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Gang Chen
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Gang Chen

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Physics - Materials Science (17)
Physics - Strongly Correlated Electrons (10)
Physics - Mesoscopic Systems and Quantum Hall Effect (9)
High Energy Physics - Phenomenology (7)
High Energy Physics - Theory (5)
Quantum Physics (4)
Computer Science - Databases (3)
Physics - Superconductivity (3)
Physics - Optics (3)
Computer Science - Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (2)
Mathematics - Mathematical Physics (2)
Mathematical Physics (2)
Quantitative Biology - Quantitative Methods (2)
Computer Science - Distributed; Parallel; and Cluster Computing (2)
Statistics - Applications (2)
Physics - Chemical Physics (1)
Mathematics - Combinatorics (1)
Nuclear Theory (1)
Computer Science - Other (1)
Computer Science - Cryptography and Security (1)
Computer Science - Learning (1)
Physics - Atomic Physics (1)
Computer Science - Networking and Internet Architecture (1)
Quantitative Biology - Neurons and Cognition (1)
Computer Science - Robotics (1)

Publications Authored By Gang Chen

Blockchain technologies are taking the world by storm. Public blockchains, such as Bitcoin and Ethereum, enable secure peer-to-peer applications like crypto-currency or smart contracts. Their security and performance are well studied. Read More

We study an insulator-metal transition in a ternary chalcogenide glass (GeSe$_3$)$_{1-x}$Ag$_x$ for $x$=0.15 and 0.25. Read More

Continuing the recent proposal of the spinon Fermi surface U(1) spin liquid state for YbMgGaO$_4$ in Yao-Dong Li, et al, arXiv:1612.03447 and Yao Shen, et al, Nature 2016, we explore the experimental consequences of the external magnetic fields on this exotic state. Specifically, we focus on the weak field regime where the spin liquid state is preserved and the fractionalized spinon excitations remain to be a good description of the magnetic excitations. Read More

It is essential for the cellular network operators to provide cellular location services to meet the needs of their users and mobile applications. However, cellular locations, estimated by network-based methods at the server-side, bear with {\it high spatial errors} and {\it arbitrary missing locations}. Moreover, auxiliary sensor data at the client-side are not available to the operators. Read More

Recent reports of inflated false positive rates (FPRs) in FMRI group analysis tools by Eklund et al. (2016) have become a large topic within (and outside) neuroimaging. They concluded that: existing parametric methods for determining statistically significant clusters had greatly inflated FPRs ("up to 70%," mainly due to the faulty assumption that the noise spatial autocorrelation function is Gaussian- shaped and stationary), calling into question potentially "countless" previous results; in contrast, nonparametric methods, such as their approach, accurately reflected nominal 5% FPRs. Read More

Recently, Eklund et al. (2016) analyzed clustering methods in standard FMRI packages: AFNI (which we maintain), FSL, and SPM [1]. They claimed: 1) false positive rates (FPRs) in traditional approaches are greatly inflated, questioning the validity of "countless published fMRI studies"; 2) nonparametric methods produce valid, but slightly conservative, FPRs; 3) a common flawed assumption is that the spatial autocorrelation function (ACF) of FMRI noise is Gaussian-shaped; and 4) a 15-year-old bug in AFNI's 3dClustSim significantly contributed to producing "particularly high" FPRs compared to other software. Read More

The paper presents a new formal way of modeling and designing reconfigurable robots, in which case the robots are allowed to reconfigure not only structurally but also functionally. We call such kind of robots "self-evolvable", which have the potential to be more flexible to be used in a wider range of tasks, in a wider range of environments, and with a wider range of users. To accommodate such a concept, i. Read More

Today's storage systems expose abstractions which are either too low-level (e.g., key-value store, raw-block store) that they require developers to re-invent the wheels, or too high-level (e. Read More

In \cite{Chen:2016fgi} we proposed a differential operator for the evaluation of the multi-dimensional residues on isolated (zero-dimensional) poles.In this paper we discuss some new insight on evaluating the (generalized) Cachazo-He-Yuan (CHY) forms of the scattering amplitudes using this differential operator. We introduce a tableau representation for the coefficients appearing in the proposed differential operator. Read More

In this paper, we study the destruction of heavy quarkonium due to the entropic force in a deformed $AdS_5$ model. The effect of the deformation parameter on the inter-distance and the entropic force are investigated. It is shown that the inter-distance increases in the presence of the deformation parameter. Read More

Motivated by the very recent proposal of topological quantum paramagnet in the diamond lattice antiferromagnet NiRh$_2$O$_4$, we propose a minimal model to describe the magnetic interaction and properties of the diamond material with the spin-one local moments. The minimal model includes the first and second neighbor Heisenberg interactions as well as a local single-ion spin anisotropy that is allowed by the spin-one nature of the local moment and the tetragonal symmetry of NiRh$_2$O$_4$ below 380K. We point out that there exists a quantum phase transition from a trivial quantum paramagnet when the single-ion spin anisotropy is dominant to the magnetic ordered states when the exchange is dominant. Read More

In this paper we construct a new type of cavity array, in each cavity of which multiple two-level atoms interact with two independent photon modes. This system can be totally governed by a two-mode Dicke-lattice model, which includes all of the counter-rotating terms and therefore works well in the ultrastrong coupling regime achieved in recent experiments. Attributed to its special atom-photon coupling scheme, this model supports a global conserved excitation and a continuous $U(1)$ symmetry, rather than the discrete $Z_{2}$ symmetry in the standard Dicke-lattice model. Read More

In this paper we analytically investigate the ground-state properties of a two-dimensional polarized degenerate Fermi gas in a high-finesse optical cavity, which is governed by a generalized Fermi-Dicke model with tunable parameters. By solving the photon-number dependent Bogoliubov-de-Gennes equation, we find rich quantum phases and phase diagrams, which depend crucially on the fermion-photon coupling strength, the fermion-fermion interaction strength, and the atomic resonant frequency (effective Zeeman field). In particular, without the fermion-fermion interaction and with a weak atomic resonant frequency, we find a mixed phase that the normal phase with two Fermi surfaces and the superradiant phase coexist, and reveal a first-order phase transition from this normal phase to the superradiant phase. Read More

Imaginary potential and entropic force represent different mechanisms for melting the heavy quarkonium. In this paper, we study the chemical potential effect on these two quantities with respect to a moving quarkonium from the AdS/CTF duality. We observe that for both mechanisms the chemical potential has the same effect: the presence of the chemical potential tends to decrease the dissociation length. Read More

We discuss the quantum simulation of symmetry-protected topological (SPT) states for interacting fermions in quasi-one-dimensional gases of alkaline-earth-like atoms such as $^{173}$Yb. Taking advantage of the separation of orbital and nuclear-spin degrees of freedom in these atoms, we consider Raman-assisted spin-orbit couplings in the clock states, which, together with the spin-exchange interactions in the clock-state manifolds, give rise to SPT states for interacting fermions. We numerically investigate the effects of bulk interactions on the topological properties of the system, characterize the interaction-induced topological phase boundaries, and map out the phase diagram. Read More

We report the single-crystal growth and the fundamental magnetic and thermodynamic properties of a rare-earth triangular lattice antiferromagnet CeCd$_3$As$_3$. In this rare-earth antiferromagnet, the Ce local moments form a perfect triangular lattice. Due to the spin-orbital-entangled nature of the Ce local moments, the compound exhibits extremely anisotropic antiferromagnetic couplings along the c direction and in the ab plane respectively. Read More

Motivated by the recent progress on the spin-orbit-coupled triangular lattice spin liquid candidate YbMgGaO4, we carry out a systematic projective symmetry group analysis and mean-field study of candidate U(1) spin liquid ground states. Due to the spin-orbital entanglement of the Yb moments, the space group symmetry operation transforms both the position and the orientation of the local moments, and hence brings different features for the projective realization of the lattice symmetries from the cases with spin-only moments. Among the eight U(1) spin liquids that we find with the fermionic parton construction, only one spin liquid state, that was proposed and analyzed in Yao Shen, et. Read More

Recognition of handwritten words continues to be an important problem in document analysis and recognition. Existing approaches extract hand-engineered features from word images--which can perform poorly with new data sets. Recently, deep learning has attracted great attention because of the ability to learn features from raw data. Read More

Visual restoration and recognition are traditionally addressed in pipeline fashion, i.e. denoising followed by classification. Read More

This study aimed to identify white matter (WM) deficits underlying the loss of consciousness in disorder of consciousness (DOC) patients using Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) and to demonstrate the potential value of DTI parameters in predicting recovery outcomes of DOC patients. With 30 DOC patients (8 comatose, 8 unresponsive wakefulness syndrome/vegetative state, and 14 minimal conscious state) and 25 patient controls, we performed group comparison of DTI parameters across 48 core WM regions of interest (ROIs) using Analysis of Covariance. Compared with controls, DOC patients had decreased Fractional anisotropy (FA) and increased diffusivities in widespread WM area. Read More

Using the AdS/CFT duality, we study the destruction of a rotating heavy quarkonium due to the entropice force in $\mathcal{N}=4$ SYM theory and a confining YM theory. It is shown that in both theories increasing the angular velocity leads to decreasing the entropic force. This result implies that the rotating quarkonium dissociates harder than the static case. Read More

It is well known that the efficiency of a good thermoelectric material should be optimized with respect to doping concentration. However, much less attention has been paid to the optimization of the dopant's energy level. Thermoelectric materials doped with shallow levels may experience a dramatic reduction in their figures of merit at high temperatures due to the excitation of minority carriers that reduces the Seebeck coefficient and increases bipolar heat conduction. Read More

We describe recurrent neural networks (RNNs), which have attracted great attention on sequential tasks, such as handwriting recognition, speech recognition and image to text. However, compared to general feedforward neural networks, RNNs have feedback loops, which makes it a little hard to understand the backpropagation step. Thus, we focus on basics, especially the error backpropagation to compute gradients with respect to model parameters. Read More

Superlattices are promising low-dimensional nanomaterials for thermoelectric technology that is capable of directly converting low-grade heat energy to useful electrical power. In this work, the thermal conductivities of GaAs/Ge superlattice nanostructures were investigated systematically in relation to their morphologies and interfaces. Thermal conductivities were measured using ultrafast time-domain thermoreflectance and were found to decrease with increasing interface densities, consistent with our understanding of microscopic phonon transport in the particle regime. Read More

Studying thermal transport at the nanoscale poses formidable experimental challenges due both to the physics of the measurement process and to the issues of accuracy and reproducibility. The laser-induced transient thermal grating (TTG) technique permits non-contact measurements on nanostructured samples without a need for metal heaters or any other extraneous structures, offering the advantage of inherently high absolute accuracy. We present a review of recent studies of thermal transport in nanoscale silicon membranes using the TTG technique. Read More

We propose a differential operator for computing the residues associated with a class of meromorphic $n$-forms that frequently appear in the Cachazo-He-Yuan form of the scattering amplitudes. This differential operator is conjectured to be uniquely determined by the local duality theorem and the intersection number of the divisors in the $n$-form. We use the operator to evaluate the tree-level amplitude of $\phi^3$ theory and the one-loop integrand of Yang-Mills theory from their CHY forms. Read More

We investigate steady-state properties of a two-dimensional incoherent-pumped dissipative Bose-Hubbard model, which describes a photon square lattice. This incoherent pumping exhibits an important environment-induced higher-order fluctuation effect, which induces a strong competition between the driven-dissipative channel, the photon-photon interaction, and the photon hopping in multi-photon processes. This new competition gives rise to a spontaneous breaking of the U(1) symmetry of system. Read More

We investigate relations among tree-level off-shell currents in nonlinear sigma model. Under Cayley parametrization, we propose and prove a general revised BCJ relation for even-point currents. Unlike the on-shell BCJ relation, the off-shell one behaves quite differently from Yang-Mills theory although the algebraic structure is the same. Read More

It is a fundamental postulate that quasiparticles in 3D space obey either Bosonic or Fermionic statistics, satisfying either canonical commutation or anti-commutation relation. However, under certain constraints, such as the 2D dimensional constraint, canonical quantization algebra is allowed to break down, and quasiparticles can obey other statistics, such as anyonic statistics. In this study, we show that dislons- the quasiparticles in 3D due to quantized displacement field of a dislocation- can also obey neither Bosonic nor Fermionic statistics due to the topological constraint of the dislocation. Read More

Motivated by the recent development in strong spin-orbit-coupled materials, we consider the dipole-octupole doublets on the triangular lattice. We propose the most general interaction between these unusual local moments. Due to the spin-orbit entanglement and the special form of its wavefunction, the dipole-octupole doublet has a rather peculiar property under the lattice symmetry operation. Read More

Motivated by the recent experiments on the triangular lattice spin liquid YbMgGaO$_4$, we explore the effect of spin-orbit coupling on the effective-spin correlation of the Yb local moments. We point out the anisotropic interaction between the effective-spins on the nearest neighbor bonds is sufficient to reproduce the spin-wave dispersion of the fully polarized state in the presence of strong magnetic field normal to the triangular plane. We further evaluate the effective-spin correlation within the mean-field spherical approximation. Read More

Metal nanoantennas supporting localized surface plasmon resonances have become an indispensable tool in bio(chemical) sensing and nanoscale imaging applications. The high plasmon-enhanced electric field intensity in the visible or near-IR range that enables the above applications may also cause local heating of nanoantennas. We present a design of hybrid optical-thermal antennas that simultaneously enable intensity enhancement at the operating wavelength in the visible and nanoscale local temperature control. Read More

Silicon has been long known as a poor light emitter due to its indirect band gap and strong phonon-assisted decay of the excited states. Nevertheless, we have revealed efficient quasi-monochromatic photoluminescence at 368 nm from bulk silicon in the near-violet spectral range of the interband transition SiE{\Gamma}1 even at room temperature. Optical and electron spectroscopy experiments showed a clear relation of the emission to a surface plasmon polariton (SPP) located on the SiO/Si interface. Read More

We construct a tight-binding model realizing one pair of Weyl nodes and three distinct Weyl semimetals. In the type-I (type-II) Weyl semimetal, both nodes belong to type-I (type-II) Weyl nodes. In addition, there exists a novel type, dubbed "hybrid Weyl semimetal", in which one Weyl node is of type-I while the other is of type-II. Read More

Motivated by the experiments on the rare-earth double perovskites, we propose a generalized Kitaev-Heisenberg model to describe the generic interaction between the spin-orbit-entangled Kramers' doublets of the rare-earth moments. We carry out a systematic analysis of the mean-field phase diagram of this new model. In the phase diagram, there exist large regions with a continuous U(1) or O(3) degeneracy. Read More

Using the AdS/CFT correspondence, we study the heavy quark potential and the jet quenching parameter in the near horizon limit of D3-D(-1) background. The results are compared with those of conformal cases. It is shown that the presence of instantons tends to suppress the heavy quark potential and enhance the jet quenching parameter. Read More

Quantum spin liquid (QSL) is an exotic quantum state of matter in which spins are highly entangled and remain disordered down to zero temperature. In addition to its relevance to high-temperature superconductivity and quantum-information applications, experimental identification of this new state of matter in its own right is of fundamental importance for our understanding of quantum matter. Theoretical studies have proposed various QSL ground states, most of which are characterized by exotic spin excitations with fractional quantum numbers (termed `spinon'). Read More

Symmetry plays a fundamental role in our understanding of both conventional symmetry breaking phases and the more exotic quantum and topological phases of matter. We explore the experimental signatures of symmetry enriched U(1) quantum spin liquids (QSLs) on the pyrochlore lattice. We point out that the Ce local moment of the newly discovered pyrochlore QSL candidate Ce$_2$Sn$_2$O$_7$, is a dipole-octupole doublet. Read More

Let X be a coherent configuration associated with a transitive group G. In terms of the intersection numbers of X, a necessary condition for the point stabilizer of G to be a TI-subgroup, is established. Furthermore, under this condition, X is determined up to isomorphism by the intersection numbers. Read More

A p-n junction maintained at above ambient temperature can work as a heat engine, converting some of the supplied heat into electricity and rejecting entropy by interband emission. Such thermoradiative cells have potential to harvest low-grade heat into electricity. By analyzing the entropy content of different spectral components of thermal radiation, we identify an approach to increase the efficiency of thermoradiative cells via spectrally selecting long-wavelength photons for radiative exchange. Read More

We present a first-principles framework to investigate the electron scattering channels and transport properties for polar material by combining the exact solution of linearized electron-phonon (e-ph) Boltzmann transport equation in its integral-differential form associated with the e-ph coupling matrices obtained from polar Wannier interpolation scheme. No ad hoc parameter is required throughout this calculation, and GaAs, a well-studied polar material, is used as an example to demonstrate this method. In this work, the long-range and short-range contributions as well as the intravalley and intervalley transitions in the e-ph interactions (EPIs) have been quantitatively addressed. Read More

We used the parton and hadron cascade (PACIAE) model and the dynamically constrained phase-space coalescence (DCPC) model to investigate the production of (anti)hypertriton and light (anti)nuclei generated by 0-10% centrality 12C+12C, 24Mg+24Mg, 40Ca+40Ca and 64Cu+64Cu collisions at \sqrt{s_{\rm{NN}}} = 200 GeV with |y| < 1.5 and pT < 5. We studied the yield ratios of antiparticle to particle and the rapidity distributions of the different (anti)nuclei, and found that the amount of antimatter produced is significantly lower than that of the corresponding particles, the results of theoretical model are well consistent with PHOBOS data. Read More

The phonon Boltzmann transport equation (BTE) is widely utilized to study non-diffusive thermal transport. We find a solution of the BTE in the thin film transient thermal grating (TTG) experimental geometry by using a recently developed variational approach with a trial solution supplied by the Fourier heat conduction equation. We obtain an analytical expression for the thermal decay rate that shows excellent agreement with Monte Carlo simulations. Read More

Despite the long history of dislocation-phonon interaction studies, there are many problems that have not been fully resolved during this development. These include an incompatibility between a perturbative approach and the long-range nature of a dislocation, the relation between static and dynamic scattering, and the nature of dislocation-phonon resonance. Here by introducing a fully quantized dislocation field, the "dislon"[1], a phonon is renormalized as a quasi-phonon, with shifted quasi-phonon energy, and accompanied by a finite quasi-phonon lifetime that is reducible to classical results. Read More

We consider a one-dimensional spin-orbit-coupled nanowire quantum dot, driven by external electric and magnetic fields, and theoretically formulate an electric mechanism to interfere its electron orbits. Owing to the existence of spin-orbit coupling and a pulsed electric field, different spin-orbit states are shown to interfere with each other, generating intriguing interference-resonant patterns. We also reveal that an in-plane magnetic field does not affect the strength interval of any neighboring resonant peaks, but contributes a weak shift of each peak, which is sensitive to the direction of the magnetic field. Read More

This paper studies real-time scheduling of mixed-criticality systems where low-criticality tasks are still guaranteed some service in the high-criticality mode, with reduced execution budgets. First, we present a utilization-based schedulability test for such systems under EDF-VD scheduling. Second, we quantify the suboptimality of EDF-VD (with our test condition) in terms of speedup factors. Read More

We discuss the state-of-the-art and remaining challenges in the fundamental understanding and technology development for controlling light-matter interactions in nanophotonic environments in and away from thermal equilibrium. The topics covered range from the basics of the thermodynamics of light emission and absorption, to applications in solar-thermal energy generation, thermophotovoltaics, optical refrigeration, personalized cooling technologies, development of coherent incandescent light sources, and spinoptics. Read More

The properties of thermal radiation exchange between hot and cold objects can be strongly modified if they interact in the near field where electromagnetic coupling occurs across gaps narrower than the dominant wavelength of thermal radiation. Using a rigorous fluctuational electrodynamics approach, we predict that ultra-thin films of plasmonic materials can be used to dramatically enhance near-field heat transfer. The total spectrally integrated film-to-film heat transfer is over an order of magnitude larger than between the same materials in bulk form and also exceeds the levels achievable with polar dielectrics such as SiC. Read More

In this paper, we investigate the behavior of the heavy quark potential in the backgrounds with hyperscaling violation. The metrics are covariant under a generalized Lifshitz scaling symmetry with the dynamical Lifshitz parameter $z$ and hyperscaling violation exponent $\theta$. We calculate the potential for a certain range of $z$ and $\theta$ and discuss how it changes in the presence of the two parameters. Read More

Using the AdS/CFT correspondence, we investigate the Schwinger effect in a confining D3-brane background with chemical potential. The potential between a test particle pair on the D3-brane in an external electric field is obtained. The critical field $E_c$ in this case is calculated. Read More