G. Senjanovic - ICTP

G. Senjanovic
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G. Senjanovic

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High Energy Physics - Phenomenology (50)
High Energy Physics - Experiment (18)
Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (3)
High Energy Physics - Theory (2)
Physics - History of Physics (1)

Publications Authored By G. Senjanovic

We perform an in-depth analysis of the Higgs sector in the Minimal Left-Right Symmetric Model and compute the scalar mass spectrum and associated mixings, offering simple physical and symmetry arguments in support of our findings. We identify the tree-level quartic and cubic potential couplings in terms of the physical states and compute the quantum corrections for the latter ones. The deviations from the Standard Model prediction of the cubic Higgs doublet coupling are considered. Read More

We present a novel way of testing the seesaw origin of neutrino mass in the context of the minimal Left-Right Symmetric Model. It is based on the connection between the leptonic interactions of the doubly charged scalars, whose presence is at the core of the seesaw mechanism, and the neutrino Dirac Yukawa couplings which govern, among other processes, the right-handed neutrino decays into left-handed charged leptons. We prove that any physical quantity depending on these couplings is a function of the hermitian part only which can significantly simplify their future experimental determination. Read More

In collaboration with Jogesh Pati, Abdus Salam challenged the chiral gauge nature of the Standard Model by paving the road towards the Left-Right symmetric electro-weak theory. I describe here the logical and historical construction of this theory, by emphasising the pioneering and key role it played for neutrino mass. I show that it is a self-contained and predictive model with the Higgs origin of Majorana neutrino mass, in complete analogy with the SM situation regarding charged fermions. Read More


This paper describes the physics case for a new fixed target facility at CERN SPS. The SHiP (Search for Hidden Particles) experiment is intended to hunt for new physics in the largely unexplored domain of very weakly interacting particles with masses below the Fermi scale, inaccessible to the LHC experiments, and to study tau neutrino physics. The same proton beam setup can be used later to look for decays of tau-leptons with lepton flavour number non-conservation, $\tau\to 3\mu$ and to search for weakly-interacting sub-GeV dark matter candidates. Read More

In a recent Letter we determined analytically the right-handed quark mixing matrix in the minimal Left-Right symmetric theory with generalized Parity. We derived its explicit form as a series expansion in a small parameter that measures the departure from hermiticity of quark mass matrices. Here we analyze carefully the convergence of the series by including higher order terms and by comparing with numerical results. Read More

We give exact formulas for the right-handed analog of the CKM matrix in the minimal Left-Right symmetric theory, for the case when the Left-Right symmetry is generalized Parity as in the original version of the theory. We derive its explicit form and give a physical reason for the known and surprising fact that the right-handed mixing angles are close in value to the CKM ones, in spite of the Left-Right symmetry being badly broken in nature. We exemplify our results on the production of the right-handed charged gauge boson and the computation of the neutral K meson mass difference. Read More

Probing the origin of neutrino mass by disentangling the seesaw mechanism is one of the central issues of particle physics. We address it in the minimal left-right symmetric model and show how the knowledge of light and heavy neutrino masses and mixings suffices to determine their Dirac Yukawa couplings. This in turn allows one to make predictions for a number of high and low energy phenomena, such as decays of heavy neutrinos, neutrinoless double beta decay, electric dipole moments of charged leptons and neutrino transition moments. Read More

I review the unification of gauge couplings of strong, weak and electro-magnetic interactions. I start by recalling the history of the most important prediction of low-energy supersymmetry: the correct value of the weak mixing angle tied to a large top quark mass. I then turn to the discussion of the present day situation of the minimal supersymmetric Grand Unified Theories based on SU(5) and SO(10) groups, and I show why the minimal SU(5) is in accord with experiment. Read More

Sterile neutrinos of mass up to a few tens of TeV can saturate the present experimental bound of neutrinoless double beta decay process. Due to the updated nuclear matrix elements, the bound on mass and mixing angle is now improved by one order of magnitude. We have performed a detailed analysis of neutrinoless double beta decay for the minimal Type I seesaw scenario. Read More

We investigate the viability of having dark matter in the minimal left-right symmetric theory. We find the lightest right-handed neutrino with a mass around keV as the only viable candidate consistent with a TeV scale of left-right symmetry. In order to account for the correct relic density with such low scales, the thermal overproduction of the dark matter in the early universe is compensated by a sufficient late entropy production due to late decay of heavier right-handed neutrinos. Read More

Experiments in progress may confirm a nonzero neutrinoless double beta decay rate in conflict with the cosmological upper limit on neutrino masses and thus require new physics beyond the Standard Model. A natural candidate is the Left-Right symmetric theory, which led originally to neutrino mass and the seesaw mechanism. In the absence of cancelations of large Dirac Yukawa couplings, we show how such a scenario would require a low scale of Left-Right symmetry breaking roughly below 10 TeV, tantalizingly close to the LHC reach. Read More

In this Letter, we propose a new possible connection between dark matter relic density and baryon asymmetry of the universe. The portal between standard model sector and dark matter not only controls the relic density and detections of dark matter, but also allows the dark matter to trigger the first order electroweak phase transition. We discuss systematically possible scalar dark matter candidates, starting from a real singlet to arbitrary high representations. Read More

It has been suggested recently that in a consistent theory any Minkowski vacuum must be exactly stable. As a result, a large class of theories that in ordinary treatment would appear sufficiently long-lived, in reality make no sense. In particular, this applies to supersymmetric models in which global supersymmetry is broken in a false vacuum. Read More

In this Letter we revisit the type-II seesaw mechanism based on the addition of a weak triplet scalar to the standard model. We perform a comprehensive study of its phenomenology at the LHC energies, complete with the electroweak precision constraints. We pay special attention to the doubly-charged component, object of collider searches for a long time, and show how the experimental bound on its mass depends crucially on the particle spectrum of the theory. Read More

The experimental rate of neutrinoless double beta decay can be saturated by the exchange of virtual sterile neutrinos, that mix with the ordinary neutrinos and are heavier than 200 MeV. Interestingly, this hypothesis is subject only to marginal experimental constraints, because of the new nuclear matrix elements. This possibility is analyzed in the context of the Type I seesaw model, performing also exploratory investigations of the implications for heavy neutrino mass spectra, rare decays of mesons as well as neutrino-decay search, LHC, and lepton flavor violation. Read More

Ever since the Majorana classic work, the nature of neutrino has been one of the central questions of the weak interaction physics. If neutrino is its own antiparticle, the immediate consequence is lepton number violation through the neutrinoless double beta decay. However, colliders such as the LHC offer a hope of seeing directly the same phenomenon, and moreover the Majorana nature of new particles needed to complete the Standard Model. Read More

It was shown recently that mirror fermions, naturally present in a number of directions for new physics, seem to require an inert scalar doublet in order to pass the electroweak precision tests. This provides a further motivation for considering the inert doublet as a dark matter candidate. Moreover, the presence of extra families enhances the Standard Model Higgs-nucleon coupling, which has crucial impact on the Higgs and dark matter searches. Read More

We use the early Large Hadron Collider data to set the lower limit on the scale of Left-Right symmetry, by searching for the right-handed charged gauge boson $W_R$ via the final state with two leptons and two jets, for 33/pb integrated luminosity and 7 TeV center-of-mass energy. In the absence of a signal beyond the Standard Model background, we set the bound M_WR > 1.4 TeV at 95% C. Read More

Recently, it was suggested that a large class of non-renormalizable theories may need no UV completion. By analogy with gravity where classical black holes are expected to be created in high-energy scatterings, it is conjectured that similar classical solutions, so-called classicalons, should occur. In this way the theory protects itself against non-unitarity, for instead of probing small distances at high energies one enters a classical regime. Read More

We study the possibility of the existence of extra fermion families and an extra Higgs doublet. We find that requiring the extra Higgs doublet to be inert leaves space for three extra families, allowing for mirror fermion families and a dark matter candidate at the same time. The emerging scenario is very predictive: it consists of a Standard Model Higgs boson, with mass above 400\,\GeV, heavy new quarks between 340 and 500\,\GeV, light extra neutral leptons, and an inert scalar with a mass below $M_Z$. Read More

I argue that LHC may shed light on the nature of neutrino mass through the probe of the seesaw mechanism. The smoking gun signature is lepton number violation through the production of same sign lepton pairs, a collider analogy of the neutrinoless double beta decay. I discuss this in the context of L-R symmetric theories, which led originally to neutrino mass and the seesaw mechanism. Read More

The Large Hadron Collider has a potential to probe the scale of left-right symmetry restoration and the associated lepton number violation. Moreover, it offers hope of measuring the right-handed leptonic mixing matrix. We show how this, together with constraints from lepton flavor violating processes, can be used to make predictions for neutrinoless double beta decay. Read More

The fate of R-parity is one of the central issues in the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM). Gauged $B-L$ symmetry provides a natural framework for addressing this question. Recently, it was pointed out that the minimal such theory does not need any additional Higgs if the $B-L$ breaking is achieved through the VEVs of right-handed sneutrinos, which ties the new physics scale to the scale of the MSSM. Read More

We revisit the issue of the limit on the scale of Left-Right symmetry breaking. We focus on the minimal SU(2)_L x SU(2)_R x U(1)_B-L gauge theory with the seesaw mechanism and discuss the two possibilities of defining Left-Right symmetry as parity or charge conjugation. In the commonly adopted case of parity, we perform a complete numerical study of the quark mass matrices and the associated left and right mixing matrices without any assumptions usually made in the literature about the ratio of vacuum expectation values. Read More

Grand unified theories where the neutrino mass is given by Type II seesaw have the potential to provide interesting connections between the neutrino and charged fermion sectors. We explore the possibility of having a dominant Type II seesaw contribution in supersymmetric SO(10). We show that this can be achieved in the model where symmetry breaking is triggered by 54 and 45-dimensional representations, without the need for additional fields other than those already required to have a realistic charged fermion mass spectrum. Read More

We take the MSSM as a complete theory of low energy phenomena, including neutrino masses and mixings. This immediately implies that the gravitino is the only possible dark matter candidate. We study the implications of the astrophysical experiments such as PAMELA and Fermi-LAT, on this scenario. Read More

The Large Hadron Collider presents an unprecedented opportunity to probe the realm of new physics in the TeV region and shed light on some of the core unresolved issues of particle physics. These include the nature of electroweak symmetry breaking, the origin of mass, the possible constituent of cold dark matter, new sources of CP violation needed to explain the baryon excess in the universe, the possible existence of extra gauge groups and extra matter, and importantly the path Nature chooses to resolve the hierarchy problem - is it supersymmetry or extra dimensions. Many models of new physics beyond the standard model contain a hidden sector which can be probed at the LHC. Read More

I review the theoretical and experimental status of proton decay theory and experiment. Regarding theory, I focus mostly, but not only, on grand unification. I discuss only the minimal, well established SU(5) and SO(10) models, both ordinary and supersymmetric. Read More

We study a CP and T violating triple (spin) correlation in the muon to electron conversion in nuclei in the context of the seesaw mechanism. After concluding that the results are negative for all three seesaw types, we turn to the left-right symmetric theories as the original source of seesaw. We find that in general this correlation is of order one which offers a hope of observing CP violation in lepton flavor violating processes for a L-R scale below around 10-30 TeV. Read More

It is often said that neutrino mass is a window to a new physics beyond the standard model (SM). This is certainly true if neutrinos are Majorana particles since the SM with Majorana neutrino mass is not a complete theory. The classical text-book test of neutrino Majorana mass, the neutrino-less double beta decay depends on the completion, and thus cannot probe neutrino mass. Read More

The minimal SU(5) theory augmented by the fermionic adjoint representation restores the coupling constant unification and gives realistic neutrino masses and mixing through the hybrid Type I and Type III seesaw. The crucial prediction of the theory is an SU(2) lepton triplet with the mass below TeV. We study the signature of these heavy leptons and propose the strategy to test this mechanism at the hadron and lepton colliders. Read More

This chapter of the report of the ``Flavour in the era of the LHC'' Workshop discusses the theoretical, phenomenological and experimental issues related to flavour phenomena in the charged lepton sector and in flavour-conserving CP-violating processes. We review the current experimental limits and the main theoretical models for the flavour structure of fundamental particles. We analyze the phenomenological consequences of the available data, setting constraints on explicit models beyond the Standard Model, presenting benchmarks for the discovery potential of forthcoming measurements both at the LHC and at low energy, and exploring options for possible future experiments. Read More

We have recently proposed a simple SU(5) theory with an adjoint fermionic multiplet on top of the usual minimal spectrum. This leads to the hybrid scenario of both type I and type III seesaw and it predicts the existence of the fermionic SU(2) triplet between 100 GeV and 1 TeV for a conventional GUT scale of about 10^{16} GeV, with main decays into W (Z) and leptons, correlated through Dirac Yukawa couplings, and lifetimes shorter than about 10^{-12} sec. These decays are lepton number violating and they offer an exciting signature of Delta L=2 dilepton events together with 4 jets at future pp (p\bar p) colliders. Read More

SO(10) grand unified theory seems to have all the ingredients to be a complete unified theory of quarks and leptons. I review here its minimal, possibly realistic versions, both supersymmetric and not. Read More

We study the implementation of the type III seesaw in the ordinary nonsupersymmetric SU(5) grand unified theory. This allows for an alternative definition of the minimal SU(5) model, with the inclusion of the adjoint fermionic multiplet. The main prediction of the theory is the light fermionic SU(2) triplet with mass at the electroweak scale. Read More

We study the breaking of supersymmetry and its transmission to the light states in the context of the minimal SU(5) grand unified theory, with no additional singlets. This simple theory can be taken as a prototype for a program of breaking simultaneously grand unified symmetry and supersymmetry. The main predictions are: (i) d=6 proton decay is completely negligible and d=5 is in accord with experiment, (ii) supersymmetry breaking is mainly mediated by gravity. Read More

Neutrino and charged fermion masses provide important constraints on grand unified theories. We illustrate this by focusing on a renormalizable, supersymmetric SO(10) theory proposed long ago, that recently attracted great interest in view of its minimality. We show how the nature of the light Higgs, which depends on the GUT scale fields, gets reflected on the precise predictions for fermion masses and mixings. Read More

With the advent of neutrino masses, it has become more and more acknowledged that SO(10) is a more suitable theory than SU(5): it leads naturally to small neutrino masses via the see-saw mechanism, it has a simpler and more predictive Yukawa sector. There is however a rather strong disagreement on what the minimal consistent SO(10) theory is, i.e. Read More

We discuss the ordinary, non-supersymmetric SO(10) as a theory of fermion masses and mixings. We construct two minimal versions of the Yukawa sector based on $\bar{126}_H $ and either $10_H$ or $120_H$. The latter case is of particular interest since it connects the absolute neutrino mass scale with the size of the atmospheric mixing angle $\theta_A$. Read More

The radiative see-saw mechanism of Witten generates the right-handed neutrino masses in SO(10) with the spinorial 16_H Higgs field. We study here analytically the 2nd and 3rd generations for the minimal Yukawa structure containing 10_H and 120_H Higgs representations. In the approximation of small 2nd generation masses and gauge loop domination we find the following results : (1) b-tau unification, (2) natural coexistence between large theta_l and small theta_q, (3) degenerate neutrinos. Read More

I review the profound connection between the see-saw mechanism for neutrino masses and grand unification. This connection points naturally towards SO(10) grand unified theory. The emphasis here is on the supersymmetric theory, but I also discuss salient features of its split supersymmetry version and ordinary non-supersymmetric SO(10). Read More

We revive Witten's mechanism for the radiative seesaw induced neutrino masses in SO(10) grand unified theory. We propose its extension to charged fermion masses as a possible cure for wrong tree level mass relations. We offer two simple realizations that can produce a realistic fermionic spectrum. Read More

We investigate the possibility of low-scale leptogenesis in the minimal supersymmetric standard model extended with right handed (s)neutrinos. We demonstrate that successful leptogenesis can be easily achieved at a scale as low as ~ TeV where lepton number and CP violation comes from soft supersymmetry breaking terms. The scenario is shown to be compatible with neutrino masses data. Read More

We study the nature of the see-saw mechanism in the context of renormalizable SO(10) with Higgs fields in the 10-plets and 126-plet representations, paying special attention to the supersymmetric case. We discuss analytically the situation for the second and third generations of fermions ignoring any CP violating phase. It is shown that b-tau unification and large atmospheric mixing angle strongly disfavor the dominance of the type I see-saw. Read More

We discuss in detail the symmetry breaking and related issues in the minimal renormalizable supersymmetric grand unified theory. We compute the particle spectrum and study its impact on the physical scales of the theory. This provides a framework for the analysis of phenomenological implications of the theory, to be carried out in part II. Read More

We present the various leptogenesis scenarios which may occur if, in addition to the ordinary heavy right-handed neutrinos, there exists a heavy scalar SU(2)_L triplet coupled to leptons. We show that the contributions of the right-handed neutrinos and the triplet to the lepton asymmetry are proportional to their respective contributions to the neutrino mass matrix. A consequence of the triplet contribution to the lepton asymmetry is that there is no more upper bound on the neutrino masses from leptogenesis due to the fact that the neutrino mass constraints do not necessarily induce asymmetry washout effects. Read More

We show that the minimal renormalizable supersymmetric SO(10) GUT with the usual three generations of spinors has a Higgs sector consisting only of a "light" 10-dimensional and "heavy" 126, 126-bar and 210 supermultiplets. The theory has only two sets of Yukawa couplings with fifteen real parameters and ten real parameters in the Higgs superpotential. It accounts correctly for all the fermion masses and mixings. Read More

We briefly review the issues of proton decay and fermion masses and mixings in minimal supersymmetric grand unified theories. We argue that minimal SU(5), although tightly constrained by proton decay data, is still not ruled out. However, we outline the advantages of SO(10) unification, in particular in the model with renormalizable see-saw mechanism and its remarkable predictions of (a) exact R-parity at low energies, (b) large atmospheric neutrino angle as a consequence of b-tau unification and (c) 1-3 leptonic mixing angle close to its upper limit. Read More

I review the role played by baryon and lepton numbers and their discrete subgroups in determining the low energy effective theory relevant for TeV physics. Read More

We systematically study the minimal supersymmetric Pati-Salam theory, paying special attention to the unification constraints. We find that the SU(4)_c scale M_c and the Left-Right scale M_R lie in the range 10^{10} GeV < M_c < 10^{14} GeV, 10^{3} GeV < M_R <10^{10} GeV (with single-step breaking at 10^{10} GeV), giving a potentially accessible scale of parity breaking. The theory includes the possibility of having doubly-charged supermultiplets at the supersymmetry breaking scale; color octet states with mass of order M_R^2/M_c; magnetic monopoles of intermediate mass that do not conflict with cosmology, and a 'clean' (type I) form for the see-saw mechanism of neutrino mass. Read More