G. Kane - University of Michigan

G. Kane
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G. Kane
University of Michigan
Ann Arbor
United States

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High Energy Physics - Phenomenology (48)
High Energy Physics - Theory (34)
High Energy Physics - Experiment (16)
Astrophysics (5)
Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (5)
General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (3)
High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (2)
Physics - Mesoscopic Systems and Quantum Hall Effect (1)
Physics - Materials Science (1)

Publications Authored By G. Kane

We argue, based on typical properties of known solutions of string/$M$-theory, that the lightest supersymmetric particle of the visible sector will not be stable. In other words, dark matter is {\em not} a particle with Standard Model quantum numbers, such as a WIMP. The argument is simple and based on the typical occurrence of a) hidden sectors, b) interactions between the Standard Model (visible) sector and these hidden sectors, and c) the lack of an argument against massive neutral hidden sector particles being lighter than the lightest visible supersymmetric particle. Read More

Some physicists hope to use string/M-theory to construct a comprehensive underlying theory of our physical world a "final theory". Can such a theory be tested? A quantum theory of gravity must be formulated in 10 dimensions, so obviously testing it experimentally requires projecting it onto our 4D world (called "compactification"). Most string theorists study theories, including aspects such as AdS/CFT, not phenomena, and are not much interested in testing theories beyond the Standard Model about our world. Read More

We use lepton-flavour violating (LFV) processes as a probe of higher-order corrections to the K\"ahler potential in compactified M-theory. We consider a generic K\"ahler potential with higher-order terms coupling visible sector fields to fields in the hidden sector of the compactified theory. Such terms generally give rise to potentially large flavour-violating effects. Read More

We critically review the role of cosmological moduli in determining the post-inflationary history of the universe. Moduli are ubiquitous in string and M-theory constructions of beyond the Standard Model physics, where they parametrize the geometry of the compactification manifold. For those with masses determined by supersymmetry breaking this leads to their eventual decay slightly before Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (without spoiling its predictions). Read More

We perform a comprehensive study of models of dark matter (DM) in a Universe with a non-thermal cosmological history, i.e with a phase of pressure-less matter domination before the onset of big-bang nucleosynethesis (BBN). Such cosmological histories are generically predicted by UV completions that contain gravitationally coupled scalar fields (moduli). Read More

We study a realistic top-down M-theory compactification with low-scale effective Supersymmetry, consistent with phenomenological constraints. A combination of top-down and generic phenomenological constraints fix the spectrum. The gluino mass is predicted to be about 1. Read More

The predicted Standard Model (SM) electric dipole moments (EDMs) of electrons and quarks are tiny, providing an important window to observe new physics. Theories beyond the SM typically allow relatively large EDMs. The EDMs depend on the relative phases of terms in the effective Lagrangian of the extended theory, which are generally unknown. Read More

Motivated by results from the LHC and dark matter searches, we study the possibility of phenomenologically viable R-parity violation in $SU(5)$ GUT models from a top-down point of view. We show that in contrast to the more model dependent bounds on the proton lifetime, the limits on neutrino masses provide a robust, stringent and complementary constraint on all $SU(5)$ GUT-based R-parity violating models. Focusing on well-motivated string/$M$ theory GUT frameworks with mechanisms for doublet-triplet splitting and a solution to the $\mu/B\mu$ problems, we show that imposing the neutrino mass bounds implies that R-parity violation is disfavored. Read More

The August 2011 Higgs mass prediction was based on an ongoing six year project studying M-theory compactified on a manifold of G2 holonomy, with significant contributions from Jing Shao, Eric Kuflik, and others, and particularly co-led by Bobby Acharya and Piyush Kumar. The M-theory results include: stabilization of all moduli in a de Sitter vacuum; gauge coupling unification; derivation of TeV scale physics (solving the hierarchy problem); the derivation that generically scalar masses are equal to the gravitino mass which is larger than about 30 TeV; derivation of the Higgs mechanism via radiative electroweak symmetry breaking; absence of the flavor and CP problems, and the accommodation of string axions. tan beta and the mu parameter are part of the theory and are approximately calculated; as a result, the little hierarchy problem is greatly reduced. Read More

We study theoretically the impact of Zener tunneling on the charge-transport properties of quasi-metallic (Qm) carbon nanotubes (characterized by forbidden band gaps of few tens of meV). We also analyze the interplay between Zener tunneling and elastic scattering on defects. To this purpose we use a model based on the master equation for the density matrix, that takes into account the inter-band Zener transitions induced by the electric field (a quantum mechanical effect), the electron-defect scattering and the electron-phonon scattering. Read More

String/M theory compactifications with low energy supersymmetry tend to predict that dark matter has two components: axions and WIMPs \cite{1004.5138,1204.2795}. Read More

Using 16,068 articles in Wikipedia's Medicine Wikiproject, we study the relationship between collaboration and quality. We assess whether certain collaborative patterns are associated with information quality in terms of self-evaluated quality and article viewership. We find that the number of contributors has a curvilinear relationship to information quality, more contributors improving quality but only up to a certain point. Read More

In recent years it has been realized that in string/$M$ theories compactified to four dimensions which satisfy cosmological constraints, it is possible to make some generic predictions for particle physics and dark matter: a non-thermal cosmological history before primordial nucleosynthesis, a scale of supersymmetry breaking which is "high" as in gravity mediation, scalar superpartners too heavy to be produced at the LHC (although gluino production is expected in many cases), and a significant fraction of dark matter in the form of axions. When the matter and gauge spectrum below the compactification scale is that of the MSSM, a robust prediction of about 125 GeV for the Higgs boson mass, predictions for various aspects of dark matter physics, as well as predictions for future precision measurements, can be made. As a prototypical example, $M$ theory compactified on a manifold of $G_2$ holonomy leads to a good candidate for our "string vacuum", with the TeV scale emerging from the Planck scale, a de Sitter vacuum, robust electroweak symmetry breaking, and solutions of the weak and strong CP problems. Read More

In this note, we advocate a new method for identifying gluino pair production events at the LHC. The method is motivated by and works for theories with heavy squarks and Wino-like LSPs (with nearly degenerate LSP and chargino). Such theories are well motivated and their gluinos typically have a O(50%) branching ratio to charged Winos. Read More

Recently it has been recognized that in compactified string/M-theories that satisfy cosmological constraints, it is possible to derive some robust and generic predictions for particle physics and cosmology with very mild assumptions. When the matter and gauge content below the compactification scale is that of the MSSM, it is possible to make precise predictions. In this case, we predict that there will be a single Standard Model-like Higgs boson with a calculable mass 105 GeV $\lesssim M_h \lesssim$ 129 GeV depending on tan beta (the ratio of the Higgs vevs in the MSSM). Read More

Low-scale supersymmetry breaking in string motivated theories implies the presence of O(100) TeV scale moduli, which generically lead to a significant modification of the history of the universe prior to Big Bang Nucleosynthesis. Such an approach implies a non-thermal origin for dark matter resulting from scalar decay, where the lightest supersymmetric particle can account for the observed dark matter relic density. We study the further effect of the decay on the baryon asymmetry of the universe, and find that this can satisfactorily address the problem of the over-production of the baryon asymmetry by the Affleck-Dine mechanism in the MSSM. Read More

In recent years it has been learned that scalar superpartner masses and trilinear couplings should both generically be larger than about 20 TeV at the short distance string scale if our world is described by a compactified string or M-theory with supersymmetry breaking and stabilized moduli. Here we study implications of this, somewhat generally and also in detail for a particular realization (compactification of M-theory on a G_2 manifold) where there is significant knowledge of the superpotential and gauge kinetic function, and a light gluino. In a certain sense this yields an ultraviolet completion of minimal flavour violation. Read More

We consider associated production of squarks and gluinos with the lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP), or states nearly degenerate in mass with it. Though sub-dominant to pair production of color SU(3)-charged superpartners, these processes are directly sensitive to the wavefunction composition of the lightest neutralinos. Exploiting event-shape variables -- including some introduced here for the first time -- we are able to identify the composition of the LSP by selecting events involving a single high-pT jet recoiling against missing transverse energy. Read More

We point out that in theories where the gravitino mass, $M_{3/2}$, is in the range (10-50)TeV, with soft-breaking scalar masses and trilinear couplings of the same order, there exists a robust region of parameter space where the conditions for electroweak symmetry breaking (EWSB) are satisfied without large imposed cancellations. Compactified string/M-theory with stabilized moduli that satisfy cosmological constraints generically require a gravitino mass greater than about 30 TeV and provide the natural explanation for this phenomenon. We find that even though scalar masses and trilinear couplings (and the soft-breaking $B$ parameter) are of order (10-50)TeV, the Higgs vev takes its expected value and the $\mu$ parameter is naturally of order a TeV. Read More

We consider a solution to the mu-problem within M theory on a G2-manifold. Our study is based upon the discrete symmetry proposed by Witten that forbids the mu-term and solves the doublet-triplet splitting problem. We point out that the symmetry must be broken by moduli stabilization, describing in detail how this can occur. Read More

In recent years many models of supersymmetry have implied a large production rate for events including a high multiplicity of third generation quarks, such as four top quarks. It is arguably the best-motivated channel for early LHC discovery. A particular example is generic string theories compactified to four dimensions with stabilized moduli which typically have multi-TeV squarks and lighter gluinos (below a TeV) with a large pair production rate and large branching ratios to four tops. Read More

In recent years it has been realised that pre-BBN decays of moduli can be a significant source of dark matter production, giving a `non-thermal WIMP miracle' and substantially reduced fine-tuning in cosmological axion physics. We study moduli masses and sharpen the claim that moduli dominated the pre-BBN Universe. We conjecture that in any string theory with stabilized moduli there will be at least one modulus field whose mass is of order (or less than) the gravitino mass. Read More

Motivated by specific connections to dark matter signatures, we study the prospects of observing the presence of a relatively light gluino whose mass is in the range ~(500-900) GeV with a wino-like lightest supersymmetric particle with mass in the range of ~(170-210) GeV. The light gaugino spectra studied here is generally different from other models, and in particular those with a wino dominated LSP, in that here the gluinos can be significantly lighter. The positron excess reported by the PAMELA satellite data is accounted for by annihilations of the wino LSP and their relic abundance can generally be brought near the WMAP constraints due to the late decay of a modulus field re-populating the density of relic dark matter. Read More

The Large Hadron Collider presents an unprecedented opportunity to probe the realm of new physics in the TeV region and shed light on some of the core unresolved issues of particle physics. These include the nature of electroweak symmetry breaking, the origin of mass, the possible constituent of cold dark matter, new sources of CP violation needed to explain the baryon excess in the universe, the possible existence of extra gauge groups and extra matter, and importantly the path Nature chooses to resolve the hierarchy problem - is it supersymmetry or extra dimensions. Many models of new physics beyond the standard model contain a hidden sector which can be probed at the LHC. Read More

Light scalar fields with only gravitational strength couplings are typically present in UV complete theories of physics beyond the Standard Model. In the early universe it is natural for these fields to dominate the energy density, and their subsequent decay, if prior to BBN, will typically yield some dark matter particles in their decay products. In this paper we make the observation that a Non-thermal WIMP `Miracle' may result: that is, in the simplest solution to the cosmological moduli problem, non-thermally produced WIMPs can naturally account for the observed dark matter relic density. Read More

Satellite data is accumulating that suggests and constrains dark matter physics. We argue there is a very well motivated theoretical preexisting framework consistent with dark matter annihilation being observed by the PAMELA satellite detector. The dark matter is (mainly) the neutral W boson superpartner, the wino with mass below 200 GeV. Read More

We demonstrate that in effective theories arising from a class of N=1 fluxless compactifications of M-theory on a G2 manifold with low energy supersymmetry, CP-violating phases do not appear in the soft-breaking Lagrangian except via the Yukawas appearing in the trilinear parameters. Such a mechanism may be present in other string compactifications as well; we describe properties sufficient for this to occur. CP violation is generated via the Yukawas since the soft trilinear matrices are generically not proportional to the Yukawa matrices. Read More

Recent work has shown that compactifications of F-theory provide a potentially attractive phenomenological scenario. The low energy characteristics of F-theory GUTs consist of a deformation away from a minimal gauge mediation scenario with a high messenger scale. The soft scalar masses of the theory are all shifted by a stringy effect which survives to low energies. Read More

We study the LHC signal of a light gluino whose cascade decay is dominated by channels involving top, and, sometimes, bottom quarks. This is a generic signature for a number of supersymmetry breaking scenarios considered recently, where the squarks are heavier than gauginos. Third generation final states generically dominate since third generation squarks are typically somewhat lighter in these models. Read More

Affiliations: 1Northeastern University, 2University of Michigan, 3Northeastern University, 4University of Michigan, 5Northeastern University

We begin a systematic study of how gaugino mass unification can be probed at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in a quasi-model independent manner. As a first step in that direction we focus our attention on the theoretically well-motivated mirage pattern of gaugino masses, a one-parameter family of models of which universal (high scale) gaugino masses are a limiting case. We improve on previous methods to define an analytic expression for the metric on signature space and use it to study one-parameter deviations from universality in the gaugino sector, randomizing over other soft supersymmetry-breaking parameters. Read More

Recently the PAMELA satellite-based experiment reported an excess of galactic positrons that could be a signal of annihilating dark matter. The PAMELA data may admit an interpretation as a signal from a wino-like LSP of mass about 200 GeV, normalized to the local relic density, and annihilating mainly into W-bosons. This possibility requires the current conventional estimate for the energy loss rate of positrons be too large by roughly a factor of five. Read More

We review what can (and cannot) be learned if dark matter is detected in one or more experiments, emphasizing the importance of combining LHC data with direct, astrophysical and cosmological probes of dark matter. We briefly review the conventional picture of a thermally produced WIMP relic density and its connection with theories of electroweak symmetry breaking. We then discuss both experimental and theoretical reasons why one might generically expect this picture to fail. Read More

We revisit indirect detection possibilities for neutralino dark matter, emphasizing the complementary roles of different approaches. While thermally produced dark matter often requires large astrophysical "boost factors" to observe antimatter signals, the physically motivated alternative of non-thermal dark matter can naturally provide interesting signals, for example from light wino or Higgsino dark matter. After a brief review of cosmic ray propagation, we discuss signals for positrons, antiprotons, synchrotron radiation and gamma rays from wino annihilation in the galactic halo, and examine their phenomenology. Read More

In principle particle spins can be measured from their production cross sections once their mass is approximately known. The method works in practice because spins are quantized and cross sections depend strongly on spins. It can be used to determine, for example, the spin of the top quark. Read More

We address the cosmological moduli/gravitino problems and the issue of too little thermal but excessive non-thermal dark matter from the decays of moduli. The main examples we study are the G2-MSSM models arising from M theory compactifications, which allow for a precise calculation of moduli decay rates and widths. We find that the late decaying moduli satisfy both BBN constraints and avoid the gravitino problem. Read More

We continue our study of the low energy implications of $M$ theory vacua on $G_2$ manifolds, undertaken in \cite{Acharya:2007rc,Acharya:2006ia}, where it was shown that the moduli can be stabilized and a TeV scale generated, with the Planck scale as the only dimensionful input. A well-motivated phenomenological model - the $G_2$-MSSM, can be naturally defined within the above framework. In this paper, we study some of the important phenomenological features of the $G_2$-MSSM. Read More

We construct LHC signature footprints for four semi-realistic string/$M$ theory vacua with an MSSM visible sector. We find that they all give rise to limited regions in LHC signature space, and are qualitatively different from each other for understandable reasons. We also propose a technique in which correlations of LHC signatures can be effectively used to distinguish among these string theory vacua. Read More

Affiliations: 1ICTP, Trieste, 2MCTP, University of Michigan, 3MCTP, University of Michigan, 4MCTP, University of Michigan, 5MCTP, University of Michigan

In a recent paper \cite{Acharya:2006ia} it was shown that in $M$ theory vacua without fluxes, all moduli are stabilized by the effective potential and a stable hierarchy is generated, consistent with standard gauge unification. This paper explains the results of \cite{Acharya:2006ia} in more detail and generalizes them, finding an essentially unique de Sitter (dS) vacuum under reasonable conditions. One of the main phenomenological consequences is a prediction which emerges from this entire class of vacua: namely gaugino masses are significantly suppressed relative to the gravitino mass. Read More

If supersymmetry is discovered at the LHC, the measured spectrum of superpartner masses and couplings will allow us to probe the origins of supersymmetry breaking. However, to connect the collider-scale Lagrangian soft parameters to the more fundamental theory from which they arise, it is usually necessary to evolve them to higher scales. The apparent unification of gauge couplings restricts the possible forms of new physics above the electroweak scale, and suggests that such an extrapolation is possible. Read More

We propose a model for early universe cosmology without the need for fundamental scalar fields. Cosmic acceleration and phenomenologically viable reheating of the universe results from a series of energy transitions, where during each transition vacuum energy is converted to thermal radiation. We show that this `cascading universe' can lead to successful generation of adiabatic density fluctuations and an observable gravity wave spectrum in some cases, where in the simplest case it reproduces a spectrum similar to slow-roll models of inflation. Read More

We argue that it is possible to address the deeper LHC Inverse Problem, to gain insight into the underlying theory from LHC signatures of new physics. We propose a technique which may allow us to distinguish among, and favor or disfavor, various classes of underlying theoretical constructions using (assumed) new physics signals at the LHC. We think that this can be done with limited data $(5-10 fb^{-1})$, and improved with more data. Read More

An old idea for explaining the hierarchy is strong gauge dynamics. We show that such dynamics {\it also} stabilises the moduli in $M$ theory compactifications on manifolds of $G_2$-holonomy {\it without} fluxes. This gives stable vacua with softly broken susy, grand unification and a distinctive spectrum of TeV and sub-TeV sparticle masses. Read More

Given experimental evidence at the LHC for physics beyond the standard model, how can we determine the nature of the underlying theory? We initiate an approach to studying the "inverse map" from the space of LHC signatures to the parameter space of theoretical models within the context of low-energy supersymmetry, using 1808 LHC observables including essentially all those suggested in the literature and a 15 dimensional parametrization of the supersymmetric standard model. We show that the inverse map of a point in signature space consists of a number of isolated islands in parameter space, indicating the existence of "degeneracies"--qualitatively different models with the same LHC signatures. The degeneracies have simple physical characterizations, largely reflecting discrete ambiguities in electroweak-ino spectrum, accompanied by small adjustments for the remaining soft parameters. Read More

Authors: J. A. Aguilar-Saavedra, A. Ali, B. C. Allanach, R. Arnowitt, H. A. Baer, J. A. Bagger, C. Balazs, V. Barger, M. Barnett, A. Bartl, M. Battaglia, P. Bechtle, G. Belanger, A. Belyaev, E. L. Berger, G. Blair, E. Boos, M. Carena, S. Y. Choi, F. Deppisch, A. De Roeck, K. Desch, M. A. Diaz, A. Djouadi, B. Dutta, S. Dutta, H. Eberl, J. Ellis, J. Erler, H. Fraas, A. Freitas, T. Fritzsche, R. M. Godbole, G. J. Gounaris, J. Guasch, J. Gunion, N. Haba, H. E. Haber, K. Hagiwara, L. Han, T. Han, H. -J. He, S. Heinemeyer, S. Hesselbach, K. Hidaka, I. Hinchliffe, M. Hirsch, K. Hohenwarter-Sodek, W. Hollik, W. S. Hou, T. Hurth, I. Jack, Y. Jiang, D. R. T. Jones, J. Kalinowski, T. Kamon, G. Kane, S. K. Kang, T. Kernreiter, W. Kilian, C. S. Kim, S. F. King, O. Kittel, M. Klasen, J. -L. Kneur, K. Kovarik, M. Kramer, S. Kraml, R. Lafaye, P. Langacker, H. E. Logan, W. -G. Ma, W. Majerotto, H. -U. Martyn, K. Matchev, D. J. Miller, M. Mondragon, G. Moortgat-Pick, S. Moretti, T. Mori, G. Moultaka, S. Muanza, M. M. Muhlleitner, B. Mukhopadhyaya, U. Nauenberg, M. M. Nojiri, D. Nomura, H. Nowak, N. Okada, K. A. Olive, W. Oller, M. Peskin, T. Plehn, G. Polesello, W. Porod, F. Quevedo, D. Rainwater, J. Reuter, P. Richardson, K. Rolbiecki, P. Roy, R. Ruckl, H. Rzehak, P. Schleper, K. Siyeon, P. Skands, P. Slavich, D. Stockinger, P. Sphicas, M. Spira, T. Tait, D. R. Tovey, J. W. F. Valle, C. E. M. Wagner, Ch. Weber, G. Weiglein, P. Wienemann, Z. -Z. Xing, Y. Yamada, J. M. Yang, D. Zerwas, P. M. Zerwas, R. -Y. Zhang, X. Zhang, S. -H. Zhu

High-precision analyses of supersymmetry parameters aim at reconstructing the fundamental supersymmetric theory and its breaking mechanism. A well defined theoretical framework is needed when higher-order corrections are included. We propose such a scheme, Supersymmetry Parameter Analysis SPA, based on a consistent set of conventions and input parameters. Read More

If a signal for physics beyond the Standard Model is observed at the Tevatron collider or LHC, we will be eager to interpret it. Because only certain observables can be studied at a hadron collider, it will be difficult or impossible to measure masses and spins that could easily establish what physics was being seen. Nevertheless, different underlying physics implies different signatures. Read More

Affiliations: 1Orsay, LPT & Paris U. VII, APC, 2U. of Michigan, MCTP, 3Fermilab & Chicago U., EFI, 4U. of Pennsylvania

In an effort to promote communication between the formal and phenomenological branches of the high-energy theory community, we provide a description of some important issues in supersymmetric and string phenomenology. We describe each within the context of string constructions, illustrating them with specific examples where applicable. Each topic culminates in a set of questions that we believe are amenable to direct consideration by string theorists, and whose answers we think could help connect string theory and phenomenology. Read More

This is a composite based on talks at Physics at LHC, Vienna, July 2004, TeV4LHC, Fermilab, Sept. 2004, and the String Phenomenology meeting, Perimeter Institute, March 2005. Read More

Most studies of the potential for discovery of superpartners at the Fermilab Tevatron or CERN LHC have focused on the so-called mSUGRA (minimal supergravity mediated supersymmetry breaking) model, not because it is well motivated but because it has a minimal number of parameters. If signals are seen that could be superpartners, most analyses will attempt to interpret them in the mSUGRA framework since the needed software and computational tools exist. With only a few signal channels, and initially large statistical and systematic errors, it is very likely that an mSUGRA interpretation will look all right even if it is not. Read More

Affiliations: 1Michigan Center for theoretical Physics, 2School of Phys. and Astronomy, Univ. of Southampton, 3School of Phys. and Astronomy, Univ. of Southampton, 4Michigan Center for theoretical Physics

We review and compare theoretically and phenomenologically a number of possible family symmetries, which when combined with unification, could be important in explaining quark, lepton and neutrino masses and mixings, providing new results in several cases. Theoretical possibilities include Abelian or non-Abelian, symmetric or non symmetric Yukawa matrices, Grand Unification or not. Our main focus is on anomaly-free U(1) family symmetry combined with SU(5) unification, although we also discuss other possibilities. Read More

Motivated by the apparent need for extending the MSSM and perhaps mitigating naturalness problems associated with the $\mu$ parameter and fine-tuning of the soft masses, we augment the MSSM spectrum by a SM gauge singlet chiral superfield, and enlarge the gauge structure by an additional U(1)' invariance, so that the gauge and Higgs sectors are relatively secluded. One crucial aspect of U(1)' models is the existence of anomalies, cancellation of which may require the inclusion of exotic matter which in turn disrupts the unification of the gauge couplings. In this work we pursue the question of canceling the anomalies with a minimal matter spectrum and no exotics. Read More