# Grzegorz Kowal - USP

## Contact Details

NameGrzegorz Kowal |
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AffiliationUSP |
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Location |
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## Pubs By Year |
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## External Links |
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## Pub CategoriesHigh Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (9) Astrophysics (8) Astrophysics of Galaxies (7) Physics - Plasma Physics (4) Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (3) Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (1) Physics - Space Physics (1) |

## Publications Authored By Grzegorz Kowal

**Authors:**Anderson Caproni

^{1}, Gustavo Amaral Lanfranchi

^{2}, Gabriel Henrique Campos Baião

^{3}, Grzegorz Kowal

^{4}, Diego Falceta-Gonçalves

^{5}

**Affiliations:**

^{1}NAT-Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul,

^{2}NAT-Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul,

^{3}NAT-Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul,

^{4}NAT-Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul,

^{5}EACH-Universidade de São Paulo

We present results from a non-cosmological, three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulation of the gas in the dwarf spheroidal galaxy Ursa Minor. Assuming an initial baryonic-to-dark-matter ratio derived from the cosmic microwave background radiation, we evolved the galactic gas distribution over 3 Gyr, taking into account the effects of the types Ia and II supernovae. For the first time, we used in our simulation the instantaneous supernovae rates derived from a chemical evolution model applied to spectroscopic observational data of Ursa Minor. Read More

Magnetic reconnection is a process that changes magnetic field topology in highly conducting fluids. Within the standard Sweet-Parker model, this process would be too slow to explain observations (e.g. Read More

Magnetic reconnection is a process of magnetic field topology change, which is one of the most fundamental processes in magnetized plasmas. In most astrophysical environments the Reynolds numbers are large and therefore the transition to turbulence is inevitable. This turbulence must be taken into account for any theory of magnetic reconnection, since the initially laminar configurations can transit to the turbulence state, what is demonstrated by 3D high resolution numerical simulations. Read More

We study how the estimation of the sonic Mach number ($M_s$) from $^{13}$CO linewidths relates to the actual 3D sonic Mach number. For this purpose we analyze MHD simulations which include post-processing to take radiative transfer effects into account. As expected, we find very good agreement between the linewidth estimated sonic Mach number and the actual sonic Mach number of the simulations for optically thin tracers. Read More

Cosmic Ray (CR) acceleration still challenges the researchers. Fast particles may be accelerated in astrophysical environments by a variety of processes. Acceleration in magnetic reconnection sites in particular, has lately attracted the attention of researchers not only for its potential importance in the solar system context, but also in other astrophysical environments, like compact stellar sources, AGNs and GRBs, and even in diffusive media like the ISM and the IGM, especially when the environment is magnetically dominated. Read More

**Authors:**Frederick Poidevin

^{1}, Diego Falceta-Goncalves

^{2}, Grzegorz Kowal

^{3}, Elisabete de Gouveia Dal Pino

^{4}, Antonio-Mario Magalhaes

^{5}

**Affiliations:**

^{1}UCL,

^{2}SUPA and USP,

^{3}USP,

^{4}IAG-USP,

^{5}IAG-USP

**Category:**Astrophysics of Galaxies

We present an extensive analysis of the 850 microns polarization maps of the SCUPOL Catalog produced by Matthews et al. (2009), focusing exclusively on the molecular clouds and star-forming regions. For the sufficiently sampled regions, we characterize the depolarization properties and the turbulent-to-mean magnetic field ratio of each region. Read More

Observational data require a rich variety of mechanisms to accelerate fast particles in astrophysical environments operating under different conditions. The mechanisms discussed in the literature include varying magnetic fields in compact sources, stochastic processes in turbulent environments, and acceleration behind shocks. An alternative, much less explored mechanism involves particle acceleration within magnetic reconnection sites. Read More

We study a model of fast magnetic reconnection in the presence of weak turbulence proposed by Lazarian and Vishniac (1999) using three-dimensional direct numerical simulations. The model has been already successfully tested in Kowal et al. (2009) confirming the dependencies of the reconnection speed $V_{rec}$ on the turbulence injection power $P_{inj}$ and the injection scale $l_{inj}$ expressed by a constraint $V_{rec} \sim P_{inj}^{1/2} l_{inj}^{3/4}$ and no observed dependency on Ohmic resistivity. Read More

Fast particles are accelerated in astrophysical environments by a variety of processes. Acceleration in reconnection sites has attracted the attention of researchers recently. In this letter we analyze the energy distribution evolution of test particles injected in three dimensional (3D) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of different magnetic reconnection configurations. Read More

The role of MHD turbulence in astrophysical environments is still highly debated. An important question that permeates this debate is the transport of magnetic flux. This is particularly important, for instance, in the context of star formation. Read More

There is no single mechanism by which fast particles are accelerated in astrophysical environments, and it is now recognized that the data require a rich variety of different mechanisms operating under different conditions. The mechanisms discussed in the literature include varying magnetic fields in compact sources, stochastic processes in turbulent environments, and acceleration behind shocks. An alternative, much less explored mechanism so far, involves particle acceleration within magnetic reconnection sites. Read More

The magnetic fields can change their topology through a process known as magnetic reconnection. This process in not only important for understanding the origin and evolution of the large-scale magnetic field, but is seen as a possibly efficient particle accelerator producing cosmic rays mainly through the first order Fermi process. In this work we study the properties of particle acceleration in reconnection zones and show that the velocity component parallel to the magnetic field of test particles inserted in nearly non-resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) domains of reconnection without including kinetic effects, such as pressure anisotropy, the Hall term, or anomalous effects, increases exponentially. Read More

In the past years we have experienced an increasing interest in understanding of the physical properties of collisionless plasmas, mostly because of the large number of astrophysical environments, e.g. the intracluster medium (ICM), containing magnetic fields which are strong enough to be coupled with the ionized gas and characterized by densities sufficiently low to prevent the pressure isotropization with respect to the magnetic line direction. Read More

We study compressible MHD turbulence, which holds key to many astrophysical processes, including star formation and cosmic ray propagation. To account for the variations of the magnetic field in the strongly turbulent fluid we use wavelet decomposition of the turbulent velocity field into Alfven, slow and fast modes, which presents an extension of the Cho & Lazarian (2003) decomposition approach based on Fourier transforms. The wavelets allow to follow the variations of the local direction of magnetic field and therefore improve the quality of the decomposition compared to the Fourier transforms which are done in the mean field reference frame. Read More

We investigate the nature and spatial variations of turbulence in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) by applying several statistical methods on the neutral hydrogen (HI) column density image of the SMC and a database of isothermal numerical simulations. By using the 3rd and 4th statistical moments we derive the spatial distribution of the sonic Mach number (M_s) across the SMC. We find that about 90% of the HI in the SMC is subsonic or transonic. Read More

The most accepted model for jet production is based on the magneto-centrifugal acceleration out off an accretion disk that surrounds the central source (Blandford & Payne, 1982). This scenario, however, does not explain, e.g. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}Toruń Centre for Astronomy, Nicolaus Copernicus University,

^{2}Astronomical Observatory, Jagiellonian University,

^{3}Astronomical Observatory, Jagiellonian University,

^{4}Astronomical Observatory, Munich University

**Category:**Astrophysics

We present a parameter study of the magnetohydrodynamical dynamo driven by cosmic rays in the interstellar medium (ISM) focusing on the efficiency of magnetic field amplification and the issue of energy equipartition between magnetic, kinetic and cosmic ray (CR) energies. We perform numerical CR-MHD simulations of the ISM using the extended version of ZEUS-3D code in the shearing box approximation and taking into account the presence of Ohmic resistivity, tidal forces and vertical disk gravity. CRs are supplied in randomly distributed supernova (SN) remnants and are described by the diffusion-advection equation, which incorporates an anisotropic diffusion tensor. Read More

In the present paper we construct maps of polarized synchrotron radio emission of a whole galaxy, based on local models of the cosmic ray (CR) driven dynamo. We perform numerical simulations of the dynamo in local Cartesian domains, with shear-periodic boundary conditions, placed at the different galactocentric radii. Those local solutions are concatenated together to construct the synchrotron images of the whole galaxy. Read More

We present an analysis of the distribution of H-alpha emission measures for the warm ionized medium (WIM) of the Galaxy using data from the Wisconsin H-Alpha Mapper (WHAM) Northern Sky Survey. Our sample is restricted to Galactic latitudes |b| > 10. We removed sightlines intersecting nineteen high-latititude classical H II regions, leaving only sightlines that sample the diffuse WIM. Read More

We analyze the electromotive force (EMF) terms and basic assumptions of the linear and nonlinear dynamo theories in our three-dimensional (3D) numerical model of the Parker instability with cosmic rays and shear in a galactic disk. We also apply the well known prescriptions of the EMF obtained by the nonlinear dynamo theory (Blackman & Field 2002 and Kleeorin et al. 2003) to check if the EMF reconstructed from their prescriptions corresponds to the EMF obtained directly from our numerical models. Read More

We study scaling relations of compressible isothermal strongly magnetized turbulence using numerical simulations with resolution 512$^3$. We find a good correspondence of our results with the Fleck (1996) model of compressible hydrodynamic turbulence. In particular, we find that the density-weighted velocity, i. Read More

We study scaling relations of compressible strongly magnetized turbulence. We find a good correspondence of our results with the Fleck (1996) model of compressible hydrodynamic turbulence. In particular, we find that the density-weighted velocity, i. Read More

We report the first attempt to mode decomposition of the velocity field using wavelet transforms in the application to the magnetized turbulence analysis. We compare results of the separation with respect to the global and local mean magnetic field for models with a strong and weak external magnetic field. We show, that for models with a strong external magnetic field our results are relatively consistent for both methods. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}OA UJ, Krakow, Poland,

^{2}CA UMK, Piwnice/Torun, Poland,

^{3}OA UJ, Krakow, Poland

**Category:**Astrophysics

Parker instability leads to the formation of tangential discontinuities in a magnetic field and subsequent magnetic reconnection due to a numerical and/or an explicit resistivity. In this paper we investigate the role of the uniform, localized and numerical resistivity on the diffusion of magnetic field lines during the growth phase of Parker instability modes. We propose a new method to quantify the diffusion of magnetic field lines which is attributed to the presence of resistivity in ideal and non-ideal MHD codes. Read More