Fumitaka Nakamura - National Astronomical Observatory, Tokyo

Fumitaka Nakamura
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Fumitaka Nakamura
National Astronomical Observatory, Tokyo

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Astrophysics of Galaxies (27)
Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (23)
Astrophysics (12)
Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics (5)
Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (1)
Physics - Computational Physics (1)

Publications Authored By Fumitaka Nakamura

Authors: Derek Ward-Thompson, Kate Pattle, Pierre Bastien, Ray S. Furuya, Woojin Kwon, Shih-Ping Lai, Keping Qiu, David Berry, Minho Choi, Simon Coudé, James Di Francesco, Thiem Hoang, Erica Franzmann, Per Friberg, Sarah F. Graves, Jane S. Greaves, Martin Houde, Doug Johnstone, Jason M. Kirk, Patrick M. Koch, Jungmi Kwon, Chang Won Lee, Di Li, Brenda C. Matthews, Joseph C. Mottram, Harriet Parsons, Andy Pon, Ramprasad Rao, Mark Rawlings, Hiroko Shinnaga, Sarah Sadavoy, Sven van Loo, Yusuke Aso, Do-Young Byun, Eswariah Chakali, Huei-Ru Chen, Mike C. -Y. Chen, Wen Ping Chen, Tao-Chung Ching, Jungyeon Cho, Antonio Chrysostomou, Eun Jung Chung, Yasuo Doi, Emily Drabek-Maunder, Stewart P. S. Eyres, Jason Fiege, Rachel K. Friesen, Gary Fuller, Tim Gledhill, Matt J. Griffin, Qilao Gu, Tetsuo Hasegawa, Jennifer Hatchell, Saeko S. Hayashi, Wayne Holland, Tsuyoshi Inoue, Shu-ichiro Inutsuka, Kazunari Iwasaki, Il-Gyo Jeong, Ji-hyun Kang, Miju Kang, Sung-ju Kang, Koji S. Kawabata, Francisca Kemper, Gwanjeong Kim, Jongsoo Kim, Kee-Tae Kim, Kyoung Hee Kim, Mi-Ryang Kim, Shinyoung Kim, Kevin M. Lacaille, Jeong-Eun Lee, Sang-Sung Lee, Dalei Li, Hua-bai Li, Hong-Li Liu, Junhao Liu, Sheng-Yuan Liu, Tie Liu, A-Ran Lyo, Steve Mairs, Masafumi Matsumura, Gerald H. Moriarty-Schieven, Fumitaka Nakamura, Hiroyuki Nakanishi, Nagayoshi Ohashi, Takashi Onaka, Nicolas Peretto, Tae-Soo Pyo, Lei Qian, Brendan Retter, John Richer, Andrew Rigby, Jean-François Robitaille, Giorgio Savini, Anna M. M. Scaife, Archana Soam, Motohide Tamura, Ya-Wen Tang, Kohji Tomisaka, Hongchi Wang, Jia-Wei Wang, Anthony P. Whitworth, Hsi-Wei Yen, Hyunju Yoo, Jinghua Yuan, Chuan-Peng Zhang, Guoyin Zhang, Jianjun Zhou, Lei Zhu, Philippe André, C. Darren Dowell, Sam Falle, Yusuke Tsukamoto

We present the first results from the B-fields In STar-forming Region Observations (BISTRO) survey, using the Sub-millimetre Common-User Bolometer Array 2 (SCUBA-2) camera, with its associated polarimeter (POL-2), on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) in Hawaii. We discuss the survey's aims and objectives. We describe the rationale behind the survey, and the questions which the survey will aim to answer. Read More

We study giant molecular cloud (GMC) collisions and their ability to trigger star cluster formation. We further develop our three dimensional magnetized, turbulent, colliding GMC simulations by implementing star formation sub-grid models. Two such models are explored: (1) "Density-Regulated," i. Read More

We present results of wide-field $^{12}$CO ($J = 2 - 1$) and $^{13}$CO ($J = 2 - 1$) observations toward the Aquila Rift and Serpens molecular cloud complexes (25$^\circ < l < 33^\circ$ and $1^\circ < b < 6^\circ$) at an angular resolution of 3$'$.4 ($\approx$ 0.25 pc) and at a velocity resolution of 0. Read More

We have performed a dense core survey toward the Infrared Dark Cloud G14.225-0.506 at 3 mm continuum emission with the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA). Read More

We report the discovery of infalling motion with rotation of S235AB the massive cluster-forming clump (~10^3 Mo) in the S235 region. Our C18O observations with the 45m telescope at the Nobeyama Radio Observatory have revealed the elliptical shape of the clump. Position-velocity (PV) diagram taken along its major axis exhibits two well-defined peaks symmetrically located with respect to the clump center, which is similar to that found for a dynamically infalling envelope with rotation around a single protostar modeled by N. Read More

We investigate giant molecular cloud (GMCs) collisions and their ability to induce gravitational instability and thus star formation. This mechanism may be a major driver of star formation activity in galactic disks. We carry out a series of three dimensional, magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) simulations to study how cloud collisions trigger formation of dense filaments and clumps. Read More

We present a large-scale combination of near-infrared (near-IR) interstellar polarization data from background starlight with polarized emission data at submillimeter (sub-mm) wavelengths for the Vela C molecular cloud. The near-IR data consist of more than 6700 detections probing a range of visual extinctions between $2$ and $20\,$mag in and around the cloud. The sub-mm data was collected in Antartica by the Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope for Polarimetry (BLASTPol). Read More

L1551 is chosen because it is relatively isolated in the Taurus molecular cloud shielded from FUV photons, providing an ideal environment for studying the target properties. Our observations cover ~40'x40' with resolution ~30", which are the maps with highest spatial dynamical range to date. We derive the X(13CO)/X(C18O) value on the sub-parsec scales in the range of ~3-27 with a mean value of 8. Read More

It has been shown that a realistic level of magnetization of dense molecular cloud cores can suppress the formation of a rotationally supported disk (RSD) through catastrophic magnetic braking in the axisymmetric ideal MHD limit. In this study, we present conditions for the formation of RSDs through non-ideal MHD effects computed self-consistently from an equilibrium chemical network. We find that removing from the standard MRN distribution the large population of very small grains (VSGs) of ~10 $\AA$ to few 100 $\AA$ that dominate the coupling of the bulk neutral matter to the magnetic field increases the ambipolar diffusivity by ~1--2 orders of magnitude at densities below 10$^{10}$ cm$^{-3}$. Read More

Polarization maps of the Vela C molecular cloud were obtained at 250, 350, and 500um during the 2012 flight of the balloon-borne telescope BLASTPol. These measurements are used in conjunction with 850um data from Planck to study the submillimeter spectrum of the polarization fraction for this cloud. The spectrum is relatively flat and does not exhibit a pronounced minimum at \lambda ~350um as suggested by previous measurements of other molecular clouds. Read More

We observed the J = 9-8 and 16-15 rotational transitions of the normal species and five 13C isotopologues of HC5N to study its formation mechanisms toward the cyanopolyyne peak in Taurus Molecular Cloud-1, with the 45-m radio telescope of Nobeyama Radio Observatory. We detected the five 13C isotopologues with high signal-to-noise ratios between 12 and 20, as well as the normal species. The abundance ratios of the five 13C isotopologues of HC5N are found to be 1. Read More

We discuss the role of protostellar outflow feedback in clustered star formation using the observational data of recent molecular outflow surveys toward nearby cluster-forming clumps. We found that for almost all clumps, the outflow momentum injection rate is significantly larger than the turbulence dissipation rate. Therefore, the outflow feedback is likely to maintain supersonic turbulence in the clumps. Read More

We performed the first spectral-line survey at 82--106 GHz and 335--355 GHz toward the outflow-shocked region, OMC 2-FIR 4, the outflow driving source, FIR 3, and the northern outflow lobe, FIR 3N. We detected 120 lines of 20 molecular species. The line profiles are found to be classifiable into two types: one is a single Gaussian component with a narrow ($<$ 3 km s$^{-1}$) width and another is two Gaussian components with narrow and wide ($>$ 3km s$^{-1}$) widths. Read More

Affiliations: 1Dept. of Astronomy, University of Florida, USA, 2Dept. of Astronomy, University of Florida, USA, 3Max-Planck-Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, 4INAF - Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Italy, 5California Institute of Technology, USA, 6Institute for Computational Science, University of Zurich, Switzerland, 7Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Universite Paris Diderot, IRFU/Service d' Astrophysique, France, 8National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Japan, 9Graduate School of Informatics and Engineering, The University of Electro-Communications, Japan

We study deuterium fractionation in two massive starless/early-stage cores C1-N and C1-S in Infrared Dark Cloud (IRDC) G028.37+00.07, first identified by Tan et al. Read More

We developed a dual-linear-polarization HEMT (High Electron Mobility Transistor) amplifier receiver system of the 45-GHz band (hereafter Z45), and installed it in the Nobeyama 45-m radio telescope. The receiver system is designed to conduct polarization observations by taking the cross correlation of two linearly-polarized components, from which we process full-Stokes spectroscopy. We aim to measure the magnetic field strength through the Zeeman effect of the emission line of CCS ($J_N=4_3-3_2$) toward pre-protostellar cores. Read More

We report results of the CO(J=3-2) and HCO+(J=4-3) observations of the W40 HII region with the ASTE 10 m telescope (HPBW~22 arcsec) to search for molecular outflows and dense clumps.We found that the velocity field in the region is highly complex, consisting of at least four distinct velocity components at V LSR ~ 3, 5, 7, and 10 km/s. The ~7 km/s component represents the systemic velocity of cold gas surroundingthe entire region, and causes heavy absorption in the CO spectra over the velocity range 6 Read More

We have developed a software-based polarization spectrometer, PolariS, to acquire full-Stokes spectra with a very high spectral resolution of 61 Hz. The primary aim of PolariS is to measure the magnetic fields in dense star-forming cores by detecting the Zeeman splitting of molecular emission lines. The spectrometer consists of a commercially available digital sampler and a Linux computer. Read More

The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope for Polarimetry (BLASTPol) was a suborbital experiment designed to map magnetic fields in order to study their role in star formation processes. BLASTPol made detailed polarization maps of a number of molecular clouds during its successful flights from Antarctica in 2010 and 2012. We present the next-generation BLASTPol instrument (BLAST-TNG) that will build off the success of the previous experiment and continue its role as a unique instrument and a test bed for new technologies. Read More

Affiliations: 1University of Pennsylvania, 2Cardiff University, 3Northwestern University, 4University of Pennsylvania, 5Quantum Electronics and Photonics Division. National Institute of Standards and Technology. USA, 6Quantum Electronics and Photonics Division. National Institute of Standards and Technology. USA, 7Arizona State University, 8Arizona State University, 9Quantum Electronics and Photonics Division. National Institute of Standards and Technology. USA, 10University of Pennsylvania, 11Northwestern University, 12Nagoya University, 13University of Pennsylvania, 14Quantum Electronics and Photonics Division. National Institute of Standards and Technology. USA, 15Arizona State University, 16California State University Sacramento, 17Quantum Electronics and Photonics Division. National Institute of Standards and Technology. USA, 18Quantum Electronics and Photonics Division. National Institute of Standards and Technology. USA, 19Stanford University, 20University of Pennsylvania, 21Quantum Electronics and Photonics Division. National Institute of Standards and Technology. USA, 22Quantum Electronics and Photonics Division. National Institute of Standards and Technology. USA, 23University of Virginia, 24University of Pennsylvania, 25Arizona State University, 26University of Toronto, 27Arizona State University, 28National Astronomical Observatory, Tokyo, 29Northwestern University, 30Quantum Electronics and Photonics Division. National Institute of Standards and Technology. USA, 31Cardiff University, 32Northwestern University, 33University College London, 34University of British Columbia, 35University of Pennsylvania, 36Quantum Electronics and Photonics Division. National Institute of Standards and Technology. USA, 37Arizona State University, 38Quantum Electronics and Photonics Division. National Institute of Standards and Technology. USA, 39Jeremiah Horrocks Institute of Maths Physics and Astronomy, University of Central Lancashire, UK

The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope for Polarimetry (BLASTPol) is a suborbital mapping experiment designed to study the role magnetic fields play in star formation. BLASTPol has had two science flights from McMurdo Station, Antarctica in 2010 and 2012. These flights have produced thousands of polarization vectors at 250, 350 and 500 microns in several molecular cloud targets. Read More

The Serpens South infrared dark cloud consists of several filamentary ridges, some of which fragment into dense clumps. On the basis of CCS ($J_N=4_3-3_2$), HC$_3$N ($J=5-4$), N$_2$H$^+$ ($J=1-0$), and SiO ($J=2-1, v=0$) observations, we investigated the kinematics and chemical evolution of these filamentary ridges. We find that CCS is extremely abundant along the main filament in the protocluster clump. Read More

Aims. We derive physical properties such as the optical depths and the column densities of $^{13}$CO and C$^{18}$O to investigate the relationship between the far ultraviolet (FUV) radiation and the abundance ratios between $^{13}$CO and C$^{18}$O. Method. Read More

Protostellar outflows have been shown theoretically to be capable of maintaining supersonic turbulence in cluster-forming clumps and keeping the star formation rate per free-fall time as low as a few percent. We aim to test two basic predictions of this outflow-regulated cluster formation model, namely (1) the clump should be close to virial equilibrium and (2) the turbulence dissipation rate should be balanced by the outflow momentum injection rate, using recent outflow surveys toward 8 nearby cluster-forming clumps (B59, L1551, L1641N, Serpens Main Cloud, Serpens South, $\rho$ Oph, IC 348, and NGC 1333). We find, for almost all sources, that the clumps are close to virial equilibrium and the outflow momentum injection rate exceeds the turbulence momentum dissipation rate. Read More

Stars do not generally form in isolation. Instead, they form in clusters, and in these clustered environments newborn stars can have profound effects on one another and on their parent gas clouds. Feedback from clustered stars is almost certainly responsible for a number of otherwise puzzling facts about star formation: that it is an inefficient process that proceeds slowly when averaged over galactic scales; that most stars disperse from their birth sites and dissolve into the galactic field over timescales $\ll 1$ Gyr; and that newborn stars follow an initial mass function (IMF) with a distinct peak in the range $0. Read More


We present the results of N$_2$H$^+$ ($J=1-0$) observations toward Serpens South, the nearest cluster-forming, infrared dark cloud. The physical quantities are derived by fitting the hyperfine structure of N$_2$H$^+$. The Herschel and 1. Read More

We present combined Submillimeter-Array (SMA) + single-dish images of the (sub)millimeter dust continuum emission toward two prestellar cores SM1 and B2-N5 in the nearest star cluster forming region, $\rho$ Ophiuchus. Our combined images indicate that SM1 and B2-N5 consist of three and four condensations, respectively, with masses of $10^{-2}-10^{-1}M_\odot$ and sizes of a few hundred AU. The individual condensations have mean densities of $10^8-10^9$ cm$^{-3}$ and the masses are comparable to or larger than the critical Bonner-Ebert mass, indicating that the self-gravity plays an important role in the dynamical evolution of the condensations. Read More

Stars form predominantly in clusters inside dense clumps of turbulent, magnetized molecular clouds. The typical size and mass of the cluster-forming clumps are \sim 1 pc and \sim 10^2 - 10^3 M_\odot, respectively. Here, we discuss some recent progress on theoretical and observational studies of clustered star formation in such parsec-scale clumps with emphasis on the role of protostellar outflow feedback. Read More

Affiliations: 1NAOJ, 2Niigata Univ., 3JAXA, 4NRO, 5NRO, 6JAXA, 7Univ. of Tokyo, 8Ibaragi Univ., 9Niigata Univ., 10Univ. of Virginia

We present high spatial resolution $^{12}$CO ($J=1-0$) images taken by the Nobeyama 45m telescope toward a $48' \times 48'$ area including the L1641-N cluster. The effective spatial resolution of the maps is $21"$, corresponding to 0.04 pc at a distance of 400 pc. Read More

Near-infrared (IR) imaging polarimetry in the J, H, and Ks bands has been carried out for the protostellar cluster region around NGC 2264 IRS 2 in the Monoceros OB1 molecular cloud. Various infrared reflection nebulae clusters (IRNCs) associated with NGC 2264 IRS 2 and IRAS 12 S1 core were detected as well as local infrared reflection nebulae (IRNe). The illuminating sources of the IRNe were identified with known or new near- and mid-IR sources. Read More

We investigate the physical properties of dense cores formed in turbulent, magnetized, parsec-scale clumps of molecular clouds, using three-dimensional numerical simulations that include protostellar outflow feedback. The dense cores are identified in the simulated density data cube through a clumpfind algorithm. We find that the core velocity dispersion does not show any clear dependence on the core size, in contrast to Larson's linewidth-size relation, but consistent with recent observations. Read More

Affiliations: 1University of Virginia, 2University of Virginia, 3NAOJ, 4Academia Sinica, 5Academia Sinica

Stars form in dense cores of magnetized molecular clouds. If the magnetic flux threading the cores is dragged into the stars, the stellar field would be orders of magnitude stronger than observed. This well-known "magnetic flux problem" demands that most of the core magnetic flux be decoupled from the matter that enters the star. Read More

Affiliations: 1NAOJ, 2Nagoya City Univ., 3NRO, 4Univ. of Tokyo, 5NAO, 6Kyoto Univ., 7NRO, 8ASIAA, 9ASIAA, 10Univ. of Mass, 11Univ. of Mass

We present the results of CO ($J=3-2$) and HCO$^+$ ($J=4-3$) mapping observations toward a nearby embedded cluster, Serpens South, using the ASTE 10 m telescope. Our CO ($J=3-2$) map reveals that many outflows are crowded in the dense cluster-forming clump that can be recognized as a HCO$^+$ clump with a size of $\sim$ 0.2 pc and mass of $\sim$ 80 M$_\odot$. Read More

We present the results of CO (J=3-2) and CO (J=1-0) mapping observations toward the active cluster forming clump, L1688, in the rho Ophiuchi molecular cloud. From the CO (J=3-2) and CO (J=1-0) data cubes, we identify five outflows, whose driving sources are VLA 1623, EL 32, LFAM 26, EL 29, and IRS 44. Among the identified outflows, the most luminous outflow is the one from the prototypical Class 0 source, VLA 1623. Read More

Stars form predominantly in clusters inside dense clumps of molecular clouds that are both turbulent and magnetized. The typical size and mass of the cluster-forming clumps are $\sim 1$ pc and $\sim 10^2 - $ 10$^3$ M$_\odot$, respectively. Here, we discuss some recent progress on numerical simulations of clustered star formation in such parsec-scale dense clumps with emphasis on the role of magnetic fields. Read More

Magnetic fields are generally expected to increase the characteristic mass of stars formed in stellar clusters, because they tend to increase the effective Jeans mass. We test this expectation using adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) magnetohydrodynamic simulations of cluster formation in turbulent magnetized clumps of molecular clouds, treating stars as accreting sink particles. We find that, contrary to the common expectation, a magnetic field of strength in the observed range decreases, rather than increases, the characteristic stellar mass. Read More

We made deep NIR imaging polarimetry toward the Serpens cloud core. The polarization vector maps enable us to newly detect 24 small IR reflection nebulae with YSOs. Polarization measurements of NIR point sources indicate an hourglass-shaped magnetic field, of which symmetry axis is nearly perpendicular to the elongation of the C18O (J=1-0) or submillimeter continuum emission. Read More

Affiliations: 1Standford, 2University of Virginia, 3Stanford, 4Niigata University

(Abridged) We investigate massive star formation in turbulent, magnetized, parsec-scale clumps of molecular clouds including protostellar outflow feedback using Enzo-based MHD simulations with accreting sink particles and effective resolution $2048^3$. We find that, in the absence of regulation by magnetic fields and outflow feedback, massive stars form readily in a turbulent, moderately condensed clump of $\sim 1,600$ solar masses, along with a cluster of hundreds of lower mass stars. The massive stars are fed at high rates by (1) transient dense filaments produced by large-scale turbulent compression at early times, and (2) by the clump-wide global collapse resulting from turbulence decay at late times. Read More

Using the archive data of the H13CO+ (J=1-0) line emission taken with the Nobeyama 45 m radio telescope with a spatial resolution of about 0.01pc, we have identified 68 dense cores in the central dense region of the rho Ophiuchi main cloud. The H13CO+ data also indicates that the fractional abundance of H13CO+ relative to H2 is roughly inversely proportional to the square root of the H2 column density with a mean of 1. Read More

We present the results of C18O observations by the Nobeyama Millimeter Array toward dense clumps with radii of ~ 0.3 pc in six cluster-forming regions including massive (proto)stars. We identified 171 cores, whose radius, line width, and molecular mass range from 0. Read More

We carry out three-dimensional MHD simulations of star formation in turbulent, magnetized clouds, including ambipolar diffusion and feedback from protostellar outflows. The calculations focus on relatively diffuse clouds threaded by a strong magnetic field capable of resisting severe tangling by turbulent motions and retarding global gravitational contraction in the cross-field direction. They are motivated by observations of the Taurus molecular cloud complex (and, to a lesser extent, Pipe Nebula), which shows an ordered large-scale magnetic field, as well as elongated condensations that are generally perpendicular to the large-scale field. Read More

Affiliations: 1Niigata Univ., 2Univ. of Virginia
Category: Astrophysics

The majority of stars are thought to form in clusters. Cluster formation in dense clumps of molecular clouds is strongly influenced, perhaps controlled, by supersonic turbulence. We have previously shown that the turbulence in regions of active cluster formation is quickly transformed by the forming stars through protostellar outflows, and that the outflow-driven protostellar turbulence is the environment in which most of the cluster members form. Read More

Affiliations: 1Univ. of Virginia, 2Niigata Univ.
Category: Astrophysics

Most, perhaps all, stars go through a phase of vigorous outflow during formation. We examine, through 3D MHD simulation, the effects of protostellar outflows on cluster formation. We find that the initial turbulence in the cluster-forming region is quickly replaced by motions generated by outflows. Read More

The effect of smooth cloud boundaries on the interaction of steady planar shock waves with interstellar clouds is studied using a high-resolution local AMR technique with a second-order accurate axisymmetric Godunov hydrodynamic scheme. A 3D calculation is also done to confirm the results of the 2D ones. We consider an initially spherical cloud whose density distribution is flat near the cloud center and has a power-law profile in the cloud envelope. Read More

The efficiency of star formation, defined as the ratio of the stellar to total (gas and stellar) mass, is observed to vary from a few percent in regions of dispersed star formation to about a third in cluster-forming cores. This difference may reflect the relative importance of magnetic fields and turbulence in controlling star formation. We investigate the interplay between supersonic turbulence and magnetic fields using numerical simulations, in a sheet-like geometry. Read More

The evolution of a gas shell, swept by the supernova remnant of a massive first generation star, is studied with H_2 and HD chemistry taken into account. When a first-generation star explodes as a supernova, H_2 and HD molecules are formed in the swept gas shell and effectively cool the gas shell to temperatures of 32 K - 154 K. If the supernova remnant can sweep to gather the ambient gas, the gas shell comes to be dominated by its self-gravity, and hence, is expected to fragment. Read More

Affiliations: 1Niv. of Virginia, 2Niigata Univ.
Category: Astrophysics

We investigate numerically the combined effects of supersonic turbulence, strong magnetic fields and ambipolar diffusion on cloud evolution leading to star formation. We find that, in clouds that are initially magnetically subcritical, supersonic turbulence can speed up star formation, through enhanced ambipolar diffusion in shocks. The speedup overcomes a major objection to the standard scenario of low-mass star formation involving ambipolar diffusion, since the diffusion time scale at the average density of a molecular cloud is typically longer than the cloud life time. Read More

Affiliations: 1Niigata University, 2University of Virginia
Category: Astrophysics

We study the non-axisymmetric evolution of magnetized clouds, using a 2D MHD code based on the physically motivated thin-disk approximation. We found that such clouds become unstable to non-axisymmetric perturbations after the supercritical cores are formed due to ambipolar diffusion. We show that for a wide range of initial cloud parameters, the $m=2$ mode grows nonlinearly into a bar during the isothermal collapse after the supercritical core formation. Read More

Isolated low-mass stars are formed in dense cores of molecular clouds. In the standard picture, the cores are envisioned to condense out of strongly magnetized clouds through ambipolar diffusion. Most previous calculations based on this scenario are limited to axisymmetric cloud evolution leading to a single core, which collapses to form an isolated star or stellar system at the center. Read More


In the standard scenario of isolated low-mass star formation, strongly magnetized molecular clouds are envisioned to condense gradually into cores, driven by ambipolar diffusion. Once the cores become magnetically supercritical, they collapse to form stars. Most previous studies based on this scenario are limited to axisymmetric calculations leading to single supercritical core formation. Read More

Affiliations: 1Niigata Univ., UC Berkeley, 2Univ. of Tsukuba
Category: Astrophysics

In the context of star formation through fragmentation of an extremely metal-deficient protogalactic cloud, the gravitational collapse of filamentary gas clouds is explored with 1D numerical hydrodynamics coupled with non-equilibrium chemistry of H$_2$ and HD. It is found that the cloud evolution is governed mainly by the initial central density ($n_{\rm c,0}$) and H$_2$ abundance ($x_{\rm H_2,0}$). In particular, the evolution of low-density filaments bifurcates at a threshold H$_2$ abundance of $x_{\rm H_2,cr}\simeq 3 \times 10^{-3}$, beyond which HD cooling overwhelms H$_2$ cooling. Read More