Gustavo Romero - IAR-CONICET, Argentina

Gustavo Romero
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Gustavo Romero
IAR-CONICET, Argentina

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Pub Categories

High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (30)
General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (18)
Physics - History of Physics (13)
Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (10)
Physics - General Physics (3)
Computer Science - Networking and Internet Architecture (1)
Computer Science - Distributed; Parallel; and Cluster Computing (1)
Computer Science - Neural and Evolutionary Computing (1)
Astrophysics of Galaxies (1)

Publications Authored By Gustavo Romero

Affiliations: 1IAR, Buenos Aires, Argentina, 2NWU, Potchefstroom, South Africa, 3University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 4INAF, Merate, Italy

Collimated outflows (jets) appear to be a ubiquitous phenomenon associated with the accretion of material onto a compact object. Despite this ubiquity, many fundamental physics aspects of jets are still poorly understood and constrained. These include the mechanism of launching and accelerating jets, the connection between these processes and the nature of the accretion flow, and the role of magnetic fields; the physics responsible for the collimation of jets over tens of thousands to even millions of gravitational radii of the central accreting object; the matter content of jets; the location of the region(s) accelerating particles to TeV (possibly even PeV and EeV) energies (as evidenced by gamma-ray emission observed from many jet sources) and the physical processes responsible for this particle acceleration; the radiative processes giving rise to the observed multi-wavelength emission; and the topology of magnetic fields and their role in the jet collimation and particle acceleration processes. Read More

Scalar-Tensor-Vector Gravity (STVG) is a theory that does not require dark components to describe astrophysical data. We aim at constraining the free parameters of STVG based on recent observations of the jet in M87. We derive the equations of motion for particles in STVG-Kerr spacetime, we develop a numerical code that integrates such equations, and apply it to the jet of M87. Read More

Scalar-Tensor-Vector Gravity (STVG), also referred as MOdified Gravity (MOG), is an alternative theory of the gravitational interaction. Its weak field approximation has been successfully used to described Solar System observations, galaxy rotation curves, dynamics of clusters of galaxies, and cosmological data, without the imposition of dark components. The theory was formulated by John Moffat in 2006. Read More

The binary stellar system HD 93129A is one of the most massive known binaries in our Galaxy. This system presents non-thermal emission in the radio band, which can be used to infer its physical conditions and predict its emission in the high-energy band. We intend to constrain some of the unknown parameters of HD 93129A through modelling the non-thermal emitter, and also to analyse the detectability of this source in hard X-rays and $\gamma$-rays. Read More

Context. Binary systems of supermassive black holes are expected to be strong sources of long gravitational waves prior to merging. These systems are good candidates to be observed with forthcoming space-borne detectors. Read More

Fast radio bursts (FRBs) are radio transients lasting only about a few milliseconds. They seem to occur at cosmological distances. We propose that these events can be originated in the collapse of the magnetosphere of Kerr-Newman black holes (KNBHs). Read More

The high-energy emission ($400$ keV $- 2$ MeV) of Cygnus X-1 --the most well-studied Galactic black hole-- was recently found to be strongly polarized. The origin of this radiation is still unknown. In this work, we suggest that it is the result of non-thermal processes in the hot corona around the accreting compact object, and study the polarization of high-energy radiation expected for black hole binaries. Read More

Fast radio bursts are mysterious transient sources likely located at cosmological distances. The derived brightness temperatures exceed by many orders of magnitude the self-absorption limit of incoherent synchrotron radiation, implying the operation of a coherent emission process. We propose a radiation mechanism for fast radio bursts where the emission arises from collisionless Bremsstrahlung in strong plasma turbulence excited by relativistic electron beams. Read More

We aim at clarifying the nature of the emission of two spatially related unidentified X-ray sources detected with XMM-Newton telescope at intermediate-low Galactic latitude. Observations reveal a point-like source aligned with elongated diffuse emission. The X-ray spectra are best-fitted by absorbed power laws with photon indices ~1. Read More

I present a discussion of some issues in the ontology of spacetime. After a characterisation of the controversies among relationists, substantivalists, eternalists, and presentists, I offer a new argument for rejecting presentism, the doctrine that only present objects exist. Then, I outline and defend a form of spacetime realism that I call event substantivalism. Read More

Cygnus X-1 is a well observed microquasar. Broadband observations at all wavelengths have been collected over the years. The origin of the MeV tail observed with COMPTEL and INTEGRAL is still under debate and it has mostly been attributed to the corona, although its high degree of polarization suggests it is synchrotron radiation from a jet. Read More

Macroscopic irreversible processes emerge from fundamental physical laws of reversible character. The source of the local irreversibility seems to be not in the laws themselves but in the initial and boundary conditions of the equations that represent the laws. In this work we propose that the screening of currents by black hole event horizons determines, locally, a preferred direction for the flux of electromagnetic energy. Read More

Context. Astrophysical jets are ubiquitous in the Universe on all scales, but their large-scale dynamics and evolution in time are hard to observe since they usually develop at a very slow pace. Aims. Read More

Context: Several binary systems hosting massive stars present gamma-ray emission. In most of these systems, despite detailed observational information being available, the nature and the structure of the emitter are still poorly known. Aims: We investigate the validity of the so-called one-zone approximation for the high-energy emitter in binary systems hosting a massive star. Read More

Giant molecular clouds (GMCs) are a new population of gamma-ray sources, being the target of cosmic rays (CRs) -- locally accelerated or not --. These clouds host very young stellar clusters where massive star formation takes place. Eventually, some of the stars are ejected from the clusters, becoming runaway stars. Read More

I offer an analysis of the Principle of Sufficient Reason and its relevancy for the scientific endeavour. I submit that the world is not, and cannot be, rational - only some brained beings are. The Principle of Sufficient Reason is not a necessary truth nor a physical law. Read More

The discovery of relativistic jets and superluminal sources associated with accreting X-ray binaries in the Galaxy opened new ways of investigating the physics of outflows from compact objects. The short timescales and relatively large angular sizes of Galactic jets allow to probe the physics of relativistic outflows to unprecedented details. In this article I discuss results of recent modelling of Galactic jets, covering both radiative and dynamical aspects, which can shed light on different features of their extragalactic cousins. Read More

After the so-called cosmic recombination, the expanding universe entered into a period of darkness since most of the matter was in a neutral state. About a billion years later, however, the intergalactic space was once again ionized. The process, known as the cosmic reionization, required the operation of mechanisms that are not well understood. Read More

Black holes are extremely relativistic objects. Physical processes around them occur in a regime where the gravitational field is extremely intense. Under such conditions, our representations of space, time, gravity, and thermodynamics are pushed to their limits. Read More

Classical invariants of General Relativity can be used to approximate the entropy of the gravitational field. In this work, we study two proposed estimators based on scalars constructed out from the Weyl tensor, in Kerr spacetime. In order to evaluate Clifton, Ellis and Tavakol's proposal, we calculate the gravitational energy density, gravitational temperature, and gravitational entropy of the Kerr spacetime. Read More

In the magneto-centrifugal mechanism for jet formation, accreting neutron stars are assumed to produce relativistic jets only if their surface magnetic field is weak enough ($B \sim 10^8$ G). However, the most common manifestation of neutron stars are pulsars, whose magnetic field distribution peaks at $B \sim 10^{12}$ G. If the neutron star magnetic field has at least this strength at birth, it must decay considerably before jets can be launched in binary systems. Read More

The idea of a moving present or `now' seems to form part of our most basic beliefs about reality. Such a present, however, is not reflected in any of our theories of the physical world. I show in this article that presentism, the doctrine that only what is present exists, is in conflict with modern relativistic cosmology and recent advances in neurosciences. Read More

Presentism is, roughly, the metaphysical doctrine that maintains that whatever exists, exists in the present. The compatibility of presentism with the theories of special and general relativity was much debated in recent years. It has been argued that at least some versions of presentism are consistent with time-orientable models of general relativity. Read More

Runaway stars are ejected from their formation sites well within molecular cores in giant dark clouds. Eventually, these stars can travel through the molecular clouds, which are highly inhomogeneous. The powerful winds of massive runaway stars interact with the medium forming bowshocks. Read More

Dense populations of stars surround the nuclear regions of galaxies. In active galactic nuclei, these stars can interact with the relativistic jets launched by the supermasive black hole. In this work, we study the interaction of early-type stars with relativistic jets in active galactic nuclei. Read More

Long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are associated with the gravitational collapse of very massive stars. The central engine of a GRB can collimate relativistic jets that propagate inside the stellar envelope. The shock waves produced when the jet disrupts the stellar surface are capable of accelerating particles up to very high energies. Read More

We study the interaction of early-type stars with the jets of active galactic nuclei. A bow-shock will form as a consequence of the interaction of the jet with the winds of stars and particles can be accelerated up to relativistic energies in these shocks. We compute the non-thermal radiation produced by relativistic electrons from radio to gamma-rays. Read More

A supertask consists in the performance of an infinite number of actions in a finite time. I show that any attempt to carry out a supertask will produce a divergence of the curvature of spacetime, resulting in the formation of a black hole. I maintain that supertasks, contrarily to a popular view among philosophers, are physically impossible. Read More

Context. After the release of the gamma-ray source catalog produced by the Fermi satellite during its first two years of operation, a significant fraction of sources still remain unassociated at lower energies. In addition to well-known high-energy emitters (pulsars, blazars, supernova remnants, etc. Read More

GRO J0422+32 is a member of the class of low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) sources, discovered during an outburst in 1992. Along the entire episode ($\sim 230$ days) a persistent power-law spectral component extending up to $\sim 1$ MeV was observed. These results suggest that non-thermal processes must be at work in the system. Read More

We study neutrino emission from long gamma-ray bursts. The collapse of very massive stars to black holes, and the consequent jet formation, are expected to produce high-energy neutrinos through photomeson production. Such neutrinos can escape from the source and travel up to the Earth. Read More

I discuss the ontological assumptions and implications of General Relativity. I maintain that General Relativity is a theory about gravitational fields, not about space-time. The latter is a more basic ontological category, that emerges from physical relations among all existents. Read More

The effects implied for the structure of compact objects by the modification of General Relativity produced by the generalization of the Lagrangian density to the form f(R)=R+\alpha R^2, where R is the Ricci curvature scalar, have been recently explored. It seems likely that this squared-gravity may allow heavier Neutron Stars (NSs) than GR. In addition, these objects can be useful to constrain free parameters of modified-gravity theories. Read More

Stellar-mass black holes offer what is perhaps the best scenario to test theories of gravity in the strong-field regime. In particular, f(R) theories, which have been widely discuss in a cosmological context, can be constrained through realistic astrophysical models of phenomena around black holes. We aim at building radiative models of thin accretion disks for both Schwarzschild and Kerr black holes in f(R) gravity. Read More

Dense populations of stars surround the nuclear regions of galaxies. In this work, we study the interaction of a WR star with relativistic jets in active galactic nuclei. A bow-shaped double-shock structure will form as a consequence of the interaction of the jet and the wind of the star. Read More

I argue that there are no physical singularities in space-time. Singular space-time models do not belong to the ontology of the world, because of a simple reason: they are concepts, defective solutions of Einstein's field equations. I discuss the actual implication of the so-called singularity theorems. Read More

Affiliations: 1IAR-CONICET, Argentina, 2IAR-CONICET, Argentina, 3CURZA-COMAHUE, Argentina, 4IAR-CONICET, Argentina, 5INAF, Italia, 6UCM, España

The origin and evolution of supernova remnants of the mixed-morphology class is not well understood. Several remnants present distorted radio or X-ray shells with jet-like structures. G290. Read More

We study the production of VHE emission in blazars as a superposition of a steady component from a baryonic jet and a time- dependent contribution from an inner e-e+ beam launched by the black hole. Both primary relativistic electrons and protons are injected in the jet, and the particle distributions along it are found by solving a one-dimensional transport equation that accounts for convection and cooling. The short-timescale variability of the emission is explained by local pair injections in turbulent regions of the inner beam. Read More

The feeling of a moving present or `now' seems to form part of our most basic perceptions about reality. Such a present, however, is not reflected in any of our theories of the physical world. In this short note I argue for a tenseless view of time, where what we call `the present' is just an emergent secondary quality arising from the interaction of perceiving self-conscious individuals with their environment. Read More

I present a formal ontological theory where the basic building blocks of the world can be either things or events. In any case, the result is a Parmenidean worldview where change is not a global property. What we understand by change manifests as asymmetries in the pattern of the world-lines that constitute 4-dimensional existents. Read More

Runaway massive stars are O- and B-type stars with high spatial velocities with respect to the interstellar medium. These stars can produce bowshocks in the surrounding gas. Bowshocks develop as arc-shaped structures, with bows pointing to the same direction as the stellar velocity, while the star moves supersonically through the interstellar gas. Read More

Galactic black hole coronae are composed of a hot, magnetized plasma. The spectral energy distribution produced in this component of X-ray binaries can be strongly affected by different interactions between locally injected relativistic particles and the matter, radiation and magnetic fields in the source. We study the non-thermal processes driven by the injection of relativistic particles into a strongly magnetized corona around an accreting black hole. Read More

We present a formal analysis of the Cosmological Argument in its two main forms: that due to Aquinas, and the revised version of the Kalam Cosmological Argument more recently advocated by William Lane Craig. We formulate these two arguments in such a way that each conclusion follows in first-order logic from the corresponding assumptions. Our analysis shows that the conclusion which follows for Aquinas is considerably weaker than what his aims demand. Read More

Conceptually reconstructing the physical conditions in relativistic jets, given the observed electromagnetic spectrum, poses a complex inverse problem. We aim to obtain a better understanding of the mechanisms operating in relativistic jets through the modeling of their broadband electromagnetic spectrum. We develop an inhomogeneous jet model where the injection of relativistic primary and secondary particles takes place in a spatially extended region. Read More

We analyze the thermodynamical properties of the regular static and spherically symmetric black hole interior model presented by Mboyne and Kazanas. Equations for the thermodynamical quantities valid for an arbitrary density profile are deduced, and from them we show that the model is thermodynamically unstable. Evidence is also presented pointing to its dynamical instability. Read More

I argue for a four dimensional, non-dynamical view of space-time, where becoming is not an intrinsic property of reality. This view has many features in common with the Parmenidean conception of the universe. I discuss some recent objections to this position and I offer a comparison of the Parmenidean space-time with an interpretation of Heraclitus' thought that presents no major antagonism. Read More

Pure thermodynamical considerations to describe the entropic evolution of the universe seem to violate the Second Law of Thermodynamics. This suggests that the gravitational field itself has entropy. In this paper we expand recent work done by Rudjord, Gr{\O}n and Sigbj{\O}rn where they suggested a method to calculate the gravitational entropy in black holes based on the so-called `Weyl curvature conjecture'. Read More

T Tauri stars are young, low mass, pre-main sequence stars surrounded by an accretion disk. These objects present strong magnetic activity and powerful magnetic reconnection events. Strong shocks are likely associated with fast reconnection in the stellar magnetosphere. Read More

After a proof of concept using Dropbox(tm), a free storage and synchronization service, showed that an evolutionary algorithm using several dissimilar computers connected via WiFi or Ethernet had a good scaling behavior in terms of evaluations per second, it remains to be proved whether that effect also translates to the algorithmic performance of the algorithm. In this paper we will check several different, and difficult, problems, and see what effects the automatic load-balancing and asynchrony have on the speed of resolution of problems. Read More

I present a discussion of some open issues in the philosophy of space-time theories. Emphasis is put on the ontological nature of space and time, the relation between determinism and predictability, the origin of irreversible processes in an expanding Universe, and the compatibility of relativity and quantum mechanics. In particular, I argue for a Parmenidean view of time and change, I make clear the difference between ontological determinism and predictability, propose that the origin of the asymmetry observed in physical processes is related to the existence of cosmological horizons, and present a non-local concept of causality that can accommodate both special relativity and quantum entanglement. Read More