G. W. Miller - University of St Andrews

G. W. Miller
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G. W. Miller
University of St Andrews
United Kingdom

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Nuclear Theory (30)
High Energy Physics - Phenomenology (25)
Nuclear Experiment (23)
Computer Science - Data Structures and Algorithms (6)
Physics - Atomic Physics (4)
Earth and Planetary Astrophysics (3)
High Energy Physics - Experiment (3)
Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (2)
Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (2)
High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (2)
Physics - Superconductivity (2)
General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (2)
High Energy Physics - Theory (2)
Computer Science - Computational Geometry (1)
Computer Science - Discrete Mathematics (1)
Mathematics - Optimization and Control (1)
Physics - Plasma Physics (1)
Physics - Atomic and Molecular Clusters (1)
Astrophysics of Galaxies (1)

Publications Authored By G. W. Miller

Beam dump experiments have been used to search for new particles, $\phi$, with null results interpreted in terms of limits on masses $m_\phi$ and coupling constants $\epsilon$. However these limits have been obtained by using approximations [including the Weizs\"{a}cker-Williams (WW) approximation] or Monte-Carlo simulations. We display methods to obtain the cross section and the resulting particle production rates without using approximations on the phase space integral or Monte-Carlo simulations. Read More

A long-term energy option that is just approaching the horizon after decades of struggle, is fusion. Recent developments allow us to apply techniques from spin physics to advance its viability. The cross section for the primary fusion fuel in a tokamak reactor, D+T=>alpha+n, would be increased by a factor of 1. Read More

Recently the experimentalists in [PRL 116, 042501 (2016)] announced observing an unexpected enhancement of the electron-positron pair production signal in one of the Beryllium-8 nuclear transitions. The following studies have been focused on possible explanations based on introducing new types of particle. In this work, we improve the nuclear physics modeling of the reaction by studying the pair emission anisotropy and the interferences between different multipoles in an effective field theory inspired framework, and examine their possible relevance to the anomaly. Read More

The momentum density, $n(k)$ of interacting many-body Fermionic systems is studied (for $k>k_F)$ using examples of several well-known two-body interaction models. This work shows that $n(k)$ can not be approximated by a zero-range model for momenta $k$ greater than about $1/(a r_e^2)^{1/3}$, where $a$ is the scattering length, and $r_e$ the effective range. However, if the scattering length is large and one includes the effects of a fixed value of $r_e\ne0$, $n(k)$ is universal for momenta $k$ up to about $2/r_e$. Read More

This article reviews our current understanding of how the internal quark structure of a nucleon bound in nuclei differs from that of a free nucleon. We focus on the interpretation of measurements of the EMC effect for valence quarks, a reduction in the Deep Inelastic Scattering (DIS) cross-section ratios for nuclei relative to deuterium, and its possible connection to nucleon-nucleon Short-Range Correlations (SRC) in nuclei. Our review and new analysis (involving the amplitudes of non-nucleonic configurations in the nucleus) of the available experimental and theoretical evidence shows that there is a phenomenological relation between the EMC effect and the effects of SRC that is not an accident. Read More

Beam dump experiments have been used to search for new particles with null results interpreted in terms of limits on masses $m_\phi$ and coupling constants $\epsilon$. However these limits have been obtained by using approximations [including the Weizs\"{a}cker-Williams (WW) approximation] or Monte-Carlo simulations. We display methods, using a new scalar boson as an example, to obtain the cross section and the resulting particle production numbers without using approximations or Monte-Carlo simulations. Read More

We study the performance of linear solvers for graph Laplacians based on the combinatorial cycle adjustment methodology proposed by [Kelner-Orecchia-Sidford-Zhu STOC-13]. The approach finds a dual flow solution to this linear system through a sequence of flow adjustments along cycles. We study both data structure oriented and recursive methods for handling these adjustments. Read More

${\bf Background}$ Knowledge of nucleon structure is today ever more of a precision science, with heightened theoretical and experimental activity expected in coming years. At the same time, a persistent gap lingers between theoretical approaches grounded in Euclidean methods (e.g. Read More

We present the discovery of three new transiting giant planets, first detected with the WASP telescopes, and establish their planetary nature with follow up spectroscopy and ground-based photometric lightcurves. WASP-92 is an F7 star, with a moderately inflated planet orbiting with a period of 2.17 days, which has $R_p = 1. Read More

In this paper we provide faster algorithms for solving the geometric median problem: given $n$ points in $\mathbb{R}^{d}$ compute a point that minimizes the sum of Euclidean distances to the points. This is one of the oldest non-trivial problems in computational geometry yet despite an abundance of research the previous fastest algorithms for computing a $(1+\epsilon)$-approximate geometric median were $O(d\cdot n^{4/3}\epsilon^{-8/3})$ by Chin et. al, $\tilde{O}(d\exp{\epsilon^{-4}\log\epsilon^{-1}})$ by Badoiu et. Read More

A new scalar boson which couples to the muon and proton can simultaneously solve the proton radius puzzle and the muon anomalous magnetic moment discrepancy. Using a variety of measurements, we constrain the mass of this scalar and its couplings to the electron, muon, neutron, and proton. Making no assumptions about the underlying model, these constraints and the requirement that it solve both problems limit the mass of the scalar to between about 100 keV and 100 MeV. Read More

We introduce the notion of balance for directed graphs: a weighted directed graph is $\alpha$-balanced if for every cut $S \subseteq V$, the total weight of edges going from $S$ to $V\setminus S$ is within factor $\alpha$ of the total weight of edges going from $V\setminus S$ to $S$. Several important families of graphs are nearly balanced, in particular, Eulerian graphs (with $\alpha = 1$) and residual graphs of $(1+\epsilon)$-approximate undirected maximum flows (with $\alpha=O(1/\epsilon)$). We use the notion of balance to give a more fine-grained understanding of several well-studied routing questions that are considerably harder in directed graphs. Read More

Background The intense current experimental interest in studying the structure of the deuteron and using it to enable accurate studies of neutron structure motivate us to examine the four-dimensional space-time nature of the nuclear wave function, and the various approximations used to reduce it to an object that depends only on three spatial variables. Purpose: The aim is to determine if the ability to understand and analyze measured experimental cross sections is compromised by making the reduction from four to three dimensions. Method: Simple, exactly-calculable, covariant models of a bound-state wave state wave function (a scalar boson made of two constituent-scalar bosons) with parameters chosen to represent a deuteron are used to investigate the accuracy of using different approximations to the nuclear wave function to compute the quasi-elastic scattering cross section. Read More

The synthesis and crystallographic, thermodynamic and transport properties of single crystalline Rh$_{9}$In$_4$S$_4$ were studied. The resistivity, magnetization and specific heat measurements all clearly indicate bulk superconductivity with a critical temperature, $T_{c}\sim$ 2.25 K. Read More

We present a simple spectral approach to the well-studied constrained clustering problem. It captures constrained clustering as a generalized eigenvalue problem with graph Laplacians. The algorithm works in nearly-linear time and provides concrete guarantees for the quality of the clusters, at least for the case of 2-way partitioning. Read More

Recent hydrodynamical simulations of supernova (SN) evolution have highlighted the importance of a thorough control over microscopic physics responsible for such internal processes as neutrino heating. In particular, it has been suggested that modifications to the neutrino-nucleon elastic cross section can potentially play a crucial role in producing successful supernova explosions. One possible source of such corrections can be found in a nonzero value for the nucleon's strange helicity content $\Delta s$. Read More

In high energy collisions of heavy-ions, experimental findings of collective flow are customarily associated with the presence of a thermalized medium expanding according to the laws of hydrodynamics. Recently, the ATLAS, CMS and ALICE experiments found signals of the same type and magnitude in ultrarelativistic proton-proton collisions. In this study, the state-of-the-art hydrodynamic model SONIC is used to simulate the systems created in p+p collisions. Read More

We derive the cross-section for exclusive vector meson production in high energy deeply inelastic scattering off a deuteron target that disintegrates into a proton and a neutron carrying large relative momentum in the final state. This cross-section can be expressed in terms of a novel gluon Transition Generalized Parton Distribution (T-GPD); the hard scale in the final state makes the T-GPD sensitive to the short distance nucleon-nucleon interaction. We perform a toy model computation of this process in a perturbative framework and discuss the time scales that allow the separation of initial and final state dynamics in the T-GPD. Read More

We present optical observations of supernova SN 2014C, which underwent an unprecedented slow metamorphosis from H-poor type Ib to H-rich type IIn over the course of one year. The observed spectroscopic evolution is consistent with the supernova having exploded in a cavity before encountering a massive shell of the progenitor star's stripped hydrogen envelope. Possible origins for the circumstellar shell include a brief Wolf-Rayet fast wind phase that overtook a slower red supergiant wind, eruptive ejection, or confinement of circumstellar material by external influences of neighboring stars. Read More

We compute the isospin-asymmetry dependence of microscopic optical model potentials from realistic chiral two- and three-body interactions over a range of resolution scales $\Lambda \simeq 400-500$\,MeV. We show that at moderate projectile energies, $E_{\rm inv} = 110 - 200$\,MeV, the real isovector part of the optical potential changes sign, a phenomenon referred to as isospin inversion. We also extract the strength and energy dependence of the imaginary isovector optical potential and find no evidence for an analogous phenomenon over the range of energies, $E \leq 200$\,MeV, considered in the present work. Read More

We examine how corrections to $S$-state energy levels, $ E_{nS}$, in hydrogenic atoms due to the finite proton size are affected by moments of the proton charge distribution. The corrections to $E_{nS}$ are computed moment by moment. The results demonstrate that the next-to-leading order term in the expansion is of order $r_p / a_B $ times the size of the leading order $ \langle r_p^2 \rangle $ term. Read More

Lepton-nucleon elastic scattering, using the one-photon and one-scalar-boson exchange mechanisms considering all possible polarizations, is used to study searches for a new scalar boson and suggest new measurements of the nucleon form factors. A new light scalar boson, which feebly couples to leptons and nucleons, may account for the proton radius and muon $g-2$ puzzles. We show that the scalar boson produces relatively large effects in certain kinematic region when using sufficient control of lepton and nucleon spin polarization. Read More

We argue that the reaction mechanism for the coherent pion production is not known with sufficient accuracy to determine the neutron radius of 208Pb to the claimed precision of 0.03 fm. Read More

Single crystals of Bi$_{2} $Rh$ _{3}$S$ _{2}$ and Bi$_{2} $Rh$ _{3.5}$S$ _{2}$ were synthesized by solution growth and the crystal structures, thermodynamic and transport properties of both compounds were studied. In the case of Bi$_{2} $Rh$ _{3}$S$ _{2}$, a structural first-order transition at around 165 K is identified by single crystal diffraction experiments, with clear signatures visible in resistivity, magnetization and specific heat data. Read More

Several researchers proposed using non-Euclidean metrics on point sets in Euclidean space for clustering noisy data. Almost always, a distance function is desired that recognizes the closeness of the points in the same cluster, even if the Euclidean cluster diameter is large. Therefore, it is preferred to assign smaller costs to the paths that stay close to the input points. Read More

The effects of charge symmetry breaking in nucleon electromagnetic form factors on parity- violating elastic electron-12C scattering is studied, and found to be much smaller than other known effects. The analysis of a planned experiment is discussed. Read More

Determining the nonperturbative $s\bar{s}$ content of the nucleon has attracted considerable interest and been the subject of numerous experimental searches. These measurements used a variety of reactions and place important limits on the vector form factors observed in parity-violating (PV) elastic scattering and the parton distributions determined by deep inelastic scattering (DIS). In spite of this progress, attempts to relate information obtained from elastic and DIS experiments have been sparse. Read More

The $b_1$ structure function is an observable feature of a spin-1 system sensitive to non-nucleonic components of the target nuclear wave function. A simple model for hidden-color, six-quark configurations is proposed and found to give substantial contributions for values of $ x>0.2$. Read More

The basic facts of charge symmetry breaking (CSB) phenomena are reviewed. The relevance of CSB to parity-violating electron-proton scattering experiments that seek to extract strange elastic form factors is discussed. Experimentalists have stated and written that the current uncertainty in our knowledge of CSB limits the ability to push further on the strange form factors. Read More

The generalized conductance $\phi(G,H)$ between two graphs $G$ and $H$ on the same vertex set $V$ is defined as the ratio $$ \phi(G,H) = \min_{S\subseteq V} \frac{cap_G(S,\bar{S})}{ cap_H(S,\bar{S})}, $$ where $cap_G(S,\bar{S})$ is the total weight of the edges crossing from $S$ to $\bar{S}=V-S$. We show that the minimum generalized eigenvalue $\lambda(L_G,L_H)$ of the pair of Laplacians $L_G$ and $L_H$ satisfies $$ \lambda(L_G,L_H) \geq \phi(G,H) \phi(G)/8, $$ where $\phi(G)$ is the usual conductance of $G$. A generalized cut that meets this bound can be obtained from the generalized eigenvector corresponding to $\lambda(L_G,L_H)$. Read More

The shape of the electron is studied using lowest-order perturbation theory. Quantities used to probe the structure of the proton: form factors, generalized parton distributions, transverse densities, Wigner distributions and the angular momentum content are computed for the electron-photon component of the electron wave function. The influence of longitudinally polarized photons, demanded by the need for infrared regularization via a non-zero photon mass, is included. Read More

Background: The high momentum distribution of atoms in two spin-state ultra-cold atomic gases with strong short-range interactions between atoms with different spins, which can be described using Tan's contact, are dominated by short range pairs of different fermions and decreases as $k^{-4}$. In atomic nuclei the momentum distribution of nucleons above the Fermi momentum ($k>k_F \approx 250$ Mev/c) is also dominated by short rangecorrelated different-fermion (neutron-proton) pairs. Purpose: Compare high-momentum unlike-fermion momentum distributions in atomic and nuclear systems. Read More

The upcoming Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL) at Michigan State University has reemphasized the importance of accurate modeling of low energy nucleus-nucleus scattering. Such calculations have been simplified by using the eikonal approximation. As a high energy approximation, however, its accuracy suffers for the medium energy beams that are of current experimental interest. Read More

Traditional derivations of general relativity from the graviton degrees of freedom assume space-time Lorentz covariance as an axiom. In this essay, we survey recent evidence that general relativity is the unique spatially-covariant effective field theory of the transverse, traceless graviton degrees of freedom. The Lorentz covariance of general relativity, having not been assumed in our analysis, is thus plausibly interpreted as an accidental or emergent symmetry of the gravitational sector. Read More

We use the world data on the pion form factor for space-like kinematics and a technique previously used to extract the proton transverse densities to extract the transverse pion charge density and its uncertainty due the incomplete knowledge of the pion form factor at large values of Q2 and the experimental uncertainties. The pion charge density at small values of impact parameter b<0.1 fm is dominated by this incompleteness error while the range between 0. Read More

We present Rossiter-McLaughlin observations of WASP-13b and WASP-32b and determine the sky-projected angle between the normal of the planetary orbit and the stellar rotation axis ($\lambda$). WASP-13b and WASP-32b both have prograde orbits and are consistent with alignment with measured sky-projected angles of $\lambda={8^{\circ}}^{+13}_{-12}$ and $\lambda={-2^{\circ}}^{+17}_{-19}$, respectively. Both WASP-13 and WASP-32 have $T_{\mathrm{eff}}<6250$K and therefore these systems support the general trend that aligned planetary systems are preferentially found orbiting cool host stars. Read More

Charge symmetry breaking contributions to the proton's neutral weak form factors must be understood in order for future measurements of parity violating electron-proton scattering to be definitively interpreted as evidence of proton strangeness. We calculate these charge symmetry breaking form factor contributions using chiral perturbation theory with resonance saturation estimates for unknown low-energy constants. The uncertainty of the leading-order resonance saturation estimates is reduced by incorporating nuclear physics constraints. Read More

We give a generalized definition of stretch that simplifies the efficient construction of low-stretch embeddings suitable for graph algorithms. The generalization, based on discounting highly stretched edges by taking their $p$-th power for some $0 < p < 1$, is directly related to performances of existing algorithms. This discounting of high-stretch edges allows us to treat many classes of edges with coarser granularity. Read More

The b1 structure function is an observable feature of a spin-1 system sensitive to non-nucleonic components of the target nuclear wave function. The contributions of exchanged pions in the deuteron are estimated and found to be of measurable size for small values of x. A simple model for a hidden-color, six-quark configurations (with~ 0. Read More

Affiliations: 1VU Amsterdam, 2INFN-Padova, 3SLAC, Stanford U, 4Jan Kochanowski U, 5SMU, 6Inst Tecnologico de Aeronautica, 7U Warsaw, 8U Minn-Duluth, 9NCSU, 10Lebedev Physical Inst, 11U Delhi, 12U Blaise Pascal, 13Jefferson Lab, 14U Washington, 15U Valencia, 16U Iowa, 17Ruhr U Bochum, 18Iowa State, 19Chalmers, 20Plymouth

An outstanding goal of physics is to find solutions that describe hadrons in the theory of strong interactions, Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). For this goal, the light-front Hamiltonian formulation of QCD (LFQCD) is a complementary approach to the well-established lattice gauge method. LFQCD offers access to the hadrons' nonperturbative quark and gluon amplitudes, which are directly testable in experiments at existing and future facilities. Read More

We use exponential start time clustering to design faster and more work-efficient parallel graph algorithms involving distances. Previous algorithms usually rely on graph decomposition routines with strict restrictions on the diameters of the decomposed pieces. We weaken these bounds in favor of stronger local probabilistic guarantees. Read More

I review the effects of charge symmetry breaking CSB on electromagnetic form factors and how that influences extraction of information regarding nucleon strangeness content and the weak mixing angle. It seems that CSB effects are very modest and should not impact the analysis of experiments. Read More

We report Green's function Monte Carlo calculations of isospin-mixing (IM) matrix elements for the 2+, 1+, and 3+ T=0,1 pairs of states at 16--19 MeV excitation in 8Be. The realistic Argonne v18 (AV18) two-nucleon and Illinois-7 three-nucleon potentials are used to generate the nuclear wave functions. Contributions from the full electromagnetic interaction and strong class III charge-symmetry-breaking (CSB) components of the AV18 potential are evaluated. Read More

We show an improved parallel algorithm for decomposing an undirected unweighted graph into small diameter pieces with a small fraction of the edges in between. These decompositions form critical subroutines in a number of graph algorithms. Our algorithm builds upon the shifted shortest path approach introduced in [Blelloch, Gupta, Koutis, Miller, Peng, Tangwongsan, SPAA 2011]. Read More

Thirty years ago, high-energy muons at CERN revealed the first hints of an effect that puzzles experimentalists and theorists alike to this day. Read More

We provide evidence that general relativity is the unique spatially covariant effective field theory of the transverse, traceless graviton degrees of freedom. The Lorentz covariance of general relativity, having not been assumed in our analysis, is thus plausibly interpreted as an accidental or emergent symmetry of the gravitational sector. Read More

In a recent Comment [arXiv:1206.3671] on our calculation of the pion contributions to the self-energy of the nucleon [arXiv:1201.4184], Ji, Melnitchouk and Thomas (JMT) correctly state that we obtain the same result as given by the pseudovector (PV) theory. Read More