G. Chang - Department of Biology, The Pennsylvania State University

G. Chang
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G. Chang
Department of Biology, The Pennsylvania State University
State College
United States

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Physics - Mesoscopic Systems and Quantum Hall Effect (32)
Physics - Materials Science (21)
Physics - Strongly Correlated Electrons (3)
Mathematics - Combinatorics (2)
Mathematics - Commutative Algebra (2)
Mathematics - Classical Analysis and ODEs (1)
High Energy Physics - Phenomenology (1)
Quantum Physics (1)
Physics - Computational Physics (1)
High Energy Physics - Experiment (1)
Computer Science - Learning (1)
Computer Science - Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (1)
Statistics - Machine Learning (1)
Physics - Other (1)
Nuclear Experiment (1)
Physics - Chemical Physics (1)

Publications Authored By G. Chang

A Weyl semimetal (WSM) is a novel topological phase of matter, in which Weyl fermions (WFs) arise as pseudo-magnetic monopoles in its momentum space. The chirality of the WFs, given by the sign of the monopole charge, is central to the Weyl physics, since it directly serves as the sign of the topological number and gives rise to exotic properties such as Fermi arcs and the chiral anomaly. Despite being the defining property of a WSM, the chirality of the WFs has never been experimentally measured. Read More

Osteoporosis is a public health problem characterized by increased fracture risk secondary to low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue. Almost all fractures of the hip require hospitalization and major surgery. Early diagnosis of osteoporosis plays an important role in preventing osteoporotic fracture. Read More

Engineered lattices in condensed matter physics, such as cold atom optical lattices or photonic crystals, can have fundamentally different properties from naturally-occurring electronic crystals. Here, we report a novel type of artificial quantum matter lattice. Our lattice is a multilayer heterostructure built from alternating thin films of topological and trivial insulators. Read More

Topological phases of matter exhibit phase transitions between distinct topological classes. These phase transitions are exotic in that they do not fall within the traditional Ginzburg-Landau paradigm but are instead associated with changes in bulk topological invariants and associated topological surface states. In the case of a Weyl semimetal this phase transition is particularly unusual because it involves the creation of bulk chiral charges and the nucleation of topological Fermi arcs. Read More

The recent discovery of a Weyl semimetal in TaAs offers the first Weyl fermion observed in nature and dramatically broadens the classification of topological phases. However, in TaAs it has proven challenging to study the rich transport phenomena arising from emergent Weyl fermions. The series Mo$_x$W$_{1-x}$Te$_2$ are inversion-breaking, layered, tunable semimetals already under study as a promising platform for new electronics and recently proposed to host Type II, or strongly Lorentz-violating, Weyl fermions. Read More

We combine quasiparticle interference simulation (theory) and atomic resolution scanning tunneling spectro-microscopy (experiment) to visualize the interference patterns on a type-II Weyl semimetal Mo$_{x}$W$_{1-x}$Te$_2$ for the first time. Our simulation based on first-principles band topology theoretically reveals the surface electron scattering behavior. We identify the topological Fermi arc states and reveal the scattering properties of the surface states in Mo$_{0. Read More

Symmetry places strong constraints on the electronic features of crystals. By considering the role of time-reversal, $\mathcal{T}$, symmetry in structurally chiral crystals with significant spin-orbit interaction, we show that Kramers theorem may lead to the realization of topologically robust Weyl fermionic excitations \textit{pinned} to the time-reversal-invariant crystal momenta. By constructing a tight-binding model for $\mathcal{T}$-invariant chiral crystals in space group 16 (SG-16), we demonstrate the conditions under which Kramers theorem-enforced Weyl fermions are universal features. Read More

Orbital degrees of freedom can have pronounced effects on the fundamental properties of electrons in solids. In addition to influencing bandwidths, gaps, correlation strength and dispersion, orbital effects have also been implicated in generating novel electronic and structural phases, such as Jahn-Teller effect and colossal magnetoresistance. In this work, we show for the first time how the orbital nature of bands can result in non-trivial effects of strain on the band structure. Read More

The recent explosion of research interest in Weyl semimetals has led to many proposed Weyl semimetal candidates and a few experimental observations of a Weyl semimetal in real materials. Through this experience, we have come to appreciate that typical Weyl semimetals host many Weyl points. For instance, the first Weyl semimetal observed in experiment, TaAs, hosts 24 Weyl points. Read More

The discoveries of Dirac and Weyl semimetal states in spin-orbit compounds led to the realizations of elementary particle analogs in table-top experiments. In this paper, we propose the concept of a three-dimensional type-II Dirac fermion and identify a new topological semimetal state in the large family of transition-metal icosagenides, MA3 (M=V, Nb, Ta; A=Al, Ga, In). We show that the VAl3 family features a pair of strongly Lorentz-violating type-II Dirac nodes and that each Dirac node consists of four type-II Weyl nodes with chiral charge +/-1 via symmetry breaking. Read More

Structure functions, as measured in lepton-nucleon scattering, have proven to be very useful in studying the quark dynamics within the nucleon. However, it is experimentally difficult to separately determine the longitudinal and transverse structure functions, and consequently there are substantially less data available for the longitudinal structure function in particular. Here we present separated structure functions for hydrogen and deuterium at low four--momentum transfer squared, Q^2< 1 GeV^2, and compare these with parton distribution parameterizations and a k_T factorization approach. Read More

Topological metals and semimetals (TMs) have recently drawn significant interest. These materials give rise to condensed matter realizations of many important concepts in high-energy physics, leading to wide-ranging protected properties in transport and spectroscopic experiments. The most studied TMs, i. Read More

We report the first observation of coherent surface states on cubic perovskite oxide SrVO3(001) thin films through spectroscopic imaging scanning tunneling microscopy. A direct link between the observed atomic-scale interference patterns and the formation of a dxy-derived surface state is supported by first-principles calculations. Furthermore, we show that the apical oxygens on the topmost VO2 plane play a critical role in controlling the spectral weight of the observed coherent surface state. Read More

It has recently been proposed that electronic band structures in crystals give rise to a previously overlooked type of Weyl fermion, which violates Lorentz invariance and, consequently, is forbidden in particle physics. It was further predicted that Mo$_x$W$_{1-x}$Te$_2$ may realize such a Type II Weyl fermion. One crucial challenge is that the Weyl points in Mo$_x$W$_{1-x}$Te$_2$ are predicted to lie above the Fermi level. Read More

Weyl semimetals are novel topological conductors that host Weyl fermions as emergent quasiparticles. While the Weyl fermions in high-energy physics are strictly defined as the massless solution of the Dirac equation and uniquely fixed by Lorentz symmetry, there is no such constraint for a topological metal in general. Specifically, the Weyl quasiparticles can arise by breaking either the space-inversion ($\mathcal{I}$) or time-reversal ($\mathcal{T}$) symmetry. Read More

We report theoretical and experimental discovery of Lorentz-violating Weyl fermion semimetal type-II state in the LaAlGe class of materials. Previously type-II Weyl state was predicted in WTe2 materials which remains unrealized in surface experiments. We show theoretically and experimentally that LaAlGe class of materials are the robust platforms for the study of type-II Weyl physics. Read More

Topological semimetals (TSMs) including Weyl semimetals and nodal-line semimetals are expected to open the next frontier of condensed matter and materials science. Although the first inversion breaking Weyl semimetal was recently discovered in TaAs, its magnetic counterparts, i.e. Read More

The recent discovery of the first Weyl semimetal in TaAs provides the first observation of a Weyl fermion in nature and demonstrates a novel type of anomalous surface state, the Fermi arc. Like topological insulators, the bulk topological invariants of a Weyl semimetal are uniquely fixed by the surface states of a bulk sample. Here, we present a set of distinct conditions, accessible by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES), each of which demonstrates topological Fermi arcs in a surface state band structure, with minimal reliance on calculation. Read More

Weyl semimetals have sparked intense research interest, but experimental work has been limited to the TaAs family of compounds. Recently, a number of theoretical works have predicted that compounds in the Mo$_x$W$_{1-x}$Te$_2$ series are Weyl semimetals. Such proposals are particularly exciting because Mo$_x$W$_{1-x}$Te$_2$ has a quasi two-dimensional crystal structure well-suited to many transport experiments, while WTe$_2$ and MoTe$_2$ have already been the subject of numerous proposals for device applications. Read More

Weyl semimetals are extremely interesting. Although the first Weyl semimetal was recently discovered in TaAs, research progress is still significantly hindered due to the lack of robust and ideal materials candidates. In order to observe the many predicted exotic phenomena that arise from Weyl fermions, it is of critical importance to find robust and ideal Weyl semimetals, which have fewer Weyl nodes and more importantly whose Weyl nodes are well separated in momentum space and are located close to the chemical potential in energy. Read More

Superconductivity in topological band structures is a platform for many novel exotic quantum phenomena such as emergent supersymmetry. This potential nourishes the search for topological materials with intrinsic superconducting instabilities, in which Cooper pairing is introduced to electrons with helical spin texture such as the Dirac states of topological insulators and Dirac Semimetals, forming a natural topological superconductor of helical kind. We employ first-principles calculations, ARPES experiments and new theoretical analysis to reveal that PbTaSe2, a non-centrosymmetric superconductor, possesses a nonzero Z2 topological invariant and fully spin-polarized Dirac states. Read More

The recent discovery of the first Weyl semimetal in TaAs provides the first observation of a Weyl fermion in nature. Such a topological semimetal features a novel type of anomalous surface state, the Fermi arc, which connects a pair of Weyl nodes through the boundary of the crystal. Here, we present theoretical calculations of the quasi-particle interference (QPI) patterns that arise from the surface states including the topological Fermi arcs in the Weyl semimetals TaAs and NbP. Read More

Graphene and topological insulators (TI) possess two-dimensional Dirac fermions with distinct physical properties. Integrating these two Dirac materials in a single device creates interesting opportunities for exploring new physics of interacting massless Dirac fermions. Here we report on a practical route to experimental fabrication of graphene-Sb2Te3 heterostructure. Read More

Weyl semimetals may open a new era in condensed matter physics, materials science and nanotech after graphene and topological insulators. We report the first atomic scale view of the surface states of a Weyl semimetal (NbP) using scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy. We observe coherent quantum interference patterns that arise from the scattering of quasiparticles near point defects on the surface. Read More

A Weyl semimetal is a new state of matter that host Weyl fermions as quasiparticle excitations. The Weyl fermions at zero energy correspond to points of bulk band degeneracy, Weyl nodes, which are separated in momentum space and are connected only through the crystal's boundary by an exotic Fermi arc surface state. We experimentally measure the spin polarization of the Fermi arcs in the first experimentally discovered Weyl semimetal TaAs. Read More

Dilute magnetic semiconductors (DMSs) show great promise for applications in spin-based electronics, but in most cases continue to elude explanations of their magnetic behavior. Here, we combine quantitative x-ray spectroscopy and Anderson impurity model calculations to study ferromagnetic Fe-substituted In$_2$O$_3$ films, and we identify a subset of Fe atoms adjacent to oxygen vacancies in the crystal lattice which are responsible for the observed room temperature ferromagnetism. Using resonant inelastic x-ray scattering, we map out the near gap electronic structure and provide further support for this conclusion. Read More

The recent experimental discovery of a Weyl semimetal in TaAs provides the first observation of a Weyl fermion in nature and demonstrates a novel type of anomalous surface state band structure, consisting of Fermi arcs. So far, work has focused on Weyl semimetals with strong spin-orbit coupling (SOC). However, Weyl semimetals with weak SOC may allow tunable spin-splitting for device applications and may exhibit a crossover to a spinless topological phase, such as a Dirac line semimetal in the case of spinless TaAs. Read More

Emergent Dirac fermion states underlie many intriguing properties of graphene, and the search for them constitute one strong motivation to explore two-dimensional (2D) allotropes of other elements. Phosphorene, the ultrathin layers of black phosphorous, has been a subject of intense investigations recently, and it was found that other group-Va elements could also form 2D layers with similar puckered lattice structure. Here, by a close examination of their electronic band structure evolution, we discover two types of Dirac fermion states emerging in the low-energy spectrum. Read More

The results of density functional theory calculations and measurements using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of Co-nanoparticles dispersed on graphene/Cu are presented. It is found that for low cobalt thickness (0.02 nm - 0. Read More

A topological nodal-line semimetal is a new condensed matter state with one-dimensional bulk nodal lines and two-dimensional drumhead surface bands. Based on first-principles calculations and our effective k . p model, we propose the existence of topological nodal-line fermions in the ternary transition- metal chalcogenide TlTaSe2. Read More

Weyl semimetals may open a new era in condensed matter physics because they provide the first example of Weyl fermions, realize a new topological classification even though the system is gapless, exhibit Fermi arc surface states and demonstrate the chiral anomaly and other exotic quantum phenomena. So far, the only known Weyl semimetals are the TaAs class of materials. Here, we propose the existence of a tunable Weyl metallic state in Mo$_x$W$_{1-x}$Te$_2$ via our first-principles calculations. Read More

The family of binary compounds including TaAs, TaP, NbAs, and NbP was recently discovered as the first realization of Weyl semimetals. In order to develop a comprehensive description of the charge carriers in these Weyl semimetals, we performed systematic electronic structure calculations which reveal the nature of Fermi surfaces and their complex interconnectivity in TaAs, TaP, NbAs, and NbP. Our work report the first comparative and comprehensive study of Fermi surface topology and band structure details of all known members of the Weyl semimetal family and provide the necessary building blocks for advancing our understanding of their unique topologically protected low-energy Weyl fermion physics. Read More

A strong $k$-edge-coloring of a graph $G$ is a mapping from $E(G)$ to $\{1,2,\ldots,k\}$ such that every pair of distinct edges at distance at most two receive different colors. The strong chromatic index $\chi'_s(G)$ of a graph $G$ is the minimum $k$ for which $G$ has a strong $k$-edge-coloring. Denote $\sigma(G)=\max_{xy\in E(G)}\{\operatorname{deg}(x)+\operatorname{deg}(y)-1\}$. Read More

Weyl semimetals are expected to open up new horizons in physics and materials science because they provide the first realization of Weyl fermions and exhibit protected Fermi arc surface states. However, they had been found to be extremely rare in nature. Recently, a family of compounds, consisting of TaAs, TaP, NbAs and NbP was predicted as Weyl semimetal candidates. Read More

Weyl nodes are topological objects in three-dimensional metals. Their topological property can be revealed by studying the high-field transport properties of a Weyl semimetal. While the energy of the lowest Landau band (LLB) of a conventional Fermi pocket always increases with magnetic field due to the zero point energy, the LLB of Weyl cones remains at zero energy unless a strong magnetic field couples the Weyl fermions of opposite chirality. Read More

We use first principles calculations to study the electronic properties of rock salt rare earth monopnictides La$X$ ($X=$N, P, As, Sb, Bi). A new type of topological band crossing termed `linked nodal rings' is found in LaN when the small spin-orbital coupling (SOC) on nitrogen orbitals is neglected. Turning on SOC gaps the nodal rings at all but two points, which remain gapless due to $C_4$-symmetry and leads to a 3D Dirac semimetal. Read More

We identify a Weyl semimetal state in an inversion breaking, stoichiometric compound strontium silicide, SrSi$_2$, with many new and novel properties that are distinct from the TaAs family. We theoretically show that SrSi$_2$ is a Weyl semimetal even without spin-orbit coupling and that, after the inclusion of spin-orbit coupling, two Weyl fermions stick together forming an exotic double Weyl fermion with quadratic dispersions and a higher chiral topological charge of 2. Moreover, we find that the Weyl nodes with opposite charges are located at different energies due to the absence of mirror symmetry in SrSi$_2$, leading to a unique topological quantum response that an external magnetic field can induce a dissipationless current. Read More

Bismuth chalcogenides and lead telluride/selenide alloys exhibit exceptional thermoelectric properties which could be harnessed for power generation and device applications. Since phonons play a significant role in achieving these desired properties, quantifying the interaction between phonons and electrons, which is encoded in the Eliashberg function of a material, is of immense importance. However, its precise extraction has in part been limited due to the lack of local experimental probes. Read More

Recently, crystalline-symmetry-protected three-dimensional (3D) bulk Dirac semimetal phase has been experimentally identified in a stoichiometric high-mobility compound, Cd3As2. The Dirac state observed in Cd3As2 has been attributed to originate mostly from the bulk state while calculations show that the bulk and surface states overlap over the entire Dirac dispersion energy range. In this study, we unambiguously reveal doping induced evolution of the ground state of surface and bulk electron dynamics in a 3D Dirac semimetal. Read More

The recent discoveries of Dirac fermions in graphene and on the surface of topological insulators have ignited worldwide interest in physics and materials science. A Weyl semimetal is an unusual crystal where electrons also behave as massless quasi-particles but interestingly they are not Dirac fermions. These massless particles, Weyl fermions, were originally considered in massless quantum electrodynamics but have not been observed as a fundamental particle in nature. Read More

The results of density functional theory (DFT) calculations and measurements of X-ray photoelectron (XPS) and X-ray emission (XES) spectra of Co-nanoparticles dispersed on graphene/Cu composites are presented. It is found that for 0.02nm and 0. Read More

An edge Roman dominating function of a graph $G$ is a function $f\colon E(G) \rightarrow \{0,1,2\}$ satisfying the condition that every edge $e$ with $f(e)=0$ is adjacent to some edge $e'$ with $f(e')=2$. The edge Roman domination number of $G$, denoted by $\gamma'_R(G)$, is the minimum weight $w(f) = \sum_{e\in E(G)} f(e)$ of an edge Roman dominating function $f$ of $G$. This paper disproves a conjecture of Akbari, Ehsani, Ghajar, Jalaly Khalilabadi and Sadeghian Sadeghabad stating that if $G$ is a graph of maximum degree $\Delta$ on $n$ vertices, then $\gamma_R'(G) \le \lceil \frac{\Delta}{\Delta+1} n \rceil$. Read More

In this paper, we study the multiple integral $ \displaystyle I= \int_0^1 \int_0^1 \dots \int_0^1 f(x_1+x_2 + \dots +x_n) \, dx_1 \, dx_2 \, \dots \, dx_n$. A general formula of $I$ is presented. As an application, the integral $I$ with $f(x)= \log \Gamma(x)$ is evaluated. Read More

The tunability of topological surface states (SS) and controllable opening of the Dirac gap are of fundamental and practical interest in the field of topological materials. In topological crystalline insulators (TCIs), a spontaneously generated Dirac gap was recently observed, which was ascribed to broken cubic crystal symmetry. However, this structural distortion has not been directly observed so far, and the microscopic mechanism of Dirac gap opening via crystal symmetry breaking remains elusive. Read More

Let $D$ be a principal ideal domain and $R(D) = \{\begin{pmatrix} a & b 0 & a \end{pmatrix} \mid a, b \in D\}$ be its self-idealization. It is known that $R(D)$ is a commutative noetherian ring with identity, and hence $R(D)$ is atomic (i.e. Read More

Cobalt and silver co-doping has been undertaken in ZnO thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition in order to investigate the ferromagnetic properties in ZnO-based diluted magnetic materials and to understand the eventual relation between ferromagnetism and charge carriers. Hall transport measurements reveal that Ag doping up to 5% leads to a progressive compensation of the native n-type carriers. The magnetization curves show ferromagnetic contributions for all samples at both 5 K and room temperature, decreasing with increasing the Ag concentration. Read More

We provide a complete solution to the problem of extending arbitrary semistar operations of an integral domain $D$ to semistar operations of the polynomial ring $D[X]$. As an application, we show that one can reobtain the main results of some previous papers concerning the problem in the special cases of stable semistar operations of finite type or semistar operations defined by families of overrings. Finally, we investigate the behavior of the polynomial extensions of the most important and classical operations such as $d_D$, $v_D$, $t_D$, $w_D$ and $b_D$ operations. Read More