# Gilad Gour - Hebrew University

## Contact Details

NameGilad Gour |
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AffiliationHebrew University |
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CityMill Valley |
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CountryUnited States |
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## Pubs By Year |
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## External Links |
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## Pub CategoriesQuantum Physics (50) Mathematics - Mathematical Physics (15) Mathematical Physics (15) Mathematics - Information Theory (1) High Energy Physics - Theory (1) Computer Science - Information Theory (1) Mathematics - Statistics (1) Physics - Statistical Mechanics (1) Statistics - Theory (1) |

## Publications Authored By Gilad Gour

We introduce a new entanglement measure for two-qubit states that we call the binegativity. This new measure is compared to the concurrence and negativity, the only other known entanglement measures that can be computed analytically for all two-qubit states. The ordering of entangled two-qubit mixed states induced by the binegativity is distinct from the ordering determined by previously known measures, yielding new insights into the structure of entangled mixed states of two qubits. Read More

One of the main goals of any resource theory such as entanglement, quantum thermodynamics, quantum coherence, and asymmetry, is to find necessary and sufficient conditions (NSC) that determine whether one resource can be converted to another by the set of free operations. Here we find such NSC for a large class of quantum resource theories which we call affine resource theories (ART). ARTs include the resource theories of athermality, asymmetry, and coherence, but not entanglement. Read More

The primary goal in the study of entanglement as a resource theory is to find conditions that determine when one quantum state can or cannot be transformed into another via local operations and classical communication. This is typically done through entanglement monotones or conversion witnesses. Such quantities cannot be computed for arbitrary quantum states in general, but it is useful to consider classes of symmetric states for which closed-form expressions can be found. Read More

The stabilizer group of an n-qubit state \psi is the set of all matrices of the form g=g_1\otimes\cdots\otimes g_n, with g_1,... Read More

The theory of majorization and its variants, including thermomajorization, have been found to play a central role in the formulation of many physical resource theories, ranging from entanglement theory to quantum thermodynamics. Here we formulate the framework of quantum relative Lorenz curves, and show how it is able to unify majorization, thermomajorization, and their noncommutative analogues. In doing so, we define the family of Hilbert $\alpha$-divergences and show how it relates with other divergences used in quantum information theory. Read More

The "thermal operations" (TO) framework developed in past works is used to model the evolution of microscopic quantum systems in contact with thermal baths. Here we extend the TO model to describe hybrid devices consisting of quantum systems controlled by macroscopic or otherwise classical elements external to the system-bath setup. We define the operations of such hybrid devices as conditioned thermal operations (CTO), and their deviation from thermal equilibrium as conditional athermality. Read More

Considerable work has recently been directed toward developing resource theories of quantum coherence. In most approaches, a state is said to possess quantum coherence if it is not diagonal in some specified basis. In this letter we establish a criterion of physical consistency for any resource theory in terms of physical implementation of the free operations, and we show that all currently proposed basis-dependent theories of coherence fail to satisfy this criterion. Read More

We show that the minimum Renyi entropy output of a quantum channel is locally additive for Renyi parameter alpha>1. While our work extends the results of [10] (in which local additivity was proven for alpha=1), it is based on several new techniques that incorporate the multiplicative nature of p-norms, in contrast to the additivity property of the von-Neumann entropy. Our results demonstrate that the counterexamples to the Renyi additivity conjectures exhibit global effects of quantum channels. Read More

We show that the stability theorem of the depolarizing channel holds for the output quantum $p$-R\'enyi entropy for $p \ge 2$ or $p=1$, which is an extension of the well known case $p=2$. As an application, we present a protocol in which Bob determines whether Alice prepares a pure quantum state close to a product state. In the protocol, Alice transmits to Bob multiple copies of a pure state through a depolarizing channel, and Bob estimates its output quantum $p$-R\'enyi entropy. Read More

The uncertainty principle, which states that certain sets of quantum-mechanical measurements have a minimal joint uncertainty, has many applications in quantum cryptography. But in such applications, it is important to consider the effect of a (sometimes adversarially controlled) memory that can be correlated with the system being measured: The information retained by such a memory can in fact diminish the uncertainty of measurements. Uncertainty conditioned on a memory was considered in the past by Berta et al. Read More

Historically, the element of uncertainty in quantum mechanics has been expressed through mathematical identities called uncertainty relations, a great many of which continue to be discovered. These relations use diverse measures to quantify uncertainty (and joint uncertainty). In this paper we use operational information-theoretic principles to identify the common essence of all such measures, thereby defining measure-independent notions of uncertainty and joint uncertainty. Read More

We investigate minimum output (R\'enyi) entropy of qubit channels and unital quantum channels. We obtain an exact formula for the minimum output entropy of qubit channels, and bounds for unital quantum channels. Interestingly, our bounds depend only on the operator norm of the matrix representation of the channels on the space of trace-less Hermitian operators. Read More

In recent years it was recognized that properties of physical systems such as entanglement, athermality, and asymmetry, can be viewed as resources for important tasks in quantum information, thermodynamics, and other areas of physics. This recognition followed by the development of specific quantum resource theories (QRTs), such as entanglement theory, determining how quantum states that cannot be prepared under certain restrictions may be manipulated and used to circumvent the restrictions. Here we discuss the general structure of QRTs, and show that under a few assumptions (such as convexity of the set of free states), a QRT is asymptotically reversible if its set of allowed operations is maximal; that is, if the allowed operations are the set of all operations that do not generate (asymptotically) a resource. Read More

The primary goal of entanglement theory is to determine convertibility conditions for two quantum states. Up until now, this has always been done with the use of entanglement monotones. With the exception of the negativity, such quantities tend to be rather uncomputable. Read More

Thermal operations are an operational model of non-equilibrium quantum thermodynamics. In the absence of coherence between energy levels, exact state transition conditions under thermal operations are known in terms of a mathematical relation called thermo-majorization. But incorporating coherence has turned out to be challenging, even under the relatively tractable model wherein all Gibbs state-preserving quantum channels are included. Read More

Convex optimization problems arise naturally in quantum information theory, often in terms of minimizing a convex function over a convex subset of the space of hermitian matrices. In most cases, finding exact solutions to these problems is usually impossible. As inspired by earlier investigations into the relative entropy of entanglement [Phys. Read More

We generalize the concept of mutually unbiased bases (MUB) to measurements which are not necessarily described by rank one projectors. As such, these measurements can be a useful tool to study the long standing problem of the existence of MUB. We derive their general form, and show that in a finite, $d$-dimensional Hilbert space, one can construct a complete set of $d+1$ mutually unbiased measurements. Read More

Practical implementations of quantum information-theoretic applications rely on phase coherences between systems. These coherences are disturbed by misalignment between phase references. Quantum states carrying phase-asymmetry act as resources to counteract this misalignment. Read More

We review recent work on the foundations of thermodynamics in the light of quantum information theory. We adopt a resource-theoretic perspective, wherein thermodynamics is formulated as a theory of what agents can achieve under a particular restriction, namely, that the only state preparations and transformations that they can implement for free are those that are thermal at some fixed temperature. States that are out of thermal equilibrium are the resources. Read More

We construct the set of all general (i.e. not necessarily rank 1) symmetric informationally complete (SIC) positive operator valued measures (POVMs). Read More

We provide a systematic classification of multiparticle entanglement in terms of equivalence classes of states under stochastic local operations and classical communication (SLOCC). We show that such an SLOCC equivalency class of states is characterized by ratios of homogenous polynomials that are invariant under local action of the special linear group. We then construct the complete set of all such SL-invariant polynomials (SLIPs). Read More

**Category:**Quantum Physics

Uncertainty relations are a distinctive characteristic of quantum theory that impose intrinsic limitations on the precision with which physical properties can be simultaneously determined. The modern work on uncertainty relations employs \emph{entropic measures} to quantify the lack of knowledge associated with measuring non-commuting observables. However, there is no fundamental reason for using entropies as quantifiers; any functional relation that characterizes the uncertainty of the measurement outcomes defines an uncertainty relation. Read More

We introduce a new multiparty cryptographic protocol, which we call `entanglement sharing schemes', wherein a dealer retains half of a maximally-entangled bipartite state and encodes the other half into a multipartite state that is distributed among multiple players. In a close analogue to quantum secret sharing, some subsets of players can recover maximal entanglement with the dealer whereas other subsets can recover no entanglement (though they may retain classical correlations with the dealer). We find a lower bound on the share size for such schemes and construct two non-trivial examples based on Shor's $[[9,1,3]]$ and the $[[4,2,2]]$ stabilizer code; we further demonstrate how other examples may be obtained from quantum error correcting codes through classical encryption. Read More

We find the generating set of SL-invariant polynomials in four qubits that are also invariant under permutations of the qubits. The set consists of four polynomials of degrees 2,6,8, and 12, for which we find an elegant expression in the space of critical states. In addition, we show that the Hyperdeterminant in four qubits is the only SL-invariant polynomial (up to powers of itself) that is non-vanishing precisely on the set of generic states. Read More

In closed systems, dynamical symmetries lead to conservation laws. However, conservation laws are not applicable to open systems that undergo irreversible transformations. More general selection rules are needed to determine whether, given two states, the transition from one state to the other is possible. Read More

We study how multi-partite entanglement evolves under the paradigm of separable operations, which include the local operations and classical communication (LOCC) as a special case. We prove that the average "decay" of entanglement induced by a separable operation is measure independent (among SL-invariant ones) and state independent: the ratio between the average output entanglement and the initial entanglement is solely a function of the separable operation, regardless of the input state and of the SL-invariant entanglement measure being used. We discuss the "disentangling power" of a quantum channel and show that it exhibits a similar state invariance as the average entanglement decay ratio. Read More

We determine the quantum states and measurements that optimize the accessible information in a reference frame alignment protocol associated with the groups U(1), corresponding to a phase reference, and $\mathbb{Z}_M$, the cyclic group of $M$ elements. Our result provides an operational interpretation for the $G$-asymmetry which is information-theoretic and which was thus far lacking. In particular, we show that in the limit of many copies of the bounded-size quantum reference frame, the accessible information approaches the Holevo bound. Read More

We discuss limitations to sharing entanglement known as monogamy of entanglement. Our pedagogical approach commences with simple examples of limited entanglement sharing for pure three-qubit states and progresses to the more general case of mixed-state monogamy relations with multiple qudits. Read More

We demonstrate a new construction for perfect quantum secret sharing (QSS) schemes based on imperfect "ramp" secret sharing combined with classical encryption, in which the individual parties' shares are split into quantum and classical components, allowing the former to be of lower dimension than the secret itself. We show that such schemes can be performed with smaller quantum components and lower overall quantum communication than required for existing methods. We further demonstrate that one may combine both imperfect quantum and imperfect classical secret sharing to produce an overall perfect QSS scheme, and that examples of such scheme (which we construct) can have the smallest quantum and classical share components possible for their access structures, something provably not achievable using perfect underlying schemes. Read More

We show that the minimum von-Neumann entropy output of a quantum channel is locally additive. Hasting's counterexample for the additivity conjecture, makes this result quite surprising. In particular, it indicates that the non-additivity of the minimum entropy output is a global effect of quantum channels. Read More

We show that under a certain condition of local commutativity the minimum von-Neumann entropy output of a quantum channel is locally additive. We also show that local minima of the 2-norm entropy functions are closed under tensor products if one of the subspaces has dimension 2. Read More

Restrictions on quantum operations give rise to resource theories. Total lack of a shared reference frame for transformations associated with a group G between two parties is equivalent to having, in effect, an invariant channel between the parties and a corresponding superselection rule. The resource associated with the absence of the reference frame is known as "frameness" or "asymmetry. Read More

Suppose several parties jointly possess a pure multipartite state, |\psi>. Using local operations on their respective systems and classical communication (i.e. Read More

We discover a simple factorization law describing how multipartite entanglement of a composite quantum system evolves when one of the subsystems undergoes an arbitrary physical process. This multipartite entanglement decay is determined uniquely by a single factor we call the entanglement resilient factor (ERF). Since the ERF is a function of the quantum channel alone, we find that multipartite entanglement evolves in exactly the same way as bipartite (two qudits) entanglement. Read More

The relative entropy of entanglement is defined in terms of the relative entropy between an entangled state and its closest separable state (CSS). Given a multipartite-state on the boundary of the set of separable states, we find a closed formula for all the entangled state for which this state is a CSS. Quite amazing, our formula holds for multipartite states in all dimensions. Read More

We find an operational interpretation for the 4-tangle as a type of residual entanglement, somewhat similar to the interpretation of the 3-tangle. Using this remarkable interpretation, we are able to find the class of maximally entangled four-qubits states which is characterized by four real parameters. The states in the class are maximally entangled in the sense that their average bipartite entanglement with respect to all possible bi-partite cuts is maximal. Read More

**Category:**Quantum Physics

Given a pure state transformation $\psi\mapsto\phi$ restricted to entanglement-assisted local operations with classical communication, we determine a lower bound for the dimension of a catalyst allowing that transformation. Our bound is stated in terms of the generalised concurrence monotones (the usual concurrence of two qubits is one such monotone). We further provide tools for deriving further conditions upon catalysts of pure state transformations. Read More

**Category:**Quantum Physics

While quantum entanglement is known to be monogamous (i.e. shared entanglement is restricted in multi-partite settings), here we show that distributed entanglement (or the potential for entanglement) is by nature polygamous. Read More

In the absence of a reference frame for transformations associated with a group G, any quantum state that is non-invariant under the action of G may serve as a token of the missing reference frame. We here introduce a novel measure of the quality of such a token: the relative entropy of frameness. This is defined as the relative entropy distance between the state of interest and the nearest G-invariant state. Read More

We show that appropriate superpositions of motional states are a reference frame resource that enables breaking of time -reversal superselection so that two parties lacking knowledge about the other's direction of time can still communicate. We identify the time-reversal reference frame resource states and determine the corresponding frameness monotone, which connects time-reversal frameness to entanglement. In contradistinction to other studies of reference frame quantum resources, this is the first analysis that involves an antiunitary rather than unitary representation. Read More

We investigate upper and lower bounds on the entropy of entanglement of a superposition of bipartite states as a function of the individual states in the superposition. In particular, we extend the results in [G. Gour, arxiv. Read More

Every restriction on quantum operations defines a resource theory, determining how quantum states that cannot be prepared under the restriction may be manipulated and used to circumvent the restriction. A superselection rule is a restriction that arises through the lack of a classical reference frame and the states that circumvent it (the resource) are quantum reference frames. We consider the resource theories that arise from three types of superselection rule, associated respectively with lacking: (i) a phase reference, (ii) a frame for chirality, and (iii) a frame for spatial orientation. Read More

We find tight lower and upper bounds on the entanglement of a superposition of two bipartite states in terms of the entanglement of the two states constituting the superposition. Our upper bound is dramatically tighter than the one presented in Phys. Rev. Read More

We introduce the notion of entanglement of subspaces as a measure that quantify the entanglement of bipartite states in a randomly selected subspace. We discuss its properties and in particular we show that for maximally entangled subspaces it is additive. Furthermore, we show that maximally entangled subspaces can play an important role in the study of quantum error correction codes. Read More

We find an upper bound on the rate at which entanglement can be unlocked by classical bits. In particular, we show that for quantum information sources that are specified by ensambles of pure bipartite states, one classical bit can unlock at most one ebit. Read More

The entanglement of collaboration (EoC) quantifies the maximum amount of entanglement, that can be generated between two parties, A and B, given collaboration with N-2 other parties, when the N parties share a multipartite (possibly mixed) state and where the collaboration consists of local operations and classical communication (LOCC) by all parties. The localizable entanglement (LE) is defined similarly except that A and B do not participate in the effort to generate bipartite entanglement. We compare between these two operational definitions and find sufficient conditions for which the EoC is equal to the LE. Read More

We establish duality for monogamy of entanglement: whereas monogamy of entanglement inequalities provide an upper bound for bipartite sharability of entanglement in a multipartite system, we prove that the same quantity provides a \emph{lower} bound for distribution of bipartite entanglement in a multipartite system. Our theorem for monogamy of entanglement is used to establish relations between bipartite entanglement that separate one qubit from the rest vs separating two qubits from the rest. Read More

The entanglement of assistance quantifies the entanglement that can be generated between two parties, Alice and Bob, given assistance from a third party, Charlie, when the three share a tripartite state and where the assistance consists of Charlie initially performing a measurement on his share and communicating the result to Alice and Bob through a one-way classical channel. We argue that if this quantity is to be considered an operational measure of entanglement, then it must be understood to be a tripartite rather than a bipartite measure. We compare it with a distinct tripartite measure that quantifies the entanglement that can be generated between Alice and Bob when they are allowed to make use of a two-way classical channel with Charlie. Read More

We consider the maximum bipartite entanglement that can be distilled from a single copy of a multipartite mixed entangled state, where we focus mostly on $d\times d\times n$-dimensional tripartite mixed states. We show that this {\em assisted entanglement}, when measured in terms of the generalized concurrence (named G-concurrence) is (tightly) bounded by an entanglement monotone, which we call the G-concurrence of assistance. The G-concurrence is one of the possible generalizations of the concurrence to higher dimensions, and for pure bipartite states it measures the {\em geometric mean} of the Schmidt numbers. Read More

Certain quantum information tasks require entanglement of assistance, namely a reduction of a tripartite entangled state to a bipartite entangled state via local measurements. We establish that 'concurrence of assistance' (CoA) identifies capabilities and limitations to producing pure bipartite entangled states from pure tripartite entangled states and prove that CoA is an entanglement monotone for $(2\times2\times n)$-dimensional pure states. Moreover, if the CoA for the pure tripartite state is at least as large as the concurrence of the desired pure bipartite state, then the former may be transformed to the latter via local operations and classical communication, and we calculate the maximum probability for this transformation when this condition is not met. Read More