Gerrit E. Bauer - TU Delft

Gerrit E. Bauer
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Gerrit E. Bauer
TU Delft

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Physics - Mesoscopic Systems and Quantum Hall Effect (44)
Physics - Materials Science (22)
Physics - Optics (1)

Publications Authored By Gerrit E. Bauer

We study the diffusive transport of magnons through the compensated ferrimagnetic insulator Gd3Fe5O12 (GdIG). The magnons are injected and detected electrically in a non-local measurement configuration via two parallel Pt strips deposited on top of the ferrimagnet. GdIG exhibits a rich magnon spectrum, with several thermally populated magnon bands at room temperature. Read More

We report thermal control of mode hybridization between the ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) and a planar resonator (notch filter) working at 4.74 GHz. The chosen magnetic material is a ferrimagnetic insulator (Yttrium Iron Garnet: YIG) covered by 6 nm of platinum (Pt). Read More

We theoretically study the effects of strong magnetoelastic coupling on the transport properties of magnetic insulators. We develop a Boltzmann transport theory for the mixed magnon-phonon modes (magnon polarons) and determine transport coefficients and spin diffusion length. Magnon-polaron formation causes anomalous features in the magnetic field and temperature dependence of the spin Seebeck effect when the disorder scattering in the magnetic and elastic subsystems is sufficiently different. Read More

Yttrium Iron Garnet is the ubiquitous magnetic insulator used for studying pure spin currents. The exchange constants reported in the literature vary considerably between different experiments and fitting procedures. Here we calculate them from first-principles. Read More

We theoretically study the magnetoresistance (MR) of two-dimensional massless Dirac electrons as found on the surface of three-dimensional topological insulators (3D TIs) that is capped by a ferromagnetic insulator (FI). We calculate charge and spin transport by Kubo and Boltzmann theories, taking into account the ladder-vertex correction and the in-scattering due to normal and magnetic disorder. The induced exchange splitting is found to generate an electric conductivity that depends on the magnetization orientation, but its form is very different from both the anisotropic and spin Hall MR. Read More

We address the theory of the coupled lattice and magnetization dynamics of freely suspended single-domain nanoparticles. Magnetic anisotropy generates low-frequency satellite peaks in the microwave absorption spectrum and a blueshift of the ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) frequency. The low-frequency resonances are very sharp with maxima exceeding that of the FMR, because their magnetic and mechanical precessions are locked, thereby suppressing Gilbert damping. Read More

We study the spin current injected by spin pumping into single layer graphene and the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) with ferromagnetic contacts using scattering theory. The spin currents pumped into graphene are very distinct from that into the 2DEG since importantly affected by Klein tunneling. Read More

Yttrium Iron Garnet is the prototypical material used to study pure spin currents. It is a complex material with 20 magnetic atoms in the unit cell. Almost all theories and experimental analysis approximates this complicated material to a simple ferromagnet with a single spin wave mode. Read More

The observation of the spin Hall effect triggered intense research on pure spin current transport. With the spin Hall effect, the spin Seebeck effect, and the spin Peltier effect already observed, our picture of pure spin current transport is almost complete. The only missing piece is the spin Nernst (-Ettingshausen) effect, that so far has only been discussed on theoretical grounds. Read More

Sharp structures in magnetic field-dependent spin Seebeck effect (SSE) voltages of Pt/Y$_{3}$Fe$_{5}$O$_{12}$ (YIG) at low temperatures are attributed to the magnon-phonon interaction. Experimental results are well reproduced by a Boltzmann theory that includes the magnetoelastic coupling (MEC). The SSE anomalies coincide with magnetic fields tuned to the threshold of magnon-polaron formation. Read More

We study the spin Hall magnetoresistance effect in ferrimagnet/normal metal bilayers, comparing the response in collinear and canted magnetic phases. In the collinear magnetic phase, in which the sublattice magnetic moments are all aligned along the same axis, we observe the conventional spin Hall magnetoresistance. In contrast, in the canted phase, the magnetoresistance changes sign. Read More

The concept of temperature in nonequilibrium thermodynamics is an outstanding theoretical issue. We propose an energy repartition principle that leads to a spectral (mode-dependent) temperature in steady-state nonequilibrium systems. The general concepts are illustrated by analytic solutions of the classical Heisenberg spin chain connected to Langevin heat reservoirs with arbitrary temperature profiles. Read More

We develop a linear-response transport theory of diffusive spin and heat transport by magnons in magnetic insulators with metallic contacts. The magnons are described by a position dependent temperature and chemical potential that are governed by diffusion equations with characteristic relaxation lengths. Proceeding from a linearized Boltzmann equation, we derive expressions for length scales and transport coefficients. Read More

We derive the Onsager response matrix of fluctuation-mediated spin-collinear transport through a ferromagnetic insulator and normal metal interface driven by a temperature difference, spin accumulation, or magnetic field. We predict magnon-squeezing spin currents, magnetic field-induced cooling (magnon Peltier effect), temperature induced magnetization (thermal magnetic field) as well as universal spin Seebeck/Peltier coefficients. Read More

We present a theory for the coherent magnetization dynamics induced by a focused ultrafast laser beam in magnetic films, taking into account nonthermal (inverse Faraday effect) and thermal (heating) actuation. The dynamic conversion between spin waves and phonons is induced by the magnetoelastic coupling that allows efficient propagation of angular momentum. The anisotropy of the magnetoelastic coupling renders characteristic angle dependences of the magnetization propa-gation that are strikingly different for thermal and nonthermal actuation. Read More

We review the recently discovered spin Hall magnetoresistance (SMR) and related effects from a theoretical point of view. The SMR is observed in bilayers of a magnetic insulator and a metal, in which spin currents aregenerated in the normal metal due to the spin Hall effect. The associated angular momentum transfer to the ferromagnetic layer and thereby the electrical resistance is modulated by the angle between the applied current and the magnetization direction. Read More

We report on the spin-Hall magnetoresistance (SMR) and spin Seebeck effect (SSE) in multiferroic CoCr2O4 (CCO) spinel thin films with Pt contacts. We observe a large enhancement of both signals below the spin-spiral (Ts = 28 K) and the spin lock-in transitions (T_{lock_in} = 14 K). The SMR and SSE response in the spin lock-in phase are one order of magnitude larger than those observed at the ferrimagnetic transition temperature (Tc = 94 K), which indicates that the interaction between spins at the Pt|CCO interface is more efficient in the non-collinear magnetic state below Ts and T_{lock-in}. Read More

We model the charge, spin, and heat currents in ferromagnetic metal$|$normal metal$|$normal metal trilayer structures in the two current model, taking into account bulk and interface thermoelectric properties as well as Joule heating. Results include the temperature distribution as well as resistance-current curves that reproduce the observed shifted parabolic characteristics. Thin tunneling barriers can enhance the apparent Peltier cooling. Read More

We study the magnetic damping in the simplest of synthetic antiferromagnets, i.e. antiferromagnetically exchange-coupled spin valves in which applied magnetic fields tune the magnetic configuration to become noncollinear. Read More

We investigate magnetization induced by mechanical rotation, known as the Barnett effect, in the two-dimensional electron gas. The energy eigenvalues of the rotating system (Barnett levels) are non-degenerate, thereby differ from Landau levels in the presence of a magnetic field. The magnetic response caused by the coupling of the Barnett gauge field to both the electron spin and orbital degree of freedom is found to be paramagnetic. Read More

We apply Mie scattering theory to study the interaction of magnetic spheres with microwaves in cavities beyond the magnetostatic and rotating wave approximations. We demonstrate that both strong and ultra-strong coupling can be realized for a stand alone magnetic spheres made from yttrium iron garnet (YIG), acting as an efficient microwave antenna. The eigenmodes of YIG spheres with radii of the order mm's display distinct higher angular momentum character that has been observed in experiments. Read More

Pure spin currents transport angular momentum without an associated charge flow. This unique property makes them attractive for spintronics applications, such as torque induced magnetization control in nanodevices that can be used for sensing, data storage, interconnects and logics. Up to now, however, most spin transfer torque studies focused on metallic ferromagnets, while magnetic insulators were largely ignored, in spite of superior magnetic quality factors. Read More

We formulate a scattering theory to study magnetic films in microwave cavities beyond the independent-spin and rotating wave approximations of the Tavis-Cummings model. We demonstrate that strong coupling can be realized not only for the ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) mode, but also for spin wave resonances (SWRs); the coupling strengths are mode dependent and decrease with increasing mode index. The strong coupling regime can be also accessed electrically by spin pumping into a metal contact. Read More

We model the injection of elastic waves into a ferromagnetic film (F) by a non-magnetic transducer (N). We compare the configurations in which the magnetization is normal and parallel to the wave propagation. The lack of axial symmetry in the former results in the emergence of evanescent interface states. Read More

Magnetism is a very fascinating and dynamic field. Especially in the last 30 years it has experienced many major advances in the full range from novel fundamental phenomena to new products. Applications such as hard disk drives and magnetic sensors are part of our daily life, and new applications, such as in non-volatile computer random access memory, are expected to surface shortly. Read More

The spin-torque ferromagnetic resonance (ST-FMR) in a bilayer system consisting of a magnetic insulator such as Y3Fe5O12 and a normal metal with spin-orbit interaction such as Pt is addressed theoretically. We model the ST-FMR for all magnetization directions and in the presence of field-like spin-orbit torques based on the drift-diffusion spin model and quantum mechanical boundary conditions. ST-FMR experiments may expose crucial information about the spin-orbit coupling between currents and magnetization in the bilayers. Read More

We measure the low-frequency thermal fluctuations of pure spin current in a Platinum film deposited on yttrium iron garnet via the inverse spin Hall effect (ISHE)-mediated voltage noise as a function of the angle $\alpha$ between the magnetization and the transport direction. The results are consistent with the fluctuation dissipation theorem in terms of the recently discovered spin Hall magnetoresistance (SMR). We present a microscopic description of the $\alpha$ dependence of the voltage noise in terms of spin current fluctuations and ISHE. Read More

We predict a magnetoresistance induced by the interfacial Rashba spin-orbit coupling in normal metal|ferromagnetic insulator bilayer. It depends on the angle between current and magnetization directions identically to the "spin Hall magnetoresistance" mechanism caused by a combined action of spin Hall and inverse spin Hall effects. Due to the identical phenomenology it is not obvious whether the magnetoresistance reported by Nakayama et al. Read More

We study the dynamics of spin valves consisting of two layers of magnetic insulators separated by a normal metal in the macrospin model. A current through the spacer generates a spin Hall current that can actuate the magnetization via the spin-transfer torque. We derive expressions for the effective Gilbert damping and the critical currents for the onset of magnetization dynamics including the effects of spin pumping that can be tested by ferromagnetic resonance experiments. Read More

We carried out a concerted effort to determine the absolute sign of the inverse spin Hall effect voltage generated by spin currents injected into a normal metal. We focus on yttrium iron garnet (YIG)|platinum bilayers at room temperature, generating spin currents by microwaves and temperature gradients. We find consistent results for different samples and measurement setups that agree with theory. Read More

We formulate a theory of the AC spin Hall magnetoresistance (SMR) in a bilayer system consisting of a magnetic insulator such as yttrium iron garnet (YIG) and a heavy metal such as platinum (Pt). We derive expressions for the DC voltage generation based on the drift-diffusion spin model and quantum mechanical boundary condition at the interface that reveal a spin torque ferromagnetic resonance (ST-FMR). We predict that ST-FMR experiments will reveal valuable information on the current-induced magnetization dynamics of magnetic insulators and AC spin Hall effect. Read More

We studied the thermoelectric coefficients (Seebeck and thermal conductance)of FeCo|MgO|FeCo(001) magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) from first principles using a generalized Landauer-B\"{u}ttiker formalism. FeCo|MgO|FeCo(001) MTJs usually yield smaller thermoelectric effects compared with epitaxial Fe|MgO|Fe(001) MTJs. The (magneto-) Seebeck effect is sensitive to the details of the FeCo$|$MgO interfaces. Read More

Non-resonant circularly polarized electromagnetic radiation can exert torques on magnetization by the Inverse Faraday Effect (IFE). Here we discuss the enhancement of IFE by spin-orbit interactions (SOI). We illustrate the principle by studying a simple generic model system, i. Read More

Recent experiments demonstrated generation of spin currents by ultrasound. We can understand this acoustically induced spin pumping in terms of the coupling between magnetization and lattice waves. Here we study the parametric excitation of magnetization by longitudinal acoustic waves and calculate the acoustic threshold power. Read More

We derive expressions for the efficiency and figure of merit of two spin caloritronic devices based on the spin Seebeck effect (SSE), i.e., the generation of spin currents by a temperature gradient. Read More

We develop a self-consistent theory for current-induced spin wave excitations in normal metal-magnetic insulator bilayer systems, thereby establishing the relation between spin wave excitation and the experimentally controlled parameters. We fully take into account the complex spin wave spectrum including dipolar interactions and surface anisotropy as well as the spin-pumping at the interface. Our results focus on the mode-dependent power close to the critical currents for spin wave excitation. Read More

The angular momentum vector of a Heisenberg ferromagnet with isotropic exchange interaction is conserved, while under uniaxial crystalline anisotropy the projection of the total spin along the easy axis is a constant of motion. Using Noether's theorem, we prove that these conservation laws persist in the presence of dipole-dipole interactions. However, spin and orbital angular momentum are not conserved separately. Read More

We study propagation of ultrasonic waves through a ferromagnetic medium with special attention to the boundary conditions at the interface with an ultrasonic actuator. In analogy to charge and spin transport in conductors, we formulate the energy transport through the system as a scattering problem. We find that the magneto-elastic coupling leads to a non-vanishing magnetic (elastic) energy accompanying the acoustic (spin) waves with a resonantly enhanced effect around the dispersion relation anti-crossing point. Read More

We perform a quantitative, comparative study of the spin pumping, spin Seebeck and spin Hall magnetoresistance effects, all detected via the inverse spin Hall effect in a series of over 20 yttrium iron garnet/Pt samples. Our experimental results fully support present, exclusively spin current-based, theoretical models using a single set of plausible parameters for spin mixing conductance, spin Hall angle and spin diffusion length. Our findings establish the purely spintronic nature of the aforementioned effects and provide a quantitative description in particular of the spin Seebeck effect. Read More

We calculate the phonon, electron and magnon temperature profiles in yttrium iron garnet/platinum bilayers by diffusive theory with appropriate boundary conditions, in particular taking into account interfacial thermal resistances. Our calculations show that in thin film hybrids, the interface magnetic heat conductance qualitatively affects the magnon temperature. Based on published material parameters we assess the degree of non-equilibrium at the yttrium iron garnet/platinum interface. Read More

We describe excitation of dipole-exchange spin waves in insulating magnetic thin films by spin current injection at the surface of the film. An easy-axis magnetic surface anisotropy can induce a non-chiral surface spin wave mode with penetration depth inversely proportional to the strength of the surface anisotropy, which strongly reduces the critical current and enhances the excitation power. The importance of the interface spin wave modes on the excitation spectrum is reduced by spin pumping, which depends on the quality of the interface as expressed by the spin mixing conductance. Read More

We study the transport of electrons through a single-mode quantum ring with electric field induced Rashba spin-orbit interaction that is subjected to an in-plane magnetic field and weakly coupled to electron reservoirs. Modelling a ring array by ensemble averaging over a Gaussian distribution of energy level positions, we predict slow conductance oscillations as a function of the Rashba interaction and electron density due to spin-orbit interaction-induced beating of the spacings between the levels crossed by the Fermi energy. Our results agree with experiments by Nitta c. Read More

We experimentally investigate and quantitatively analyze the spin Hall magnetoresistance effect in ferromagnetic insulator/platinum and ferromagnetic insulator/nonferromagnetic metal/platinum hybrid structures. For the ferromagnetic insulator we use either yttrium iron garnet, nickel ferrite or magnetite and for the nonferromagnet copper or gold. The spin Hall magnetoresistance effect is theoretically ascribed to the combined action of spin Hall and inverse spin Hall effect in the platinum metal top layer. Read More

This paper reports on the improvement of the differential current gain in the spin-torque transistor based on two independent innovations, viz.the use of magnetic insulators and the spin Hall effect. Since, except for a few examples, spin transistors lack the current gain that is essential for many applications, spintronics and magnetic information technology lack an essential functionality compared to CMOS devices. Read More

We present a theory of the spin Hall magnetoresistance (SMR) in multilayers made from an insulating ferromagnet F, such as yttrium iron garnet (YIG), and a normal metal N with spin-orbit interactions, such as platinum (Pt). The SMR is induced by the simultaneous action of spin Hall and inverse spin Hall effects and therefore a non-equilibrium proximity phenomenon. We compute the SMR in F$|$N and F$|$N$|$F layered systems, treating N by spin-diffusion theory with quantum mechanical boundary conditions at the interfaces in terms of the spin-mixing conductance. Read More

We study the magnetization dynamics of spin valve structures with a free composite synthetic ferromagnet (SyF) that consists of two ferromagnetic layers coupled through a normal metal spacer. A ferromagnetically coupled SyF can be excited into dynamical precessional states by an applied current without external magnetic fields. We analytically determine the stability of these states in the space spanned by the current density and SyF interlayer exchange coupling. Read More

We investigate the non-resonant all-optical switching of magnetization. We treat the inverse Faraday effect (IFE) theoretically in terms of the spin-selective optical Stark effect for linearly or circularly polarized light. In the dilute magnetic semiconductors (Ga,Mn)As, strong laser pulses below the band gap induce effective magnetic fields of several teslas in a direction which depends on the magnetization and light wave vectors. Read More

The polarization of the spin current pumped by a precessing ferromagnet into an adjacent normal metal has a constant component parallel to the precession axis and a rotating one normal to the magnetization. The former component is now routinely detected in the form of a DC voltage induced by the inverse spin Hall effect (ISHE). Here we compute AC-ISHE voltages much larger than the DC signals for various material combinations and discuss optimal conditions to observe the effect. Read More

We present a theoretical study of heat transport in electrically insulating ferromagnetic wires containing a domain wall. In the regime of validity of continuum micromagnetism a domain wall is found to have no effect on the heat conductance. However, spin waves are found to be reflected by domain walls with widths of a few lattice spacings, which is associated with emergence of an additional spin wave bound state. Read More

We study the excitation of spin waves in magnetic insulators by the current-induced spin-transfer torque. We predict preferential excitation of surface spin waves induced by an easy-axis surface anisotropy with critical current inversely proportional to the penetration depth and surface anisotropy. The surface modes strongly reduce the critical current and enhance the excitation power of the current-induced magnetization dynamics. Read More