# Frithjof Karsch - HLRZ, c/o KFA Jülich, Jülich, Germany and Fakultät für Physik, Universität Bielefeld, Bielefeld, Germany

## Contact Details

NameFrithjof Karsch |
||

AffiliationHLRZ, c/o KFA Jülich, Jülich, Germany and Fakultät für Physik, Universität Bielefeld, Bielefeld, Germany |
||

CityBielefeld |
||

CountryGermany |
||

## Pubs By Year |
||

## Pub CategoriesHigh Energy Physics - Lattice (49) High Energy Physics - Phenomenology (38) Nuclear Theory (13) Physics - Statistical Mechanics (3) High Energy Physics - Theory (3) Nuclear Experiment (2) |

## Publications Authored By Frithjof Karsch

We use results from a 6-th order Taylor expansion of the QCD equation of state to construct expansions for cumulants of conserved charge fluctuations and their correlations. We show that these cumulants strongly constrain the range of applicability of hadron resonance gas model calculations. We point out that the latter is inappropriate to describe equilibrium properties of QCD at zero and non-zero values of the baryon chemical potential already at T~155 MeV. Read More

Ratios of cumulants of net proton-number fluctuations measured by the STAR Collaboration show strong deviations from a skellam distribution, which should describe thermal properties of cumulant ratios, if proton-number fluctuations are generated in equilibrium and a hadron resonance gas (HRG) model would provide a suitable description of thermodynamics at the freeze-out temperature. We present some results on sixth order cumulants entering the calculation of the QCD equation of state at non-zero values of the baryon chemical potential (mu_B) and discuss limitations on the applicability of HRG thermodynamics deduced from a comparison between QCD and HRG model calculations of cumulants of conserved charge fluctuations. We show that basic features of the $\mu_B$-dependence of skewness and kurtosis ratios of net proton-number fluctuations measured by the STAR Collaboration resemble those expected from a O(mu_B^2) QCD calculation of the corresponding net baryon-number cumulant ratios. Read More

The nature of chiral phase transition for two flavor QCD is an interesting but unresolved problem. One of the most intriguing issues is whether or not the anomalous U(1) symmetry in the flavor sector is effectively restored along with the chiral symmetry. This may determine the universality class of the chiral phase transition. Read More

The magnitude of the $U_A(1)$ symmetry breaking is expected to affect the nature of $N_f=2$ QCD chiral phase transition. The explicit breaking of chiral symmetry due to realistic light quark mass is small, so it is important to use chiral fermions on the lattice to understand the effect of $U_A(1)$ near the chiral crossover temperature, $T_c$. We report our latest results for the eigenvalue spectrum of 2+1 flavour QCD with dynamical Mobius domain wall fermions at finite temperature probed using the overlap operator on $32^3\times 8$ lattice. Read More

The effects of kinematic cuts on electric charge fluctuations in a gas of charged particles are discussed. We consider a very transparent example of an ideal pion gas with quantum statistics, which can be viewed as a multi-component gas of Boltzmann particles with different charges and masses. Cumulants of net-electric charge fluctuations $\chi_n^Q$ are calculated in a static and expanding medium with flow parameters adjusted to the experimental data. Read More

We review results from lattice QCD calculations on the thermodynamics of strong-interaction matter with emphasis on input these calculations can provide to the exploration of the phase diagram and properties of hot and dense matter created in heavy ion experiments. This review is organized as follows: 1) Introduction, 2) QCD thermodynamics on the lattice, 3) QCD phase diagram at high temperature, 4) Bulk thermodynamics, 5) Fluctuations of conserved charges, 6) Transport properties, 7) Open heavy flavors and heavy quarkonia, 8) QCD in external magnetic fields, 9) Summary. Read More

We investigate the low-lying eigenmodes of the Dirac matrix with the aim to gain more insight into the temperature dependence of the anomalous $U_A(1)$ symmetry. We use the overlap operator to probe dynamical QCD configurations generated with (2+1)-flavors of highly improved staggered quarks. We find no evidence of a gap opening up in the infrared region of the eigenvalue spectrum even at $1. Read More

We calculate spatial correlation functions of in-medium mesons consisting of strange--anti-strange, strange--anti-charm and charm--anti-charm quarks in (2+1)-flavor lattice QCD using the highly improved staggered quark action. A comparative study of the in-medium modifications of mesons with different flavor contents is performed. We observe significant in-medium modifications for the $\phi$ and $D_s$ meson channels already at temperatures around the chiral crossover region. Read More

We compare recent lattice QCD calculations of higher order cumulants of net-strangeness fluctuations with hadron resonance gas (HRG) model calculations. Up to the QCD transition temperature Tc=( 154 +/- 9) MeV we find good agreement between QCD and HRG model calculations of second and fourth order cumulants, even when subtle aspects of net-baryon number, strangeness and electric charge fluctuations are probed. In particular, the fourth order cumulants indicate that also in the strangeness sector of QCD the failure of HRG model calculations sets in quite abruptly in the vicinity of the QCD transition temperature and is apparent in most observables for T > 160 MeV. Read More

In this project we study the effect of the $U_A(1)$ anomaly for (2+1)-flavour QCD at high temperature. We apply the overlap operator as a tool to probe the topological properties of gauge field configurations which have been generated within the Highly Improved Staggered Quark (HISQ) discretization scheme on lattices of size $32^3\times 8$ with $m_l/m_s=1/20$, commonly used for the study of QCD thermodynamics. Although we have at present, only results for one value of the quark masses and thus cannot monitor the change of the eigenvalue distributions with the light quark mass, the distribution of the low-lying eigenvalues of the overlap operator suggests that the $U_A(1)$ is not restored effectively even at 1. Read More

Higher order moments of net conserved charge fluctuations, in particular net baryon number and net electric charge, are sensitive thermodynamic observables that respond strongly to critical behavior in strong interaction matter. In order to use them also as a sensible probe to detect critical behavior in heavy ion experiments we not only need to better understand the relation between chemical freeze-out in heavy ion collision and the QCD phase boundary, we also need to verify that charge fluctuations measured experimentally indeed correspond to thermal conditions as described by equilibrium QCD. This requires a model independent characterization of thermal conditions for which cumulants of conserved charge fluctuations themselves are ideally suited. Read More

Temporal quark correlation functions are analyzed in quenched lattice QCD for two values of temperature above the critical temperature (Tc) for deconfinement, T=1.5Tc and 3Tc. A two-pole ansatz for the quark spectral function is used to determine the bare quark mass and the momentum dependence of excitation spectra on large lattices of size up to 128^3x16. Read More

Freeze-out conditions in Heavy Ion Collisions are generally determined by comparing experimental results for ratios of particle yields with theoretical predictions based on applications of the Hadron Resonance Gas model. We discuss here how this model dependent determination of freeze-out parameters may eventually be replaced by theoretical predictions based on equilibrium QCD thermodynamics. Read More

We present direct representations of the scaling functions of the 3d O(4) model which are relevant for comparisons to other models, in particular QCD. This is done in terms of expansions in the scaling variable z=t/h^{1/\beta\delta}. The expansions around z=0 and the corresponding asymptotic ones for z --> +/- infty, overlap such that no interpolation is needed. Read More

We analyze general convergence properties of the Taylor expansion of observables to finite chemical potential in the framework of an effective 2+1 flavor Polyakov-quark-meson model. To compute the required higher order coefficients a novel technique based on algorithmic differentiation has been developed. Results for thermodynamic observables as well as the phase structure obtained through the series expansion up to 24th order are compared to the full model solution at finite chemical potential. Read More

We discuss universal properties of higher order cumulants of net baryon number fluctuations and point out their relevance for the analysis of freeze-out and critical conditions in heavy ion collisions at LHC and RHIC. Read More

We discuss the role of cumulants of net baryon number fluctuations in the analysis of critical behavior in QCD and the study of freeze-out conditions in heavy ion experiments. Through the comparison of the current set of measurements of higher order cumulants of net baryon number fluctuations with lattice QCD calculations and results from hadron resonance gas model we can learn to what extent freeze-out as, determined by such cumulants, occurs close to the QCD transition temperature and thus can probe critical behavior at small values of the baryon chemical potential. Understanding how the relation between freeze-out conditions and the QCD crossover transition is reflected in properties of the experimentally determined cumulants is an important prerequisite to search for the QCD critical point. Read More

We derive direct representations of the scaling functions of the 3d O(4) model which are relevant for comparisons to other models, in particular QCD. This is done in terms of expansions in the scaling variable z= t/h^{1/Delta}. The expansions around z=0 and the corresponding asymptotic ones for z --> +- infinity overlap such that no interpolation is needed. Read More

We explore the continuum limit $a\rightarrow 0$ of meson correlation functions at finite temperature. In detail we analyze finite volume and lattice cut-off effects in view of possible consequences for continuum physics. We perform calculations on quenched gauge configurations using the clover improved Wilson fermion action. Read More

Convergence properties of Taylor expansions of observables, which are also used in lattice QCD calculations at non-zero chemical potential, are analyzed in an effective N_f = 2+1 flavor Polyakov-quark-meson model. A recently developed algorithmic technique allows the calculation of higher-order Taylor expansion coefficients in functional approaches. This novel technique is for the first time applied to an effective N_f = 2+1 flavor Polyakov-quark-meson model and the findings are compared with the full model solution at finite densities. Read More

We calculate the first four moments of baryon number, electric charge and strangeness fluctuations within the hadron resonance gas model. Different moments and their ratios as well as skewness and kurtosis are evaluated on the phenomenologically determined freeze-out curve in the temperature, baryon chemical potential plane. The model results and its predictions as well as relations between different moments are compared with the first data on net proton fluctuations in Au-Au collisions obtained at RHIC by the STAR Collaboration. Read More

We discuss universal scaling properties of (2+1)-flavor QCD in the vicinity of the chiral phase transition at vanishing as well as non-vanishing light quark chemical potential (mu_l). We provide evidence for O(N) scaling of the chiral order parameter in (2+1)-flavor QCD and show that the scaling analysis of its derivative with respect to the light quark chemical potential provides a unique approach to the determination of the curvature of the chiral phase transition line in the vicinity of mu_l/T=0. Read More

We analyze the quark spectral function above and below the critical temperature for deconfinement and at finite momentum in quenched lattice QCD. It is found that the temporal quark correlation function in the deconfined phase near the critical temperature is well reproduced by a two-pole ansatz for the spectral function. The bare quark mass and momentum dependences of the spectral function are analyzed with this ansatz. Read More

We present an analysis of the quark spectral function above and below the critical temperature for deconfinement performed at zero and non-zero momentum in quenched lattice QCD using clover improved Wilson fermions in Landau gauge. It is found that the temporal quark correlation function in the deconfined phase near the critical temperature is well reproduced by a two-pole ansatz for the spectral function. This indicates that excitation modes of the quark field have small decay rates. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}RBC-Bielefeld collaboration

We provide evidence for the influence of thermal fluctuations of Goldstone
modes on the chiral condensate at finite temperature. We show that at fixed
temperature, T

We present results from calculations of different quark number and hadronic susceptibilities on 2+1-flavor dynamical domain wall ensembles. We find that the iso-spin and electric charge susceptibilities are especially well suited to determine the transition temperature, as these quantities show only small statistical errors. Moreover, the transition values of the coupling obtained from iso-spin and electrical charge susceptibilities are in good agreement with the one obtained from the chiral condensate. Read More

We present results from a calculation of the QCD equation of state with two light (up, down) and one heavier (strange) quark mass performed on lattices with three different values of the lattice cut-off. We show that also on the finest lattice analyzed by us observables sensitive to deconfinement and chiral symmetry restoration, respectively, vary most rapidly in the same temperature regime. Read More

We discuss recent progress made studies of bulk thermodynamics of strongly interacting matter through lattice simulations of QCD with an almost physical light and strange quark mass spectrum. We present results on the QCD equation of state at vanishing and non-vanishing quark chemical potential and show first results on baryon number and strangeness fluctuations, which might be measured in event-by-event fluctuations in low energy runs at RHIC as well as at FAIR. Read More

We discuss recent progress in studies of QCD thermodynamics with almost physical light quark masses and a physical value of the strange quark mass. We summarize results on the transition temperature in QCD and analyze the relation between deconfinement and chiral symmetry restoration. Read More

We analyze the spectral properties of the quark propagator above the critical temperature for the deconfinement phase transition in quenched lattice QCD using clover improved Wilson fermions. The bare quark mass dependence of the quark spectral function is analyzed by varying the hopping parameter \kappa in Landau gauge. We assume a two-pole structure for the quark spectral function, which is numerically found to work quite well for any value of \kappa. Read More

We analyze the quark spectral function above the critical temperature for deconfinement in quenched lattice QCD using clover improved Wilson fermions in Landau gauge. We show that the temporal quark correlator is well reproduced by a two-pole approximation for the spectral function and analyze the bare quark mass dependence of both poles as well as their residues. In the chiral limit we find that the quark spectral function has two collective modes which correspond to the normal and plasmino excitations. Read More

We present results from a calculation of the transition temperature in QCD with two light and one heavier (strange) quark mass on lattices with temporal extent N_t =4 and 6. Calculations with improved staggered fermions have been performed with a strange quark mass fixed close to its physical value and for various light to strange quark mass ratios that correspond to light pseudo-scalar masses in the range (150-500) MeV. From a combined extrapolation to the chiral (m_l -> 0) and continuum (aT -> 0) limits we obtain for the transition temperature at the physical point T_c = 192(7)(4) MeV. Read More

We discuss results from lattice calculations for a few observables that are sensitive to different length scales in the high temperature phase of QCD and can give insight into its non-perturbative structure. We compare lattice results with perturbative calculations at high temperature obtained for vanishing and non-vanishing quark chemical potential. Read More

At high temperatures or densities matter formed by strongly interacting elementary particles (hadronic matter) is expected to undergo a transition to a new form of matter - the quark gluon plasma - in which elementary particles (quarks and gluons) are no longer confined inside hadrons but are free to propagate in a thermal medium much larger in extent than the typical size of a hadron. The transition to this new form of matter as well as properties of the plasma phase are studied in large scale numerical calculations based on the theory of strong interactions - Quantum Chromo Dynamics (QCD). Experimentally properties of hot and dense elementary particle matter are studied in relativistic heavy ion collisions such as those currently performed at the relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC) at BNL. Read More

We review recent progress in studies of bulk thermodynamics of strongly interacting matter, present results on the QCD equation of state and discuss the status of studies of the phase diagram at non-vanishing quark chemical potential. Read More

Modifications in the production pattern of heavy quark bound states have long been considered to provide sensitive signatures for the thermal properties of dense matter created in heavy ion collisions. The original concept of Matsui and Satz for quarkonium suppression as signature for deconfinement in heavy ion collisions has been challenged recently through lattice studies of spectral functions, which indicate the persistence of heavy quark bound states at temperatures well above the transition, as well as through the refined analysis of hadronization and recombination models, which take into account the thermal evolution of the medium generated in a heavy ion collision. We will review here recent developments on these topics. Read More

We present recent lattice results on QCD thermodynamics at non-vanishing baryon number density obtained from a 6th order Taylor expansion in the chemical potential. Results for bulk thermodynamic observables, in particular for fluctuations in the baryon number density, are found to be well described by a hadron resonance gas model at low temperature and an ideal quark gluon gas at high temperature. We also analyze the radius of convergence of the Taylor series and discuss the information it provides on the occurrence of a second order phase transition point in the QCD phase diagram. Read More

Lattice studies of charmonium systems have indicated that in a deconfined gluonic plasma ground state charmonia survive as bound states upto temperatures \~ 2 Tc. After surveying the methodologies used in reaching these results, we examine the behavior of these systems when the bound state is in motion with respect to the heatbath frame. We find that the finite momenta charmonia show medium modifications when the medium is deconfined; in particular, a modification of the energy-momentum dispersion relation is indicated. Read More

We discuss recent lattice results on in-medium properties of hadrons and focus on thermal properties of heavy quark bound states. We will clarify the relation between heavy quark free energies and potentials used to analyze the melting of heavy quark bound states. Furthermore, we present calculations of meson spectral functions which indicate that the charmonium ground states, J/psi and eta_c, persist in the quark gluon plasma as well defined resonances with no significant change of their zero temperature masses at least up to T ~ 1. Read More

The behavior of charmonia after the deconfinement transition is investigated on quenched lattices. Analysis of temporal correlators on fine lattices at temperatures upto 3 T_c show that the J/psi and eta_c survive the deconfinement transition with little significant changes, and survive as bound states at least upto 2.25 T_c. Read More

We present results from lattice calculations on the thermodynamics of QCD at non-zero temperature and baryon chemical potential and discuss the role of resonances for the occurrence of the transition to the quark-gluon plasma in hot and dense matter. Properties of a hadronic resonance gas are compared to lattice results on the equation of state at zero as well as non-zero baryon chemical potential. Furthermore, it is shown that the quark mass dependence of the transition temperature can be understood in terms of lines of constant energy density in a resonance gas. Read More

We present a study of charmonia in hot gluonic plasma, for temperatures upto three times the deconfinement transition temperature Tc. q \bar{q} systems with quark masses close to the charm mass and different spin-parity quantum numbers were studied on very fine isotropic lattices. The analysis of temporal correlators, and spectral functions constructed from them, shows that the J/psi and eta_c survive up to quite high temperatures, with little observable change up to 1. Read More

We study the renormalized free energy of a heavy quark anti-quark pair in the different colour channels in full QCD at finite temperature. Similarities and differences to the quenched case are discussed and the temperature dependence as well as their short distance behavior are analyzed. The asymptotic large distance behavior of the free energy is used to define the non-perturbatively renormalized Polyakov loop which is well behaved in the continuum limit. Read More

We discuss the phase structure and the equation of state for QCD at non-zero temperature and density. Derivatives of $\ln Z$ with respect to quark chemical potential $\mu_q$ up to fourth order are calculated for 2-flavor QCD, enabling estimates of the pressure, quark number density and associated susceptibilities as functions of $\mu_q$ via a Taylor series expansion. Also, the phase transition line for 2 and 3-flavor QCD and the critical endpoint in the $(T, \mu_q)$ plane are investigated in the low density regime. Read More

We present results from lattice studies of charmonium systems near the deconfinement transition temperature. On quenched isotropic lattices with lattice spacings between 0.02 and 0. Read More

We study the \kappa^2 corrections to the quenched limit of \mu>0 QCD. We use an improved reweighting procedure. Read More

We discuss recent results on the thermodynamics of QCD in the presence of light dynamical quark degrees of freedom. In particular, we concentrate on an analysis of the flavour and quark mass dependence of the QCD phase diagram, the equation of state and the transition temperature. Moreover, we present recent results on the heavy quark free energy. Read More

After a brief introduction into basic aspects of the formulation of lattice regularized QCD at finite temperature and density we discuss our current understanding of the QCD phase diagram at finite temperature. We present results from lattice calculations that emphasize the deconfining as well as chiral symmetry restoring features of the QCD transition, and discuss the thermodynamics of the high temperature phase. Read More

We review recent results on QCD at finite temperature. Main emphasis is put on a discussion of observables which are of immediate interest to experimental searches for the Quark Gluon Plasma, i.e. Read More

We analyze the critical behaviour of the three-dimensional, three-state Potts model in the presence of an external ordering field. From a finite size scaling analysis on lattices of size up to 70**3 we determine the critical endpoint of the line of first order phase transitions as (b_c, h_c) =(0.54938(2), 0. Read More