P. Chen, E. Chudakov, D. Crovelli, J. M. Finn, K. G. Fissum, O. Gayou, J. Gomez, J. -O. Hansen, C. W. de Jager, S. Jeschonnek, M. K. Jones, M. Kuss, J. J. LeRose, M. Liang, R. A. Lindgren, S. Malov, D. Meekins, R. Michaels, J. Mitchell, C. F. Perdrisat, V. Punjabi, R. Roche, F. Sabatie, A. Saha, R. Suleiman, L. Todor, B. B. Wojtsekhowski

**Category:**Nuclear Experiment

The 2H(e,e'p)n cross section was measured in Hall A of the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab) in quasielastic kinematics (x=0.96) at a four-momentum transfer squared, Q^2=0.67 (GeV/c)^2. Read More

A model is developed for the hadronic and electromagnetic interaction in the two-nucleon system above pion threshold in the framework of meson, nucleon and $\Delta$ degrees of freedom. It is based on time-ordered perturbation theory and includes full meson retardation in potentials and exchange currents as well as loop contributions to the nucleonic one-body current. Results for $NN$ scattering and deuteron photodisintegration are presented. Read More

We propose a new method for the construction of a consistent meson exchange current in $r$-space for the spin-isospin dependent central and tensor part of phenomenological nucleon-nucleon potentials by using a Laplace transformation, which allows the representation by a finite number of Yukawa functions. This method is applied to the Paris and the recent Argonne $V_{18}$ potentials. Results are presented for electrodisintegration of the deuteron near threshold. Read More

Offshell contributions to the electromagnetic nuclear current are evaluated within a nonrelativistic approach by incorporation one-pion loop contributions in time-ordered perturbation theory. By construction, the correct experimental onshell properties of the nucleon current are ensured so that only the genuine offshell effects appear as model dependent. For a qualitative assessment of such offshell effects, this model is applied to photodisintegration of the deuteron for photon energies up to 500 MeV. Read More

**Authors:**Z. -L. Zhou, J. Chen, S. -B. Soong, A. Young, X. Jiang, R. Alarcon, H. Arenhoevel, A. Bernstein, W. Bertozzi, J. Comfort, G. Dodson, The MIT-Bates OOPS Collaboration

**Category:**Nuclear Experiment

Measurements of the ${^2}H(\vec{e},e^{\prime}p)n$ reaction were performed using an 800-MeV polarized electron beam at the MIT-Bates Linear Accelerator and with the out-of-plane magnetic spectrometers (OOPS). The longitudinal-transverse, $f_{LT}$ and $f_{LT}^{\prime}$, and the transverse-transverse, $f_{TT}$, interference responses at a missing momentum of 210 MeV/c were simultaneously extracted in the dip region at Q$^2$=0.15 (GeV/c)$^2$. Read More

The role of the $\eta NN$-interaction is studied in the low energy regime in $\eta$-deuteron reactions as well as in coherent and incoherent $\eta$-photoproduction on the deuteron using a three-body model with separable two-body interactions. The three-body approach turns out to be quite essential in the most important lowest partial wave. Results are presented for differential and total cross sections as well as for the $\eta$-meson spectrum. Read More

The general formalism for polarization observables in elastic electron deuteron scattering is extended to incorporate parity and time reversal violating contributions. Parity violating effects arise from the interference of $\gamma$ and $Z$ exchange as well as from the hadronic sector via a small parity violating component in the deuteron. In addition we have allowed for time reversal invariance violating contributions in the hadronic sector. Read More

Coherent $\eta$-meson photoproduction on the deuteron has been studied, where the emphasis is on the relative importance of two-body contributions from hadronic rescattering and electromagnetic meson exchange currents besides the impulse approximation. For the elementary photoproduction amplitude a coupled resonance model developed by Bennhold and Tanabe has been used which fits reasonably well the experimental data. The rescattering effects are treated within a coupled channel approach considering the intermediate excitation of the $P_{11}(1440)$, $D_{13}(1520)$, and $S_{11}(1535)$ nucleon resonances. Read More

The development of theoretical photonuclear physics over the last 40 years is illustrated by a few selected examples highlighting a number of important issues like collective motion in nuclei, the role of subnuclear degrees of freedom, relativity and meson production. Read More

Photodisintegration of the deuteron above $\pi$ threshold is studied in a coupled channel approach including $N \Delta$ and $\pi d$ channels with consideration of pion retardation in potentials and exchange currents. A much improved description of total and differential cross sections in the energy region between $\pi$ threshold and 400-450 MeV is achieved. With respect to polarization observables, the description of the linear photon asymmetry and the proton polarization remains problematic. Read More

A three-body calculation of the reaction $\gamma d\to\eta np$ in the energy region from threshold up to 30 MeV above has been performed. The primary goal of this study is to assess the importance of the three-body aspects in the hadronic sector of this reaction. Results are presented for the $\eta$-meson spectrum as well as for the total cross section. Read More

As first topic, the GDH sume rule is discussed in the context of a more general class of sum rules associated with the various contributions to the total photoabsorption cross section for target and beam polarization. Then I address the question of whether the GDH sum rule for the neutron can be determined from the one for the deuteron. It appears that this will not be possible in a simple manner. Read More

The interaction of an $\eta$-meson with two nucleons is studied within a three-body approach. The major features of the $\eta NN$-system in the low-energy region are accounted for by using a s-wave separable ansatz for the two-body $\eta N$- and $NN$-amplitudes. The calculation is confined to the $(J^\pi;T)=(0^-;1)$ and $(1^-;0)$ configurations which are assumed to be the most promising candidates for virtual or resonant $\eta NN$-states. Read More

A model is developed for the hadronic interaction in the two-nucleon system above pion threshold which is based on meson, nucleon and $\Delta$ degrees of freedom and which includes full meson retardation in the exchange operators. For technical reasons, the model allows maximal one meson to be present explicitly. Thus the Hilbert space contains besides $NN$ and $N\Delta$ also configurations consisting of two nucleons and one meson. Read More

The influence of relativistic contributions to elastic electron deuteron scattering is studied systematically at low and intermediate momentum transfers ($Q^2\leq 30$ fm$^{-2}$). In a $(p/M)$-expansion, all leading order relativistic $\pi$-exchange contributions consistent with the Bonn OBEPQ models are included. In addition, static heavy meson exchange currents including boost terms and lowest order $\rho\pi\gamma$-currents are considered. Read More

Coherent pion electroproduction on the deuteron is studied in the $\Delta(1232)$ resonance region in the impulse approximation, i.e., neglecting pion rescattering and two-body effects. Read More

The formal properties of the recently derived set of linearly independent invariant amplitudes for the electromagnetic production of a pseudoscalar particle from a spin-one particle have been further exploited. The crossing properties are discussed in detail. Since not all of the amplitudes have simple crossing behaviour, we introduce an alternative set of basic amplitudes which are either symmetric or antisymmetric under crossing. Read More

For deuteron photo- and electrodisintegration the selection of complete sets of polarization observables is discussed in detail by applying a recently developed new criterion for the check of completeness of a chosen set of observables. The question of ambiguities and their resolution by considering additional observables is discussed for a numerical example, for which the role of experimental uncertainties is also investigated. Furthermore, by inversion of the expressions of the observables as hermitean forms in the $t$-matrix elements a bilinear term of the form $t_{j'}^*t_j$ can be given as a complex linear form in the observables from which an explicit solution for $t_j$ in terms of observables can be obtained. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}Mainz, Germany,

^{2}Mainz, Germany

**Category:**Nuclear Theory

Rescattering effects in coherent eta photoproduction on the deuteron are studied in the region of the S_11(1535) resonance. For the elementary reaction mechanism on the nucleon, an effective isobar model with inclusion of resonances and Born terms is used. The resonance parameters are fixed by considering pion photoproduction only. Read More