# Giulia Cusin

## Contact Details

NameGiulia Cusin |
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## Pubs By Year |
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## Pub CategoriesHigh Energy Physics - Theory (10) Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (10) General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (10) High Energy Physics - Phenomenology (1) Astrophysics of Galaxies (1) |

## Publications Authored By Giulia Cusin

Unresolved sources of gravitational waves are at the origin of a stochastic gravitational wave background. While the computation of its mean density as a function of frequency in a homogeneous and isotropic universe is standard lore, the computation of its anisotropies requires to understand the coarse graining from local systems, to galactic scales and then to cosmology. An expression of the gravitational wave energy density valid in any general spacetime is derived. Read More

We compute the generation of vorticity from velocity dispersion in the dark matter fluid. For dark matter at zero temperature Helmholtz's theorem dictates that no vorticity is generated and we therefore allow the dark matter fluid to have a non-vanishing velocity dispersion. This implies a modification to the usual hydrodynamical system (continuity and Euler equations): we have to consider the Boltzmann hierarchy up to the second moment. Read More

In cosmological models where dark energy has a dynamical origin one would expect that a primordial inflationary epoch leaves no imprint on the behavior of dark energy near the present epoch. We show that a notable exception to this behavior is provided by a nonlocal infrared modification of General Relativity, the so-called RT model. It has been previously shown that this model fits the cosmological data with an accuracy comparable to $\Lambda$CDM, with the same number of free parameters. Read More

The properties of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature and polarisation anisotropies measured by a static, off-centered observer located in a local spherically symmetric void, are described. In particular in this paper we compute, together with the standard 2- point angular correlation functions, the off-diagonal correlators, which are no more vanishing by symmetry. While the energy shift induced by the off-centered position of the observer can be suppressed by a proper choice of the observer velocity, a lensing-like effect on the CMB emission point remains. Read More

We discuss a scale-free model of bigravity, in which the mass parameter of the standard bigravity potential is promoted to a dynamical scalar field. This modification retains the ghost-free bigravity structure, in particular it remains free of the Boulware-Deser ghost. We investigate the theory's interaction structure, focusing on its consistent scaling limits and strong coupling scales. Read More

We study two nonlinear extensions of the nonlocal $R\,\Box^{-2}R$ gravity theory. We extend this theory in two different ways suggested by conformal symmetry, either replacing $\Box^{-2}$ with $(-\Box + R/6)^{-2}$, which is the operator that enters the action for a conformally-coupled scalar field, or replacing $\Box^{-2}$ with the inverse of the Paneitz operator, which is a four-derivative operator that enters in the effective action induced by the conformal anomaly. We show that the former modification gives an interesting and viable cosmological model, with a dark energy equation of state today $w_{\rm DE}\simeq -1. Read More

Recent work has shown that modifications of General Relativity based on the addition to the action of a non-local term $R\,\Box^{-2}R$, or on the addition to the equations of motion of a term involving $(g_{\mu\nu}\Box^{-1} R)$, produce dynamical models of dark energy which are cosmologically viable both at the background level and at the level of cosmological perturbations. We explore a more general class of models based on the addition to the action of terms proportional to $R_{\mu\nu}\,\Box^{-2}R^{\mu\nu}$ and $C_{\mu\nu\rho\sigma}\, \Box^{-2}C^{\mu\nu\rho\sigma}$, where $C_{\mu\nu\rho\sigma}$ is the Weyl tensor. We find that the term $R_{\mu\nu}\,\Box^{-2}R^{\mu\nu}$ does not give a viable background evolution. Read More

We introduce a new formalism to study perturbations of Hassan-Rosen bigravity theory, around general backgrounds for the two dynamical metrics. In particular, we derive the general expression for the mass term of the perturbations and we explicitly compute it for cosmological settings. We study tensor perturbations in a specific branch of bigravity using this formalism. Read More

In this paper we study the generation of primordial perturbations in a cosmological setting of bigravity during inflation. We consider a model of bigravity which can reproduce the $\Lambda$CDM background and large scale structure and a simple model of inflation with a single scalar field and a quadratic potential. Reheating is implemented with a toy-model in which the energy density of the inflaton is entirely dissipated into radiation. Read More

The unphysical spin-2 massive degrees of freedom in higher derivative gravity may be either massive unphysical ghosts or tachyonic ghosts. In the last case there is no Planck-scale threshold protecting vacuum cosmological solutions from instabilities. Within the anomaly-induced action formalism the photon-driven IR running of the coefficient of the Weyl-squared term makes the ghost eventually becoming tachyon, that should produce a gravitational explosion of vacuum. Read More

In this paper we study gravitational wave perturbations in a cosmological setting of bigravity which can reproduce the {\Lambda}CDM background and large scale structure. We show that in general gravitational wave perturbations are unstable and only for very fine tuned initial conditions such a cosmology is viable. We quantify this fine tuning. Read More

We study the ghost-free bimetric theory of Hassan and Rosen, with parameters $\beta_i$ such that a flat Minkowski solution exists for both metrics. We show that, expanding around this solution and eliminating one of the two metrics with its own equation of motion, the remaining metric is governed by the Einstein-Hilbert action plus a non-local term proportional to $W_{\mu\nu\rho\sigma} (\Box-m^2)^{-1}W^{\mu\nu\rho\sigma}$, where $W_{\mu\nu\rho\sigma}$ is the Weyl tensor. The result is valid to quadratic order in the metric perturbation and to all orders in the derivative expansion. Read More