# Gokce Basar

## Contact Details

NameGokce Basar |
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## Pubs By Year |
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## Pub CategoriesHigh Energy Physics - Theory (28) High Energy Physics - Lattice (15) High Energy Physics - Phenomenology (14) Nuclear Theory (13) Mathematics - Mathematical Physics (6) Mathematical Physics (6) Physics - Superconductivity (3) Physics - Strongly Correlated Electrons (2) Physics - Mesoscopic Systems and Quantum Hall Effect (2) Quantum Physics (1) Nuclear Experiment (1) Physics - Statistical Mechanics (1) |

## Publications Authored By Gokce Basar

A new algorithm is developed allowing the Monte Carlo study of a 1 + 1 dimensional theory in real time. The main algorithmic development is to avoid the explicit calculation of the Jacobian matrix and its determinant in the update process. This improvement has a wide applicability and reduces the cost of the update in thimble-inspired calculations from O(N^3) to less than O(N^2). Read More

We discuss the effects of the electromagnetic interaction in high-energy proton collisions with nuclei of large Z at strong coupling $\lambda=g^2N_c$. Using the holographic dual limit of large $N_c>\lambda\gg 1$, we describe the Reggeon exchange as a twisted surface and show that it gets essentially modified by the electromagnetic interaction. Read More

Quantum field theories with complex actions cannot be investigated using importance sampling due to the sign problem. One possible solution is to use the holomorphic gradient flow, a method we introduced related to the Lefschetz thimbles idea. In many cases the probability distribution generated by this method is multi-modal and standard Monte-Carlo sampling fails. Read More

For a wide variety of quantum potentials, including the textbook `instanton' examples of the periodic cosine and symmetric double-well potentials, the perturbative data coming from fluctuations about the vacuum saddle encodes all non-perturbative data in all higher non-perturbative sectors. Here we unify these examples in geometric terms, arguing that the all-orders quantum action determines the all-orders quantum dual action for quantum spectral problems associated with a classical genus one elliptic curve. Furthermore, for a special class of genus one potentials this relation is particularly simple: this class includes the cubic oscillator, symmetric double-well, symmetric degenerate triple-well, and periodic cosine potential. Read More

We present results of the numerical simulation of the two-dimensional Thirring model at finite density and temperature. The severe sign problem is dealt with by deforming the domain of integration into complex field space. This is the first example where a fermionic sign problem is solved in a quantum field theory by using the holomorphic gradient flow approach, a generalization of the Lefschetz thimble method. Read More

A relativistic Bose gas at finite density suffers from a sign problem that makes direct numerical simulations not feasible. One possible solution to the sign problem is to re-express the path integral in terms of Lefschetz thimbles. Using this approach we study the relativistic Bose gas both in the symmetric phase (low-density) and the spontaneously broken phase (high-density). Read More

Monte Carlo studies involving real time dynamics are severely restricted by the sign problem that emerges from highly oscillatory phase of the path integral. In this letter, we present a new method to compute real time quantities on the lattice using the Schwinger-Keldysh formalism via Monte Carlo simulations. The key idea is to deform the path integration domain to a complex manifold where the phase oscillations are mild and the sign problem is manageable. Read More

A solution to the sign problem is the so-called "Lefschetz thimble approach" where the domain of integration for field variables in the path integral is deformed from the real axis to a sub-manifold in the complex space. For properly chosen sub-manifolds ("thimbles") the sign problem disappears or is drastically alleviated. The parametrization of the thimble by real coordinates require the calculation of a jacobian with a computational cost of order O(V^3), where V is proportional to the spacetime volume. Read More

We point out that Monte Carlo simulations of theories with severe sign problems can be profitably performed over manifolds in complex space different from the one with fixed imaginary part of the action. We describe a family of such manifolds that interpolate between the tangent space at one critical point, where the sign problem is milder compared to the real plane but in some cases still severe, and the union of relevant thimbles, where the sign problem is mild but a multimodal distribution function complicates the Monte Carlo sampling. We exemplify this approach using a simple 0 + 1 dimensional fermion model previously used on sign problem studies and show that it can solve the model for some parameter values where a solution using Lefshetz thimbles was elusive. Read More

In recent work, we demonstrated that the confined-phase spectrum of non-supersymmetric pure Yang-Mills theory coincides with the spectrum of the chiral sector of a two-dimensional conformal field theory in the large-$N$ limit. This was done within the tractable setting in which the gauge theory is compactified on a three-sphere whose radius is small compared to the strong length scale. In this paper, we generalize these observations by demonstrating that similar results continue to hold even when massless adjoint matter fields are introduced. Read More

A possible solution of the notorious sign problem preventing direct Monte Carlo calculations for systems with non-zero chemical potential is to deform the integration region in the complex plane to a Lefschetz thimble. We investigate this approach for a simple fermionic model. We introduce an easy to implement Monte Carlo algorithm to sample the dominant thimble. Read More

The second-order hydrodynamical description of a homogeneous conformal plasma that undergoes a boost- invariant expansion is given by a single nonlinear ordinary differential equation, whose resurgent asymptotic properties we study, developing further the recent work of Heller and Spalinski [Phys. Rev. Lett. Read More

General string-theoretic considerations suggest that four-dimensional large-N gauge theories should have dual descriptions in terms of two-dimensional conformal field theories. However, for non-supersymmetric confining theories such as pure Yang-Mills theory, a long-standing challenge has been to explicitly show that such dual descriptions actually exist. In this paper, we consider the large-N limit of four-dimensional pure Yang-Mills theory compactified on a three-sphere in the solvable limit where the sphere radius is small compared to the strong length scale, and demonstrate that the confined-phase spectrum of this gauge theory coincides with the spectrum of an irrational two-dimensional conformal field theory. Read More

The Nekrasov-Shatashvili limit for the low-energy behavior of N=2 and N=2* supersymmetric SU(2) gauge theories is encoded in the spectrum of the Mathieu and Lam'e equations, respectively. This correspondence is usually expressed via an all-orders Bohr-Sommerfeld relation, but this neglects non-perturbative effects, the nature of which is very different in the electric, magnetic and dyonic regions. In the gauge theory dyonic region the spectral expansions are divergent, and indeed are not Borel-summable, so they are more properly described by resurgent trans-series in which perturbative and non-perturbative effects are deeply entwined. Read More

We analyze the large $N$ limit of adjoint QCD, an $SU(N)$ gauge theory with $N_f$ flavors of massless adjoint Majorana fermions, compactified on $S^3 \times S^1$. We focus on the weakly-coupled confining small-$S^3$ regime. If the fermions are given periodic boundary conditions on $S^1$, we show that there are large cancellations between bosonic and fermionic contributions to the twisted partition function. Read More

It is recently discovered that at high multiplicy, the proton-nucleus ($pA$) collisions give rise to two particle correlations that are strikingly similar to those of nucleus-nucleus ($AA$) collisions at the same multiplicity, although the system size is smaller in $pA$. Using an independent cluster model and a simple conformal scaling argument, where the ratio of the mean free path to the system size stays constant at fixed multiplicity, we argue that flow in $pA$ emerges as a collective response to the fluctuations in the position of clusters, just like in $AA$ collisions. With several physically motivated and parameter free rescalings of the recent LHC data, we show that this simple model captures the essential physics of elliptic and triangular flow in $pA$ collisions. Read More

Four-dimensional asymptotically-free large $N$ gauge theories compactified on $S^3_R \times \mathbb{R}$ have a weakly-coupled confining regime when $R$ is small compared to the strong scale. We compute the vacuum energy of a variety of confining large $N$ non-supersymmetric gauge theories in this calculable regime, where the vacuum energy can be thought of as the $S^3$ Casimir energy. The $N=\infty$ renormalized vacuum energy turns out to vanish in all of the large $N$ gauge theories we have examined, confirming a striking prediction of temperature-reflection symmetry. Read More

We point out the presence of a $T \to -T$ temperature-reflection ($T$-reflection) symmetry for the partition functions of many physical systems. Without knowledge of the origin of the symmetry, we have only been able to test the existence of $T$-reflection symmetry in systems with exactly-calculable partition functions. We show that $T$-reflection symmetry is present in a variety of conformal and non-conformal field theories and statistical mechanics models with known partition functions. Read More

The matter produced in the early stages of heavy ion collisions consists mostly of gluons, and is penetrated by coherent magnetic field produced by spectator nucleons. The fluctuations of gluonic matter in an external magnetic field couple to real and virtual photons through virtual quark loops. We study the resulting contributions to photon and dilepton production that stem from the fluctuations of the stress tensor $T_{\mu\nu}$ in the background of a coherent magnetic field $\vec{B}$. Read More

**Category:**Nuclear Theory

We compare the flow-like correlations in high multiplicity proton-nucleus ($p+A$) and nucleus-nucleus ($A+A$) collisions. At fixed multiplicity, the correlations in these two colliding systems are strikingly similar, although the system size is smaller in $p+A$. Based on an independent cluster model and a simple conformal scaling argument, where the ratio of the mean free path to the system size stays constant at fixed multiplicity, we argue that flow in $p+A$ emerges as a collective response to the fluctuations in the position of clusters, just like in $A+A$ collisions. Read More

A general quantum mechanical or quantum field theoretical system in the path integral formulation has both real and complex saddles (instantons and ghost-instantons). Resurgent asymptotic analysis implies that both types of saddles contribute to physical observables, even if the complex saddles are not on the integration path i.e. Read More

A Fermi surface threaded by a Berry phase can be described by the Wess-Zumino-Witten (WZW) term. After gauging, it produces a five-dimensional Chern-Simons term in the action. We show how this Chern-Simons term captures the essence of the Abelian, non-Abelian, and mixed gravitational anomalies in describing both in- and off-equilibrium phenomena. Read More

Large-N volume independence in circle-compactified QCD with N_f \geq 1 adjoint Weyl fermions implies the absence of any phase transitions as the radius is dialed to arbitrarily small values. This class of theories are believed to possess a Hagedorn density of hadronic states. It turns out that these properties are in apparent tension with each other, because a Hagedorn density of states typically implies a phase transition at some finite radius. Read More

Weyl semimetals possess massless chiral quasi-particles, and are thus affected by the triangle anomalies. We discuss the features of the chiral magnetic and chiral vortical effects specific to Weyl semimetals, and then propose three novel phenomena caused by the triangle anomalies in this material: 1) anomaly cooling; 2) charge transport by soliton waves as described by the Burgers' equation, and 3) the shift of the BKT phase transition of superfluid vortices coupled to Weyl fermions. In addition, we establish the conditions under which the chiral magnetic current exists in real materials. Read More

We give an elementary derivation of the chiral magnetic effect based on a strong magnetic field lowest-Landau-level projection in conjunction with the well-known axial anomalies in two- and four-dimensional space-time. The argument is general, based on a Schur decomposition of the Dirac operator. In the dimensionally reduced theory, the chiral magnetic effect is directly related to the relativistic form of the Peierls instability, leading to a spiral form of the condensate, the chiral magnetic spiral. Read More

We introduce a novel photon production mechanism stemming from the conformal anomaly of QCDxQED and the existence of strong (electro)magnetic fields in heavy ion collisions. Using the hydrodynamical description of the bulk modes of QCD plasma, we show that this mechanism leads to the photon production yield that is comparable to the yield from conventional sources. This mechanism also provides a significant positive contribution to the azimuthal anisotropy of photons, $v_2$, as well as to the radial "flow". Read More

We calculate the Chern-Simons diffusion rate in a strongly coupled N=4 SUSY Yang-Mills plasma in the presence of a constant external $U(1)_R$ magnetic flux via the holographic correspondence. Due to the strong interactions between the charged fields and non-Abelian gauge fields, the external Abelian magnetic field affects the thermal Yang-Mills dynamics and increases the diffusion rate, regardless of its strength. We obtain the analytic results for the Chern-Simons diffusion rate both in the weak and strong magnetic field limits. Read More

We revisit the problem of dipole-dipole scattering via exchanges of soft Pomerons in the context of holographic QCD. We show that a single closed string exchange contribution to the eikonalized dipole-dipole scattering amplitude yields a Regge behavior of the elastic amplitude; the corresponding slope and intercept are different from previous results obtained by a variational analysis of semi-classical surfaces. We provide a physical interpretation of the semi-classical worldsheets driving the Regge behavior for (-t)>0 in terms of worldsheet instantons. Read More

In the chiral magnetic effect, there is a competition between a strong magnetic field, which tends to project positively charged particles to have spin aligned along the magnetic field, and a chirality imbalance which may be produced locally by a topologically nontrivial gauge field such as an instanton. We study the properties of the Euclidean Dirac equation for a light fermion in the presence of both a constant abelian magnetic field and an SU(2) instanton. In particular, we analyze the zero modes analytically in various limits, both on R^4 and on the four-torus, in order to compare with recent lattice QCD results, and study the implications for the electric dipole moment. Read More

Recent studies of the thermodynamic phase diagrams of the Gross-Neveu model (GN2), and its chiral cousin, the NJL2 model, have shown that there are phases with inhomogeneous crystalline condensates. These (static) condensates can be found analytically because the relevant Hartree-Fock and gap equations can be reduced to the nonlinear Schr\"odinger equation, whose deformations are governed by the mKdV and AKNS integrable hierarchies, respectively. Recently, Thies et al have shown that time-dependent Hartree-Fock solutions describing baryon scattering in the massless GN2 model satisfy the Sinh-Gordon equation, and can be mapped directly to classical string solutions in AdS3. Read More

We systematically construct a semiclassical expansion for the eigenvalues of the 2nd order quantum fluctuations of the folded spinning superstring rotating in the AdS_3 part of AdS_5 x S^5 with two alternative methods; by using the exact expression of the Bloch momentum generated by the curvature induced periodic potentials and by using the large energy expansion of the dispersion relation. We then calculate the one-loop correction to the energy by summing over the eigenvalues. Our results are extremely accurate for strings whose ends are not too close to the AdS radius. Read More

We argue that the presence of a very strong magnetic field in the chirally broken phase induces inhomogeneous expectation values, of a spiral nature along the magnetic field axis, for the currents of charge and chirality, when there is finite baryon density or an imbalance between left and right chiralities. This "chiral magnetic spiral" is a gapless excitation transporting the currents of (i) charge (at finite chirality), and (ii) chirality (at finite baryon density) along the direction of the magnetic field. In both cases it also induces in the transverse directions oscillating currents of charge and chirality. Read More

We identify an unusual new gauge-gravity relation: the one-loop effective action for a massive spinor in 2n dimensional AdS space is expressed in terms of precisely the same function [a certain multiple gamma function] as the one-loop effective action for a massive charged scalar in 4n dimensions in a maximally symmetric background electromagnetic field [one for which the eigenvalues of F_{\mu\nu} are maximally degenerate, corresponding in 4 dimensions to a self-dual field, equivalently to a field of definite helicity], subject to the identification F^2 <-> \Lambda, where \Lambda is the gravitational curvature. Since these effective actions generate the low energy limit of all one-loop multi-leg graviton or gauge amplitudes, this implies a nontrivial gauge-gravity relation at the non-perturbative level and at the amplitude level. Read More

We analyze the thermodynamical properties, at finite density and nonzero temperature, of the (1+1)-dimensional chiral Gross-Neveu model (the NJL_2 model), using the exact inhomogeneous (crystalline) condensate solutions to the gap equation. The continuous chiral symmetry of the model plays a crucial role, and the thermodynamics leads to a broken phase with a periodic spiral condensate, the "chiral spiral", as a thermodynamically preferred limit of the more general "twisted kink crystal" solution of the gap equation. This situation should be contrasted with the Gross-Neveu model, which has a discrete chiral symmetry, and for which the phase diagram has a crystalline phase with a periodic kink crystal. Read More

We present the detailed properties of a self-consistent crystalline chiral condensate in the massless chiral Gross-Neveu model. We show that a suitable ansatz for the Gorkov resolvent reduces the functional gap equation, for the inhomogeneous condensate, to a nonlinear Schr\"odinger equation, which is exactly soluble. The general crystalline solution includes as special cases all previously known real and complex condensate solutions to the gap equation. Read More

We derive a new exact self-consistent crystalline condensate in the 1+1 dimensional chiral Gross-Neveu model. This also yields a new exact crystalline solution for the one dimensional Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations and the Eilenberger equation of semiclassical superconductivity. We show that the functional gap equation can be reduced to a solvable nonlinear equation, and discuss implications for the temperature-chemical potential phase diagram. Read More