Glenn Van Ven - For the CALIFA Collaboration,

Glenn Van Ven
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Glenn Van Ven
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For the CALIFA Collaboration,
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Astrophysics of Galaxies (40)
 
Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (13)
 
High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (3)

Publications Authored By Glenn Van Ven

The internal dynamics of globular clusters (GCs) is strongly affected by two-body interactions that bring the systems to a state of partial energy equipartition. Using a set of Monte Carlo clusters simulations, we investigate the role of the onset of energy equipartition in shaping the mass-to-light ratio (M/L) in GCs. Our simulations show that the M/L profiles cannot be considered constant and their specific shape strongly depends on the dynamical age of the clusters. Read More

We present interferometric CO observations made with the Combined Array for Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA) of galaxies from the Extragalactic Database for Galaxy Evolution survey (EDGE). These galaxies are selected from the Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area (CALIFA) sample, mapped with optical integral field spectroscopy. EDGE provides good quality CO data (3$\sigma$ sensitivity $\Sigma_{\rm mol}$ $\sim$ 11 M$_\odot$ pc$^{-2}$ before inclination correction, resolution $\sim1. Read More

The detection of intermediate mass black holes (IMBHs) in Galactic globular clusters (GCs) has so far been controversial. In order to characterize the effectiveness of integrated-light spectroscopy through integral field units, we analyze realistic mock data generated from state-of-the-art Monte Carlo simulations of GCs with a central IMBH, considering different setups and conditions varying IMBH mass, cluster distance, and accuracy in determination of the center. The mock observations are modeled with isotropic Jeans models to assess the success rate in identifying the IMBH presence, which we find to be primarily dependent on IMBH mass. Read More

Dedicated photometric and spectroscopic surveys have provided unambiguous evidence for a strong stellar mass-size evolution of galaxies within the last 10 Gyr. The likely progenitors of today's most massive galaxies are remarkably small, disky, passive and have already assembled much of their stellar mass at redshift z=2. An in-depth analysis of these objects, however, is currently not feasible due to the lack of high-quality, spatially-resolved photometric and spectroscopic data. Read More

We present our mass estimate of the central black hole in the isolated spiral galaxy NGC 4414. Using natural guide star adaptive optics assisted observations with the Gemini Near-Infrared Integral Field Spectrometer (NIFS) and the natural seeing Gemini Multi-Object Spectrographs-North (GMOS), we derived two-dimensional stellar kinematic maps of NGC 4414 covering the central 1.5 arcsec and 10 arcsec, respectively, at a NIFS spatial resolution of 0. Read More

Nuclear Star Clusters (NSCs) are commonly observed in the centres of most galactic nuclei, including our own Milky Way. While their study can reveal important information about the build-up of the innermost regions of galaxies, the physical processes that regulate their formation are still poorly understood. NSCs might have been formed through gas infall and subsequent in situ star formation, and/or through the infall and merging of multiple star clusters into the centre of the galaxy. Read More

We infer the central mass distributions within 0.4-1.2 disc scale lengths of 18 late-type spiral galaxies using two different dynamical modelling approaches - the Asymmetric Drift Correction (ADC) and axisymmetric Jeans Anisotropic Multi-gaussian expansion (JAM) model. Read More

We investigate the matter distribution of a spiral galaxy with a counter-rotating stellar core, SDSS J1331+3628 (J1331), independently with gravitational lensing and stellar dynamical modelling. By fitting a gravitational potential model to a quadruplet of lensing images around J1331's bulge, we tightly constrain the mass inside the Einstein radius R_ein = (0.91 +/- 0. Read More

We present Fabry-P\'erot interferometric observations of the narrow H$\alpha$ component in the shock front of the historical supernova remnant Tycho (SN 1572). Using GH$\alpha$FaS (Galaxy H$\alpha$ Fabry-P\'erot Spectrometer) on the William Herschel Telescope, we observed a great portion of the shock front in the northeastern (NE) region of the remnant. The angular resolution of $\sim$1$^{\prime\prime}$ and spectral resolving power of R$\sim$21 000 together with the large field-of-view (3. Read More

We construct a suite of discrete chemo-dynamical models of the giant elliptical galaxy NGC 5846. These models are a powerful tool to constrain both the mass distribution and internal dynamics of multiple tracer populations. We use Jeans models to simultaneously fit stellar kinematics within the effective radius $R_{\rm e}$, planetary nebula (PN) radial velocities out to $3\, R_{\rm e}$, and globular cluster (GC) radial velocities and colours out to $6\,R_{\rm e}$. Read More

We present a new discrete chemo-dynamical axisymmetric modeling technique, which we apply to the dwarf spheroidal galaxy Sculptor. The major improvement over previous Jeans models is that realistic chemical distributions are included directly in the dynamical modelling of the discrete data. This avoids loss of information due to spatial binning and eliminates the need for hard cuts to remove contaminants and to separate stars based on their chemical properties. Read More

Stellar population synthesis models can now reproduce the photometry of old stellar systems (age $>$ 2 Gyr) in the near-infrared (NIR) bands at 3.4 and 4.6$\mu$m (WISE W1 $\&$ W2 or IRAC 1 $\&$ 2). Read More

Lenticular galaxies (S0s) represent the majority of early-type galaxies in the local Universe, but their formation channels are still poorly understood. While galaxy mergers are obvious pathways to suppress star formation and increase bulge sizes, the marked parallelism between spiral and lenticular galaxies (e.g. Read More

2016Feb
Affiliations: 1MPIA Heidelberg, Germany, 2Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, USA, 3Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, USA, 4MPIA Heidelberg, Germany, 5NRAO, Charlottsville VA, USA, 6MPIfR Bonn, Germany, 7NRAO, Charlottsville VA, USA

We present HST images for nine megamaser disk galaxies with the primary goal of studying photometric BH-galaxy scaling relations. The megamaser disks provide the highest-precision extragalactic BH mass measurements, while our high-resolution HST imaging affords us the opportunity to decompose the complex nuclei of their late-type hosts in detail. Based on the morphologies and shapes of the galaxy nuclei, we argue that most of these galaxies' central regions contain secularly evolving components (pseudo-bulges), and in many cases we photometrically identify co-existing "classical" bulge components as well. Read More

We investigate the compact, early-type galaxy NGC 1281 with integral field unit observations to map the stellar LOSVD out to 5 effective radii and construct orbit-based dynamical models to constrain its dark and luminous matter content. Under the assumption of mass-follows-light, the H-band stellar mass-to-light ratio (M/L) is {\Upsilon} = 2.7(+-0. Read More

A number of simulators have argued that major mergers can sometimes preserve discs (e.g. Springel & Hernquist 2005), but the possibility that they could explain the emergence of lenticular galaxies (S0s) has been generally neglected. Read More

The detection of intermediate mass black holes in the centres of globular clusters is highly controversial, as complementary observational methods often deliver significantly different results. In order to understand these discrepancies, we develop a procedure to simulate integral field unit (IFU) observations of globular clusters: Simulating IFU Star Cluster Observations (SISCO). The input of our software are realistic dynamical models of globular clusters that are then converted in a spectral data cube. Read More

We present a dynamical analysis to infer the structural parameters and properties of the two nearby, compact, high velocity dispersion galaxies MRK1216 & NGC1277. Combining deep HST imaging, wide-field IFU stellar kinematics, and complementary long-slit spectroscopic data out to 3 R_e, we construct orbit-based models to constrain their black hole masses, dark matter content and stellar mass-to-light ratios. We obtain a black hole mass of log(Mbh/Msun) = 10. Read More

We present the stellar population analysis of a sample of 12 dwarf elliptical galaxies, observed with the SAURON integral field unit, using the full-spectrum fitting method. We show that star formation histories (SFHs) resolved into two populations can be recovered even within a limited wavelength range, provided that high S/N data is used. We confirm that dEs have had complex SFHs, with star formation extending to (more) recent epochs: for the majority of our galaxies star formation activity was either still strong a few ($\lesssim$ 5) Gyr ago or they experienced a secondary burst of star formation roughly at that time. Read More

Variations in the stellar initial mass function (IMF) have been invoked to explain the spectroscopic and dynamical properties of early-type galaxies. However, no observations have yet been able to disentangle the physical driver. We analyse here a sample of 24 early-type galaxies drawn from the CALIFA survey, deriving in a homogeneous way their stellar population and kinematic properties. Read More

The CALIFA team has recently found that the stellar angular momentum and concentration of late-type spiral galaxies are incompatible with those of lenticular galaxies (S0s), concluding that fading alone cannot satisfactorily explain the evolution from spirals into S0s. Here we explore whether major mergers can provide an alternative way to transform spirals into S0s by analysing the spiral-spiral major mergers from the GalMer database that lead to realistic, relaxed S0-like galaxies. We find that the change in stellar angular momentum and concentration can explain the differences in the $\lambda_\mathrm{Re}$--$R_{90}/R_{50}$ plane found by the CALIFA team. Read More

We present the formation of a Kinematically Decoupled Core (KDC) in an elliptical galaxy, resulting from a major merger simulation of two disk galaxies. We show that although the two progenitor galaxies are initially following a prograde orbit, strong reactive forces during the merger can cause a short-lived change of their orbital spin; the two progenitors follow a retrograde orbit right before their final coalescence. This results in a central kinematic decoupling and the formation of a large-scale (~2 kpc radius) counter-rotating core (CRC) at the center of the final elliptical-like merger remnant (M*=1. Read More

The detection of intermediate mass black holes (IMBHs) in globular clusters has been hotly debated, with different observational methods delivering different outcomes for the same object. In order to understand these discrepancies, we construct detailed mock integral field spectroscopy (IFU) observations of globular clusters, starting from realistic Monte Carlo cluster simulations. The output is a data cube of spectra in a given field-of-view that can be analyzed in the same manner as real observations and compared to other (resolved) kinematic measurement methods. Read More

We investigate the stellar angular momentum of galaxies across the Hubble sequence from the CALIFA survey. The distribution of CALIFA elliptical and lenticular galaxies in the $\lambda_{\rm Re}-\epsilon_{\rm e}$ diagram is consistent with that shown by the Atlas$^\mathrm{3D}$ survey. Our data, however, show that the location of spiral galaxies in this diagram is significantly different. Read More

Using data from the WISE mission, we have measured near infra-red (NIR) photometry of a diverse sample of dust-free stellar systems (globular clusters, dwarf and giant early-type galaxies) which have metallicities that span the range -2.2 < [Fe/H] (dex) < 0.3. Read More

Accurate determination of the local dark matter density is important for understanding the nature and distribution of dark matter in the universe. This requires that the local velocity distribution is characterised correctly. Here, we present a kinematic study of 16,276 SEGUE G-type dwarf stars in the solar neighbourhood, with which we determine the shape of the velocity ellipsoid in the meridional plane. Read More

2014May
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We present optical integral field spectroscopy (IFS) observations of the Mice, a major merger between two massive (>10^11Msol) gas-rich spirals NGC4676A and B, observed between first passage and final coalescence. The spectra provide stellar and gas kinematics, ionised gas properties and stellar population diagnostics, over the full optical extent of both galaxies. The Mice provide a perfect case study highlighting the importance of IFS data for improving our understanding of local galaxies. Read More

2014May
Affiliations: 1Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Science, 2Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Science, 3Max-Planck Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, 4Max-Planck Institut für Astronomie, 5University of Texas at Austin, 6Max-Planck Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, 7University of Texas at Austin, 8University of Texas at Austin, 9Princeton University, 10National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 11Max-Planck Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, 12Max-Planck Institut für Astronomie

We present new constraints on the density profiles of dark matter (DM) halos in seven nearby dwarf galaxies from measurements of their integrated stellar light and gas kinematics. The gas kinematics of low mass galaxies frequently suggest that they contain constant density DM cores, while N-body simulations instead predict a cuspy profile. We present a data set of high resolution integral field spectroscopy on seven galaxies and measure the stellar and gas kinematics simultaneously. Read More

We explore the warm molecular and ionized gas in the centers of two megamaser disk galaxies using K-band spectroscopy. Our ultimate goal is to determine how gas is funneled onto the accretion disk, here traced by megamaser spots on sub-pc scales. We present NIR IFU data with a resolution of ~50 pc for two galaxies: NGC 4388 with VLT/SINFONI and NGC 1194 with Keck/OSIRIS+AO. Read More

We present the dynamical analysis of a sample of 12 dwarf elliptical (dE) galaxies for which we have obtained SAURON large-scale two-dimensional spectroscopic data. We construct Jeans axisymmetric models and obtain total dynamical masses enclosed within one effective radius. We use the obtained values to show that the validity of the dynamical scaling relations of massive early-type galaxies can be extended to these low-mass systems, except that dEs seem to contain relatively larger fraction of dark matter in their inner parts. Read More

We analyze line-of-sight velocity and proper motion data of stars in the Galactic globular cluster M15 using a new method to fit dynamical models to discrete kinematic data. Our fitting method maximizes the likelihood for individual stars and, as such, does not suffer the same loss of spatial and velocity information incurred when spatially binning data or measuring velocity moments. In this paper, we show that the radial variation in M15 of the mass-to-light ratio is consistent with previous estimates and theoretical predictions, which verifies our method. Read More

2013Nov
Affiliations: 1Max-Planck Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl, Heidelberg, Germany, 2NRC Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, Victoria, BC, Canada, 3Max-Planck Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl, Heidelberg, Germany

In an effort to secure, refine and supplement the relation between central Supermassive Black Hole masses (Mbh), and the bulge luminosities of their host galaxies, (Lbul), we obtained deep, high spatial resolution K-band images of 35 nearby galaxies with securely measured Mbh, using the wide-field WIRCam imager at the Canada-France-Hawaii-Telescope (CFHT). A dedicated data reduction and sky subtraction strategy was adopted to estimate the brightness and structure of the sky, a critical step when tracing the light distribution of extended objects in the near-infrared. From the final image product, bulge and total magnitudes were extracted via two-dimensional profile fitting. Read More

2013Nov
Affiliations: 1Max-Planck Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl, Heidelberg, 2NRC Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, Victoria, BC, Canada, 3Max-Planck Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl, Heidelberg, 4GEPI Observatoire de Paris, CNRS, Univ. Paris Diderot, 5 place Jules Janssen, France

We present an investigation of the scaling relations between Supermassive Black Hole (SMBH) masses (Mbh), and their host galaxies' K-band bulge (Lbul) and total (Ltot) luminosities. The wide-field WIRCam imager at the Canada-France-Hawaii-Telescope (CFHT) was used to obtain the deepest and highest resolution near infrared images available for a sample of 35 galaxies with securely measured Mbh, selected irrespective of Hubble type. For each galaxy, we derive bulge and total magnitudes using a two-dimensional image decomposition code that allows us to account, if necessary, for large- and small-scale disks, cores, bars, nuclei, rings, envelopes and spiral arms. Read More

We present a new framework for modelling discrete kinematic data. Current techniques typically involve binning. Our approach works directly with the discrete data and uses maximum-likelihood methods to assess the probability of the dataset given model predictions. Read More

We present integral-field spectroscopic observations with the VIMOS-IFU at the VLT of fast (2000-3000 km/s) Balmer-dominated shocks surrounding the northwestern rim of the remnant of supernova 1006. The high spatial and spectral resolution of the instrument enable us to show that the physical characteristics of the shocks exhibit a strong spatial variation over few atomic scale lengths across 133 sky locations. Our results point to the presence of a population of non-thermal protons (10-100 keV) which might well be the seed particles for generating high-energy cosmic rays. Read More

2013May
Affiliations: 1Max-Planck Institut für Astronomie, Heidelberg, 2Max-Planck Institut für Astronomie, Heidelberg, 3Max-Planck Institut für Astronomie, Heidelberg, 4Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, 5INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, Napoli, 6Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, La Laguna

We present orbit-based dynamical models and stellar population analysis of galaxy SDSS J151741.75-004217.6, a low-redshift (z=0. Read More

We present a kinematic analysis of the dense molecular gas in the central 200 parsecs of the nearby galaxy NGC1097, based on Cycle 0 observations with the Atacama Large Millimeter/sub-millimeter Array (ALMA). We use the HCN(4-3) line to trace the densest interstellar molecular gas, and quantify its kinematics, and estimate an inflow rate for the molecular gas. We find a striking similarity between the ALMA kinematic data and the analytic spiral inflow model that we have previously constructed based on ionized gas velocity fields on larger scales. Read More

Recent observations have shown that compact nuclear star clusters (NSCs) are present in up to 80% of galaxies. However, detailed studies of their dynamical and chemical properties are confined mainly to spiral galaxy hosts, where they are more easily observed. In this paper we present our study of the NSC in FCC 277, a nucleated elliptical galaxy in the Fornax cluster. Read More

Supernova remnants are among the most spectacular examples of astrophysical pistons in our cosmic neighborhood. The gas expelled by the supernova explosion is launched with velocities ~ 1000 km/s into the ambient, tenuous interstellar medium, producing shocks that excite hydrogen lines. We have used an optical integral-field spectrograph to obtain high-resolution spatial-spectral maps that allow us to study in detail the shocks in the northwestern rim of supernova 1006. Read More

We present a rigorous and practical way of constraining the Galactic potential based on the phase-space information for many individual stars. Such an approach is needed to dynamically model the data from ongoing spectroscopic surveys of the Galaxy and in the future Gaia. This approach describes the orbit distribution of stars by a family of parametrized distribution function (DF) proposed by McMillan and Binney, which are based on actions. Read More

All massive galaxies likely have supermassive black holes at their centers, and the masses of the black holes are known to correlate with properties of the host galaxy bulge component. Several explanations have been proposed for the existence of these locally-established empirical relationships; they include the non-causal, statistical process of galaxy-galaxy merging, direct feedback between the black hole and its host galaxy, or galaxy-galaxy merging and the subsequent violent relaxation and dissipation. The empirical scaling relations are thus important for distinguishing between various theoretical models of galaxy evolution, and they further form the basis for all black hole mass measurements at large distances. Read More

We present an analysis of the dynamics of the M31 satellite system. Proper motion data exist for only two of the M31 satellites. We account for this incompleteness in velocity data by a statistical analysis using a combination of the timing argument and phase-space distribution functions. Read More

We present the first large-scale stellar kinematic and line-strength maps for dwarf elliptical galaxies (9 in the Virgo Cluster and 3 in the field environment) obtained with the SAURON integral-field unit. No two galaxies in our sample are alike: we see that the level of rotation is not tied to flattening (we have, e.g. Read More

We show the effects of environmental evolution on Virgo cluster and field dwarf elliptical galaxies (dEs), presenting the first large-scale integral-field spectroscopic data for this galaxy class. The great variety of morphological, kinematic, and stellar population parameters seen in our data supports the claim that dEs are defunct dwarf spiral/irregular galaxies and points to a formation scenario that allows for a stochastic shaping of galaxy properties. We further investigate the properties of our sample by analyzing its kinematic and dynamical properties. Read More

To constrain the Galactic gravitational potential near the Sun ($\sim$1.5 kpc), we derive and model the spatial and velocity distribution for a sample of 9000 K-dwarfs that have spectra from SDSS/SEGUE, which yield radial velocities and abundances ([Fe/H] & [$\alpha$/Fe]). We first derive the spatial density distribution for stars of three abundance-selected sub-populations by accounting for the survey's selection function. Read More

We investigate the extinction together with the radial velocity dispersion and distribution of red clump stars in the anti-center direction using spectra obtained with Hectospec on the MMT. We find that extinction peaks at Galactocentric radii of about 9.5 and 12. Read More

The unexpected rising flux of early-type galaxies at decreasing ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths is a long-standing mystery. One important observational constraint is the correlation between UV-optical colours and Mg2 line strengths found by Burstein et al. (1988). Read More

We combine the estimated metallicities [Fe/H], abundances [\alpha/Fe], positions and motions of a sample of 27,500 local (7Read More

We study the mass distribution in the late-type dwarf galaxy NGC 2976 through stellar kinematics obtained with the VIRUS-P integral-field spectrograph and anisotropic Jeans models as a test of cosmological simulations and baryonic processes that putatively alter small-scale structure. Previous measurements of the H-alpha emission-line kinematics have determined that the dark matter halo of NGC 2976 is most consistent with a cored density profile. We find that the stellar kinematics are best fit with a cuspy halo. Read More