Gregory Sivakoff - University of Alberta

Gregory Sivakoff
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Gregory Sivakoff
University of Alberta

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High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (26)
Astrophysics (19)
Astrophysics of Galaxies (10)
Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (8)
Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (4)

Publications Authored By Gregory Sivakoff

47 Tuc X9 is a low mass X-ray binary (LMXB) in the globular cluster 47 Tucanae, and was previously thought to be a cataclysmic variable. However, Miller-Jones et al. (2015) recently identified a radio counterpart to X9 (inferring a radio/X-ray luminosity ratio consistent with black hole LMXBs), and suggested that the donor star might be a white dwarf. Read More

Affiliations: 1University of Alabama, 2Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 3University of Alberta, 4San Jose State University, 5University of New Hampshire, 6University of Alabama, 7University of Alabama, 8University of Alabama, 9Michigan State University, 10National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 11University of Michigan

An X-ray flaring source was found near the galaxy NGC 4697. Two flares were seen, separated by four years. The flux increased by a factor of 90 on a timescale of about one minute. Read More

We present follow-up X-ray observations of the candidate massive black hole (BH) in the nucleus of the low-mass, compact starburst galaxy Henize 2-10. Using new high-resolution observations from the Chandra X-ray Observatory totaling 200 ks in duration, as well as archival Chandra observations from 2001, we demonstrate the presence of a previously unidentified X-ray point source that is spatially coincident with the known nuclear radio source in Henize 2-10 (i.e. Read More

We present 8--12\,GHz radio light curves of five dwarf nova (DN) type Cataclysmic Variable stars (CVs) in outburst (RX And, U Gem and Z Cam), or superoutburst (SU UMa and YZ Cnc), increasing the number of radio-detected DN by a factor of two. The observed radio emission was variable on time-scales of minutes to days, and we argue that it is likely to be synchrotron emission. This sample shows no correlation between the radio luminosity and optical luminosity, orbital period, CV class, or outburst type; however higher-cadence observations are necessary to test this, as the measured luminosity is dependent on the timing of the observations in these variable objects. Read More

Affiliations: 1University of Southampton, 2INAF--Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, 3University of Southampton, 4University of Southampton, 5University of Southampton, 6Observatoire de Geneve, 7University of Alberta, 8University of Oklahoma, 9University of Southampton, 10University of Southampton, 11University of Southampton, 12Universita' degli Studi Roma Tre, 13University of Southampton, 14University of Southampton, 15University of Southampton, 16University of Southampton, 17University of Southampton, 18Institute of Astronomy, Cambridge

We analyzed a large sample of radio-loud and radio-quiet quasar spectra at redshift 1.0 < z < 1.2 to compare the inferred underlying quasar continuum slopes (after removal of the host galaxy contribution) with accretion disk models. Read More

We have studied the X-ray luminosity function (XLF) of low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) in the nearby lenticular galaxy NGC 3115, using the Megasecond Chandra X-Ray Visionary Project Observation. With a total exposure time of ~1.1 Ms, we constructed the XLF down to a limiting luminosity of ~10^36 erg/s, much deeper than typically reached for other early-type galaxies. Read More

We have carried out an in-depth study of low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) detected in the nearby lenticular galaxy NGC 3115, using the Megasecond Chandra X-Ray Visionary Project observation (total exposure time 1.1 Ms). In total we found 136 candidate LMXBs in the field and 49 in globular clusters (GCs) above 2\sigma\ detection, with 0. Read More

Radio emission from non-magnetic cataclysmic variables (CVs, accreting white dwarfs) could allow detailed studies of outflows and possibly accretion flows in these nearby, numerous and non-relativistic compact accretors. Up to now, however, very few CVs have been detected in the radio. We have conducted a VLA pilot survey of four close and optically-bright novalike CVs at 6 GHz, detecting three, and thereby doubling the number of radio detections of these systems. Read More

We present near-simultaneous Chandra/HST observations of the very faint ($L_{x} < 10^{36}$ erg s$^{-1}$) X-ray transient source M15 X-3, as well as unpublished archival Chandra observations of M15 X-3. The Chandra observations constrain the luminosity of M15 X-3 to be $< 10^{34}$ erg s$^{-1}$ in all observed epochs. The X-ray spectrum shows evidence of curvature, and prefers a fit to a broken power-law with break energy $E_{\rm break} = 2. Read More

We present an analysis of the X-ray spectrum and long-term variability of the nearby dwarf starburst galaxy Henize 2-10. Recent observations suggest that this galaxy hosts an actively accreting black hole with mass ~10^6 M_sun. The presence of an AGN in a low-mass starburst galaxy marks a new environment for active galactic nuclei (AGNs), with implications for the processes by which "seed" black holes may form in the early Universe. Read More

In this paper we discuss the luminosity modulations and spectral analysis results of the recent deep observations of XMMU 122939.7+075333, the first black hole discovered in a globular cluster. The source has been detected many times, typically with L$_X$ > 10$^{39}$ erg s$^{-1}$, but in a 2010 observation had faded to L$_X$ ~ 10$^{38}$ erg s$^{-1}$. Read More

The incidence and properties of present-day dwarf galaxies hosting massive black holes (BHs) can provide important constraints on the origin of high-redshift BH seeds. Here we present high-resolution X-ray and radio observations of the low-metallicity, star-forming, dwarf-galaxy system Mrk 709 with the Chandra X-ray Observatory and the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array. Read More

We present HST/ACS $g$ and $z$ photometry and half-light radii $R_{\rm h}$ measurements of 360 globular cluster (GC) candidates around the nearby S0 galaxy NGC 3115. We also include Subaru/Suprime-Cam $g$, $r$, and $i$ photometry of 421 additional candidates. The well-established color bimodality of the GC system is obvious in the HST/ACS photometry. Read More

Affiliations: 1University of Alberta, 2University of Alberta, 3University of Alberta, 4Astronomical Institute 'Anton Pannekoek', 5Astronomical Institute 'Anton Pannekoek', 6Kavli Institute for Astrophysics & Space Research, 7Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, 8Sam Houston State University, 9University of Michigan, 10University of Alberta

We report and study the outburst of a new transient X-ray binary (XRB) in Terzan 5, the third detected in this globular cluster, Swift J174805.3-244637 or Terzan 5 X-3. We find clear spectral hardening in Swift/XRT data during the outburst rise to the hard state, thanks to our early coverage (starting at L_X ~ 4x10^{34} ergs/s) of the outburst. Read More

There is growing evidence of a higher intrinsic fraction of broad absorption line quasars (BALQSOs) than that obtained in optical surveys, on which most previous X-ray studies of BALQSOs have focused. Here we present Chandra observations of 18 BALQSOs at $z\sim2$, selected from a near-infrared (2MASS) sample, where the BALQSO fraction is likely to be close to the intrinsic fraction. We measure photon indices using the stacked spectra of the optically-faint ($i-K_s\geq 2. Read More

We report new detections of the two transient ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) in NGC 5128 from an ongoing series of Chandra observations. Both sources have previously been observed Lx (2-3)E39 erg/s, at the lower end of the ULX luminosity range. The new observations allow us to study these sources in the luminosity regime frequented by the Galactic black hole X-ray binaries (BH XBs). Read More

The high stellar densities in the cores of globular clusters cause significant stellar interactions. These stellar interactions can produce close binary mass-transferring systems involving compact objects and their progeny, such as X-ray binaries and radio millisecond pulsars. Comparing the numbers of these systems and interaction rates in different clusters drives our understanding of how cluster parameters affect the production of close binaries. Read More

We present a spectral investigation of X-ray binaries in NGC 5128 (Cen A), using six 100 ks Chandra observations taken over two months in 2007. We divide our sample into thermally and non-thermally dominated states based on the behavior of the fitted absorption column, and present the spectral parameters of sources with L >2x10^37 erg/s. The majority of sources are consistent with being neutron star low mass X-ray binaries (NS LMXBs) and we identify three transient black hole (BH) LMXB candidates coincident with the dust lane, which is the remnant of a small late-type galaxy. Read More

The mass and radius of the neutron star (NS) in low-mass X-ray binaries can be obtained by fitting the X-ray spectrum of the NS in quiescence, and the mass and radius constrains the properties of dense matter in NS cores. A critical ingredient for spectral fits is the composition of the NS atmosphere: hydrogen atmospheres are assumed in most prior work, but helium atmospheres are possible if the donor star is a helium white dwarf. Here we perform spectral fits to XMM, Chandra, and ROSAT data of a quiescent NS in the globular cluster M13. Read More

With a goal of searching for accreting intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs), we report the results of ultra-deep Jansky VLA radio continuum observations of the cores of three Galactic globular clusters: M15, M19, and M22. We reach rms noise levels of 1.5-2. Read More

Affiliations: 1U of Alberta, 2U of Alberta, 3U of Alberta, 4U of Alberta, 5Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

We present a candidate orbital period for the low mass X-ray binary XB 1832-330 in the globular cluster NGC 6652 using a 6.5 hour Gemini South observation of the optical counterpart of the system. Light curves in g' and r' for two LMXBs in the cluster, sources A and B in previous literature, were extracted and analyzed for periodicity using the ISIS image subtraction package. Read More

Affiliations: 1CIERA/Northwestern University, 2University of Alberta

Modern X-ray observatories yield unique insight into the astrophysical time domain. Each X-ray photon can be assigned an arrival time, an energy and a sky position, yielding sensitive, energy-dependent light curves and enabling time-resolved spectra down to millisecond time-scales. Combining those with multiple views of the same patch of sky (e. Read More

Based on the archival data from the Chandra observations of nearby galaxies, we study different sub populations of low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) - dynamically formed systems in globular clusters (GCs) and in the nucleus of M31 and (presumably primordial) X-ray binaries in the fields of galaxies. Our aim is to produce accurate luminosity distributions of X-ray binaries in different environments, suitable for quantitative comparison with each other and with the output of population synthesis calculations. Our sample includes seven nearby galaxies (M31, Maffei 1, Centaurus A,M81, NGC 3379, NGC 4697, and NGC 4278) and the Milky Way, which together provide relatively uniform coverage down to the luminosity limit of E35 erg/s. Read More

Supermassive black holes are now thought to lie at the heart of every giant galaxy with a spheroidal component, including our own Milky Way. The birth and growth of the first 'seed' black holes in the earlier Universe, however, is observationally unconstrained and we are only beginning to piece together a scenario for their subsequent evolution. Here we report that the nearby dwarf starburst galaxy Henize 2-10 contains a compact radio source at the dynamical centre of the galaxy that is spatially coincident with a hard X-ray source. Read More

We present Suzaku observations of three iron low-ionization broad absorption line quasars (FeLoBALs). We detect J1723+5553 (3\sigma) in the observed 2--10 keV band, and constrain its intrinsic nh column density to nh > 6\times10^{23} \cmsq by modeling its X-ray hardness ratio. We study the broadband spectral index, aox, between the X-ray and UV bands by combining the X-ray measurements and the UV flux extrapolated from 2MASS magnitudes, assuming a range of intrinsic column densities, and then comparing the aox values for the three FeLoBALs with those from a large sample of normal quasars. Read More

Affiliations: 1ICRAR/Curtin, 2U. Virginia, 3U. Amsterdam, 4U. Paris Diderot, 5NASA/GSFC, 6U. Michigan, 7MIT, 8U. Amsterdam, 9ASTRON, 10NRAO, 11U. Southampton, 12U. Wisconsin-Madison, 13U. Amsterdam, 14ESAC, 15NRAO, 16U. Virginia

Relationships between the X-ray and radio behavior of black hole X-ray binaries during outbursts have established a fundamental coupling between the accretion disks and radio jets in these systems. We begin by reviewing the prevailing paradigm for this disk-jet coupling, also highlighting what we know about similarities and differences with neutron star and white dwarf binaries. Until recently, this paradigm had not been directly tested with dedicated high-angular resolution radio imaging over entire outbursts. Read More

We have detected an Halpha bow shock nebula around PSR J1741-2054, a pulsar discovered through its GeV gamma-ray pulsations. The pulsar is only ~1.5" behind the leading edge of the shock. Read More

Low-ionization (MgII, FeII, FeIII) broad absorption line quasars (LoBALs) probe a relatively obscured quasar population, and could be at an early evolutionary stage for quasars. We study the intrinsic fractions of LoBALs using the SDSS, 2MASS, and FIRST surveys. We find that the LoBAL fractions of the near infra-red (NIR) and radio samples are approximately 5--7 times higher than those measured in the optical sample. Read More

Affiliations: 1MPA, 2U. Virginia, 3Dark Cosmology Centre, U. Copenhagen, 4U. Michigan

We cross-correlate the SDSS DR3 quasar sample with FIRST and the Vestergaard et al. black hole (BH) mass sample to compare the mean accretion histories of optical and radio quasars. We find significant statistical evidence that radio quasars have a higher mean Eddington ratio Lambda at z > 2 with respect to optical quasars, while the situation is clearly reverse at z < 1. Read More

We have measured the luminous AGN population in a large sample of clusters of galaxies and find evidence for a substantial increase in the cluster AGN population from z~0.05 to z~1.3. Read More

Affiliations: 1University of Virginia, 2Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 3NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 4University of Virginia, 5University of Michigan
Category: Astrophysics

Chandra X-ray observations routinely resolve tens to hundreds of low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) per galaxy in nearby massive early-type galaxies. These studies have raised important issues regarding the behavior of this population of remnants of the once massive stars in early-type galaxies, namely the connection between LMXBs and globular clusters (GCs) and the nature of the LMXB luminosity function (LF). In this paper, we combine five epochs of Chandra observations and one central field Hubble Space Telescope Advance Camera for Surveys observation of NGC 4697, one of the nearest, optically luminous elliptical (E6) galaxies, to probe the GC-LMXB connection and LMXB-LF down to a detection/completeness limit of (0. Read More

Affiliations: 1University of Virginia, 2Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 3NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 4University of Virginia, 5University of Michigan
Category: Astrophysics

Multi-epoch Chandra X-ray observations of nearby massive early-type galaxies open up the study of an important regime of low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) behavior -- long term variability. In a companion paper, we report on the detection of 158 X-ray sources down to a detection/completeness limit of 0.6/1. Read More

Affiliations: 1The Ohio State University, 2The Ohio State University, 3Steward Observatory, 4Carnegie Observatories, 5Carnegie Observatories
Category: Astrophysics

To better understand the mechanism or mechanisms that lead to AGN activity today, we measure the X-ray AGN fraction in a new sample of nearby clusters and examine how it varies with galaxy properties, projected cluster-centric radius, and cluster velocity dispersion. We present new wide-field Chandra X-ray Observatory observations of Abell 85, Abell 754 and the background cluster Abell 89B out to their virial radii. Out of seventeen X-ray sources associated with galaxies in these clusters, we classify seven as X-ray AGN with L_{X,B} > 10^{41} erg/s. Read More

We report the discovery of a bright transient X-ray source, CXOU J132518.2-430304, towards Centaurus A (Cen A) using six new Chandra X-Ray Observatory observations in 2007 March--May. Between 2003 and 2007, its flux has increased by a factor of >770. Read More

Affiliations: 1The Ohio State University, 2The Ohio State University, 3The Ohio State University
Category: Astrophysics

We find that the fraction of classical Broad Absorption Line quasars (BALQSOs) among the FIRST radio sources in the Sloan Data Release 3, is 20.5^{+7.3}_{-5. Read More

Affiliations: 1The Ohio State University, 2Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 3NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 4University of Virginia, 5University of Michigan
Category: Astrophysics

As the Chandra X-ray Observatory mission matures, increasing numbers of nearby galaxies are being observed multiple times, sampling the variability of extragalactic X-ray binaries on timescales extending from seconds to years. We present results on luminous low-mass X-ray binaries from several early-type galaxies. We show that instantaneous LMXB luminosity functions of early-type galaxies do not significantly change between observations; a relatively low fraction of sources are strongly variable on <~ 5 yr timescales. Read More

We present results of Hubble Space Telescope and Chandra X-ray Observatory observations of globular clusters (GCs) and low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) in the central regions of Centaurus A. Out of 440 GC candidates we find that 41 host X-ray point sources that are most likely LMXBs. We fit King models to our GC candidates in order to measure their structural parameters. Read More

Absorption lines of OVII at redshift zero are observed in high quality Chandra spectra of extragalactic sightlines. The location of the absorber producing these lines, whether from the corona of the Galaxy or from the Local Group or even larger scale structure, has been a matter of debate. Here we study another poor group like our Local Group to understand the distribution of column density from galaxy to group scales. Read More

The Kilodegree Extremely Little Telescope (KELT) project is a small aperture, wide-angle search for planetary transits of solar-type stars. In this paper, we present the results of a commissioning campaign with the KELT telescope to observe the open cluster Praesepe for 34 nights in early 2005. Lightcurves were obtained for 69,337 stars, out of which we identify 58 long period variables and 152 periodic variables. Read More

Affiliations: 1Ohio State, 2Ohio State, 3Ohio State, 4Carnegie Observatories, 5Carnegie Observatories, 6University of Zurich and Leiden Observatory
Category: Astrophysics

We present the first measurement of the AGN fraction in high-redshift clusters of galaxies (z~0.6) with spectroscopy of one cluster and archival data for three additional clusters. We identify 8 AGN in all four of these clusters from the Chandra data, which are sensitive to AGN with hard X-ray (2-10keV) luminosity L_{X,H} > 10^43 erg/s in host galaxies more luminous than a rest frame M_R < -20 mag. Read More

Affiliations: 1Ohio State Univ., 2Ohio State Univ., 3Ohio State Univ.
Category: Astrophysics

The intrinsic fraction of broad absorption line quasars (BALQSOs) is important in constraining geometric and evolutionary models of quasars. We present the fraction of BALQSOs in 2MASS detected quasars within the SDSS DR3 sample in the redshift range of 1.7 < z < 4. Read More

Affiliations: 1University of Virginia, 2European Southern Observatory, 3University of Virginia, 4Washington State University, 5Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, 6Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, 7University of Virginia, 8Observatoire de Paris, 9Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics
Category: Astrophysics

(Abridged) Chandra and Hubble ACS observations of 11 early-type galaxies probe the low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) - globular cluster (GC) connection. We explore the optical properties of 270 GCs with LMXBs and 6,488 GCs without LMXBs. More massive, redder, and more compact GCs are more likely to contain LMXBs. Read More

We present an analysis of Chandra observations of the galaxy clusters A2670 and A2107. Their cD galaxies have large peculiar velocities (>200km/s) and thus the clusters appear to be undergoing mergers. In A2670, we find a comet-like structure around one of the brightest galaxies. Read More

We have measured half-light radii, r_h, for globular clusters (GCs) belonging to the 100 early-type galaxies observed in the ACS Virgo Cluster Survey and the elliptical galaxy NGC 4697. An analysis of the dependencies of the measured r_h on both the properties of the GCs themselves and their host galaxies reveals that the average r_h increases with increasing galactocentric distance or, alternatively, with decreasing galaxy surface brightness. For the first time, we find that the average r_h decreases with the host galaxy color. Read More

Affiliations: 1University of Virginia, 2University of Virginia
Category: Astrophysics

We determine the spatial distribution function of galaxies from a wide range of samples in the 2MASS survey. The results agree very well with the form of the distribution predicted by the theory of cosmological gravitational many-body galaxy clustering. On large scales we find a value of the clustering parameter b = 0. Read More

Affiliations: 1University of Virginia, 2University of Virginia, 3European Southern Observatory
Category: Astrophysics

We report results of the first search specifically targeting short-timescale X-ray flares from low-mass X-ray binaries in an early-type galaxy. A new method for flare detection is presented. In NGC 4697, the nearest, optically luminous, X-ray faint elliptical galaxy, 3 out of 157 sources are found to display flares at >99. Read More

Affiliations: 1University of Virginia, 2University of Virginia, 3University of Virginia
Category: Astrophysics

(Abridged) We observed the X-ray bright E3 galaxy NGC 1600 and nearby group members with the Chandra X-ray Observatory ACIS S3. Unresolved emission dominates the observation; however, we resolved some emission into 71 sources, most of which are low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) associated with NGC 1600. Twenty-one sources have L_X>2E39 ergs/s (0. Read More

(Abridged) We used the Chandra X-ray Observatory ACIS S3 to image the X-ray faint elliptical galaxy NGC 4365 and lenticular galaxy NGC 4382. The observations resolve much of the X-ray emission into 99 and 58 sources, respectively, most of which are low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) associated with each of the galaxies. We identify 18 out of the 37 X-ray sources in a central field in NGC 4365 with globular clusters. Read More

(Abridged) A high fraction of the Low Mass X-ray Binaries (LMXBs) in early-type galaxies are associated with globular clusters (GCs). Here, we discuss the correlations between LMXBs and GCs in a sample of four early-type galaxies. There is some evidence that the fraction of LMXBs associated with GCs (f_X-GC) increases along the Hubble sequence from spiral bulges to S0s to Es to cDs. Read More