# Gerald Schubert

## Contact Details

NameGerald Schubert |
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## Pubs By Year |
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## Pub CategoriesPhysics - Strongly Correlated Electrons (11) Physics - Disordered Systems and Neural Networks (7) Earth and Planetary Astrophysics (6) Physics - Mesoscopic Systems and Quantum Hall Effect (3) General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (3) Astrophysics (2) Computer Science - Performance (2) Computer Science - Distributed; Parallel; and Cluster Computing (1) |

## Publications Authored By Gerald Schubert

Responding to calls from the National Science Foundation (NSF) for new proposals to measure the gravitational constant $G$, we offer an interesting experiment in deep space employing the classic gravity train mechanism. Our setup requires three bodies: a larger layered solid sphere with a cylindrical hole through its center, a much smaller retroreflector which will undergo harmonic motion within the hole and a host spacecraft with laser ranging capabilities to measure round trip light-times to the retroreflector but ultimately separated a significant distance away from the sphere-retroreflector apparatus. Measurements of the period of oscillation of the retroreflector in terms of host spacecraft clock time using existing technology could give determinations of $G$ nearly three orders of magnitude more accurate than current measurements here on Earth. Read More

The New Horizons mission to the Kuiper Belt has recently revealed intriguing features on the surface of Charon, including a network of chasmata, cutting across or around a series of high topography features, conjoining to form a belt. It is proposed that this tectonic belt is a consequence of contraction/expansion episodes in the moon's evolution associated particularly with compaction, differentiation and geochemical reactions of the interior. The proposed scenario involves no need for solidification of a vast subsurface ocean and/or a warm initial state. Read More

We offer a response to recent claims that a constant $G$ measurement model with an additional Gaussian noise term fits the experimental data better than a model containing periodic terms. Read More

About a dozen measurements of Newton's gravitational constant, G, since 1962 have yielded values that differ by far more than their reported random plus systematic errors. We find that these values for G are oscillatory in nature, with a period of P = 5.899 +/- 0. Read More

Three-dimensional topological insulators feature Dirac-like surface states which are topologically protected against the influence of weak quenched disorder. Here we investigate the effect of surface disorder beyond the weak-disorder limit using large-scale numerical simulations. We find two qualitatively distinct regimes: Moderate disorder destroys the Dirac cone and induces diffusive metallic behavior at the surface. Read More

We study the electronic properties of actual-size graphene nanoribbons subjected to substitutional disorder particularly with regard to the experimentally observed metal-insulator transition. Calculating the local, mean and typical density of states, as well as the time-evolution of the particle density we comment on a possible disorder-induced localisation of charge carriers at and close to the Dirac point within a percolation transition scenario. Read More

The experimentally observed metal-to-insulator transition in hydrogenated graphene is numerically confirmed for actual sized graphene samples and realistic impurity concentrations. The eigenstates of our tight-binding model with substitutional disorder corroborate the formation of electron-hole-puddles with characteristic length scales comparable to the ones found in experiments. The puddles cause charge inhomogeneities and tend to suppress Anderson localization. Read More

The moment of inertia of a giant planet reveals important information about the planet's internal density structure and this information is not identical to that contained in the gravitational moments. The forthcoming Juno mission to Jupiter might determine Jupiter's normalized moment of inertia NMoI=C/MR^2 by measuring Jupiter's pole precession and the Lense-Thirring acceleration of the spacecraft (C is the axial moment of inertia, and M and R are Jupiter's mass and mean radius, respectively). We investigate the possible range of NMoI values for Jupiter based on its measured gravitational field using a simple core/envelope model of the planet assuming that J_2 and J_4 are perfectly known and are equal to their measured values. Read More

The exact solution for the shape and gravitational field of a rotating two-layer Maclaurin ellipsoid of revolution is compared with predictions of the theory of figures up to third order in the small rotational parameter of the theory of figures. An explicit formula is derived for the external gravitational coefficient $J_2$ of the exact solution. A new approach to the evaluation of the theory of figures based on numerical integration of ordinary differential equations is presented. Read More

We evaluate optimized parallel sparse matrix-vector operations for several representative application areas on widespread multicore-based cluster configurations. First the single-socket baseline performance is analyzed and modeled with respect to basic architectural properties of standard multicore chips. Beyond the single node, the performance of parallel sparse matrix-vector operations is often limited by communication overhead. Read More

We evaluate optimized parallel sparse matrix-vector operations for two representative application areas on widespread multicore-based cluster configurations. First the single-socket baseline performance is analyzed and modeled with respect to basic architectural properties of standard multicore chips. Going beyond the single node, parallel sparse matrix-vector operations often suffer from an unfavorable communication to computation ratio. Read More

'Empirical' models (pressure vs. density) of Uranus and Neptune interiors constrained by the gravitational coefficients J_2, J_4, the planetary radii and masses, and Voyager solid-body rotation periods are presented. The empirical pressure-density profiles are then interpreted in terms of physical equations of state of hydrogen, helium, ice (H_2O), and rock (SiO_2) to test the physical plausibility of the models. Read More

Both Uranus and Neptune are thought to have strong zonal winds with velocities of several hundred meters per second. These wind velocities, however, assume solid-body rotation periods based on Voyager 2 measurements of periodic variations in the planets' radio signals and of fits to the planets' magnetic fields; 17.24h and 16. Read More

Numerical approaches to Anderson localization face the problem of having to treat large localization lengths while being restricted to finite system sizes. We show that by finite-size scaling of the probability distribution of the local density of states (LDOS) this long-standing problem can be overcome. To this end we reexamine the approach, propose numerical refinements, and apply it to study the dependence of the distribution of the LDOS on the dimensionality and coordination number of the lattice. Read More

The increasing importance of multicore processors calls for a reevaluation of established numerical algorithms in view of their ability to profit from this new hardware concept. In order to optimize the existent algorithms, a detailed knowledge of the different performance-limiting factors is mandatory. In this contribution we investigate sparse matrix-vector multiplication, which is the dominant operation in many sparse eigenvalue solvers. Read More

Anderson & Schubert (2007, Science,317,1384) proposed that Saturn's rotation period can be ascertained by minimizing the dynamic heights of the 100 mbar isosurface with respect to the geoid; they derived a rotation period of 10h 32m 35s. We investigate the same approach for Jupiter to see if the Jovian rotation period is predicted by minimizing the dynamical heights of its isobaric (1 bar pressure level) surface using zonal wind data. A rotation period of 9h 54m 29s is found. Read More

We examine several numerical techniques for the calculation of the dynamics of quantum systems. In particular, we single out an iterative method which is based on expanding the time evolution operator into a finite series of Chebyshev polynomials. The Chebyshev approach benefits from two advantages over the standard time-integration Crank-Nicholson scheme: speedup and efficiency. Read More

In this lecture note we demonstrated the capability of the local distribution approach to the problem of quantum percolation. Read More

Disorder effects strongly influence the transport properties of graphene based nanodevices even to the point of Anderson localization. Focusing on the local density of states and its distribution function, we analyze the localization properties of actual size graphene nanoribbons. In particular we determine the time evolution and localization length of the single particle wave function in dependence on the ribbon extension and edge geometry, as well as on the disorder type and strength. Read More

We present 'empirical' models (pressure vs. density) of Saturn's interior constrained by the gravitational coefficients J_2, J_4, and J_6 for different assumed rotation rates of the planet. The empirical pressure-density profile is interpreted in terms of a hydrogen and helium physical equation of state to deduce the hydrogen to helium ratio in Saturn and to constrain the depth dependence of helium and heavy element abundances. Read More

**Category:**Astrophysics

Sedimentation rates of silicate grains in gas giant protoplanets formed by disk instability are calculated for protoplanetary masses between 1 M_Saturn to 10 M_Jupiter. Giant protoplanets with masses of 5 M_Jupiter or larger are found to be too hot for grain sedimentation to form a silicate core. Smaller protoplanets are cold enough to allow grain settling and core formation. Read More

The theoretical description of transport in a wide class of novel materials is based upon quantum percolation and related random resistor network (RRN) models. We examine the localization properties of electronic states of diverse two-dimensional quantum percolation models using exact diagonalization in combination with kernel polynomial expansion techniques. Employing the local distribution approach we determine the arithmetically and geometrically averaged densities of states in order to distinguish extended, current carrying states from localized ones. Read More

The existence of a quantum percolation threshold p_q<1 in the 2D quantum site-percolation problem has been a controversial issue for a long time. By means of a highly efficient Chebyshev expansion technique we investigate numerically the time evolution of particle states on finite disordered square lattices with system sizes not reachable up to now. After a careful finite-size scaling, our results for the particle's recurrence probability and the distribution function of the local particle density give evidence that indeed extended states exist in the 2D percolation model for p<1. Read More

Using our recently developed Chebyshev expansion technique for finite-temperature dynamical correlation functions we numerically study the AC conductivity $\sigma(\omega)$ of the Anderson model on large cubic clusters of up to $100^3$ sites. Extending previous results we focus on the role of the boundary conditions and check the consistency of the DC limit, $\omega\to 0$, by comparing with direct conductance calculations based on a Greens function approach in a Landauer B\"uttiker type setup. Read More

We present a detailed study of the quantum site percolation problem on simple cubic lattices, thereby focussing on the statistics of the local density of states and the spatial structure of the single particle wavefunctions. Using the Kernel Polynomial Method we refine previous studies of the metal-insulator transition and demonstrate the non-monotonic energy dependence of the quantum percolation threshold. Remarkably, the data indicates a ``fragmentation'' of the spectrum into extended and localised states. Read More

We show that in the one-dimensional (1D) Anderson model long-range correlations within the sequence of on-site potentials may lead to a region of extended states in the vicinity of the band centre, i.e., to a correlation-induced insulator-metal transition. Read More

Taking into account that a proper description of disordered systems should focus on distribution functions, the authors develop a powerful numerical scheme for the determination of the probability distribution of the local density of states (LDOS), which is based on a Chebyshev expansion with kernel polynomial refinement and allows the study of large finite clusters (up to $100^3$). For the three-dimensional Anderson model it is demonstrated that the distribution of the LDOS shows a significant change at the disorder induced delocalisation-localisation transition. Consequently, the so-called typical density of states, defined as the geometric mean of the LDOS, emerges as a natural order parameter. Read More