Frank C. Bosch - Yale University

Frank C. Bosch
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Frank C. Bosch
Yale University
New Haven
United States

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Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (43)
Astrophysics of Galaxies (30)

Publications Authored By Frank C. Bosch

Galaxy clustering on small scales is significantly under-predicted by sub-halo abundance matching (SHAM) models that populate (sub-)haloes with galaxies based on peak halo mass, $M_{\rm peak}$. SHAM models based on the peak maximum circular velocity, $V_{\rm peak}$, have had much better success. The primary reason $M_{\rm peak}$ based models fail is the relatively low abundance of satellite galaxies produced in these models compared to those based on $V_{\rm peak}$. Read More

Determining the positions of halo centres in large-scale structure surveys is crucial for many cosmological studies. A common assumption is that halo centres correspond to the location of their brightest member galaxies. In this paper, we study the dynamics of brightest galaxies with respect to other halo members in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR7. Read More

Affiliations: 1U Pittsburgh/PITT PACC, 2U Pittsburgh/PITT PACC, 3U Pittsburgh/PITT PACC, 4RIT/CCRG, 5Yale, 6CfA/Harvard, 7Yale, 8U Pittsburgh/PITT PACC, 9Yale

Dark matter halo clustering depends not only on halo mass, but also on other properties such as concentration and shape. This phenomenon is known broadly as assembly bias. We explore the dependence of assembly bias on halo definition, parametrized by spherical overdensity parameter, $\Delta$. Read More

Affiliations: 1Yale, 2Yale, 3Institute for Computational Cosmology, Durham, U.K, 4CRAL, Lyon, 5EPFL, Lausanne, 6IfA, 7Yale, 8Yale, 9LAM, Marseille, France, 10LAM, Marseille, France, 11Yale, 12Harvard-CfA, 13Harvard, 14MIT, 15Harvard-CfA, 16INAF, Bologna, 17MIT

We map the lensing-inferred substructure in the first three clusters observed by the Hubble Space Telescope Frontier Fields Initiative (HSTFF): Abell 2744 (z = 0.308), MACSJ0416, (z = 0.396) and MACSJ1149 (z = 0. Read More

We present a comprehensive analysis of the evolution of dark matter subhaloes in the cosmological Bolshoi simulation. We identify a complete set of 12 unique evolution channels by which subhaloes evolve in between simulation outputs, and study their relative importance and demographics. We show that instantaneous masses and maximum circular velocities of individual subhaloes are extremely noisy, despite the use of a sophisticated, phase-space-based halo finder. Read More

We present a study of unprecedented statistical power regarding the halo-to-halo variance of dark matter substructure. Using a combination of N-body simulations and a semi-analytical model, we investigate the variance in subhalo mass fractions and subhalo occupation numbers, with an emphasis on how these statistics scale with halo formation time. We demonstrate that the subhalo mass fraction, f_sub, is mainly a function of halo formation time, with earlier forming haloes having less substructure. Read More

Using a method to correct redshift space distortion (RSD) for individual galaxies, we mapped the real space distributions of galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7 (DR7). We use an ensemble of mock catalogs to demonstrate the reliability of our method. Here as the first paper in a series, we mainly focus on the two point correlation function (2PCF) of galaxies. Read More

As the first paper in a series on the study of the galaxy-galaxy lensing from Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 (SDSS DR7), we present our image processing pipeline that corrects the systematics primarily introduced by the Point Spread Function (PSF). Using this pipeline, we processed SDSS DR7 imaging data in $r$ band and generated a background galaxy catalog containing the shape information of each galaxy. Based on our own shape measurements of the galaxy images from SDSS DR7, we extract the galaxy-galaxy (GG) lensing signals around foreground spectroscopic galaxies binned in different luminosity and stellar mass. Read More

We constrain the newly-introduced decorated Halo Occupation Distribution (HOD) model using SDSS DR7 measurements of projected galaxy clustering or r-band luminosity threshold samples. The decorated HOD is a model for the galaxy-halo connection that augments the HOD by allowing for the possibility of galaxy assembly bias: galaxy luminosity may be correlated with dark matter halo properties besides mass, Mvir. We demonstrate that it is not possible to rule out galaxy assembly bias using DR7 measurements of galaxy clustering alone. Read More

The baryonic Tully-Fisher relation (BTFR) is a valuable observational tool and a critical test of galaxy formation theory. We explore the systematic uncertainty in the slope and the scatter of the observed line width BTFR utilizing homogeneously measured, unresolved HI observations for 930 isolated galaxies. We measure a fiducial relation of $\log_{10}{M_{\rm baryon}} = 3. Read More

The connection between galaxies and dark matter halos is often inferred from data using probabilistic models, such as the Halo Occupation Distribution (HOD). Conventional HOD formulations assume that only halo mass governs the galaxy-halo connection. Violations of this assumption, known as galaxy assembly bias, threaten the HOD program. Read More

We present the first comprehensive analysis of the segregation of dark matter subhaloes in their host haloes. Using numerical simulations, we examine the segregation of twelve different subhalo properties with respect to both orbital energy and halo-centric radius (in real space as well as in projection). Subhaloes are strongly segregated by accretion redshift, which is an outcome of the inside-out assembly of their host haloes. Read More

We propose that one of the sources in the recently detected system CR7 by Sobral et al. (2015) through spectro-photometric measurements at $z = 6.6$ harbors a direct collapse blackhole (DCBH). Read More

We use a semi-analytical model for the substructure of dark matter haloes to assess the too-big-to-fail (TBTF) problem. The model accurately reproduces the average subhalo mass and velocity functions, as well as their halo-to-halo variance, in N-body simulations. We construct thousands of realizations of Milky Way (MW) size host haloes, allowing us to investigate the TBTF problem with unprecedented statistical power. Read More

We present Ha maps at 1kpc spatial resolution for star-forming galaxies at z~1, made possible by the WFC3 grism on HST. Employing this capability over all five 3D-HST/CANDELS fields provides a sample of 2676 galaxies. By creating deep stacked Halpha (Ha) images, we reach surface brightness limits of 1x10^-18\erg\s\cm^2\arcsec^2, allowing us to map the distribution of ionized gas out to >10kpc for typical L* galaxies at this epoch. Read More

We investigate the ability of current implementations of galaxy group finders to recover colour-dependent halo occupation statistics. To test the fidelity of group catalogue inferred statistics, we run three different group finders used in the literature over a mock that includes galaxy colours in a realistic manner. Overall, the resulting mock group catalogues are remarkably similar, and most colour-dependent statistics are recovered with reasonable accuracy. Read More

Correlations between the star formation rates (SFRs) of nearby galaxies (so-called galactic conformity) have been observed for projected separations up to 4 Mpc, an effect not predicted by current semi-analytic models. We investigate correlations between the mass accretion rates (dMvir/dt) of nearby halos as a potential physical origin for this effect. We find that pairs of host halos "know about" each others' assembly histories even when their present-day separation is greater than thirty times the virial radius of either halo. Read More

Large surveys have shown that red galaxies are preferentially aligned with their halos while blue galaxies have a more isotropic distribution. Since halos generally align with their filaments this introduces a bias in the measurement of the cosmic shear from weak lensing. It is therefore vitally important to understand why this difference arises. Read More

Using a sample of spiral galaxies selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 (SDSS DR7) and Galaxy Zoo 2 (GZ2), we investigate the alignment of spin axes of spiral galaxies with their surrounding large scale structure, which is characterized by the large-scale tidal field reconstructed from the data using galaxy groups above a certain mass threshold. We find that the spin axes of only have weak tendency to be aligned with (or perpendicular to) the intermediate (or minor) axis of the local tidal tensor. The signal is the strongest in a \cluster environment where all the three eigenvalues of the local tidal tensor are positive. Read More

We present a detailed study of how dark matter haloes assemble their mass and grow their (central) potential well. We characterize these via their mass accretion histories (MAHs) and potential well growth histories (PWGHs), which we extract from the Bolshoi simulation and from semi-analytical merger trees supplemented with a method to compute the maximum circular velocity, Vmax, of progenitor haloes. The results of both methods are in excellent agreement, both in terms of the average and the scatter. Read More

The empirical model of Lu et al. 2014 is updated with recent data and used to study galaxy star formation and assembly histories. At $z > 2$, the predicted galaxy stellar mass functions are steep, and a significant amount of star formation is hosted by low-mass haloes that may be missed in current observations. Read More

Quenched central galaxies tend to reside in a preferentially quenched large-scale environment, a phenomenon that has been dubbed galactic conformity. Remarkably, this tendency persists out to scales far larger than the virial radius of the halo hosting the central. Therefore, conformity manifestly violates the widely adopted assumption that the dark matter halo mass Mvir exclusively governs galaxy occupation statistics. Read More

We present a new, semi-analytical model describing the evolution of dark matter subhaloes. The model uses merger trees constructed using the method of Parkinson et al. (2008) to describe the masses and redshifts of subhaloes at accretion, which are subsequently evolved using a simple model for the orbit-averaged mass loss rates. Read More

We compare subhalo mass and velocity functions obtained from different simulations with different subhalo finders among each other, and with predictions from the new semi-analytical model of Jiang & van den Bosch (2014). We find that subhalo mass functions (SHMFs) obtained using different subhalo finders agree with each other at the level of ~ 20 percent, but only at the low mass end. At the massive end, subhalo finders that identify subhaloes based purely on density in configuration space dramatically underpredict the subhalo abundances by more than an order of magnitude. Read More

In this paper, we test the age matching hypothesis that the star formation rate (SFR) of a galaxy of fixed stellar mass is determined by its dark matter halo formation history, and as such, that more quiescent galaxies reside in older halos. This simple model has been remarkably successful at predicting color-based galaxy statistics at low redshift as measured in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). To further test this method with observations, we present new SDSS measurements of the galaxy two-point correlation function and galaxy-galaxy lensing as a function of stellar mass and SFR, separated into quenched and star-forming galaxy samples. Read More

We use ROSAT All Sky Survey (RASS) broadband X-ray images and the optical clusters identified from SDSS DR7 to estimate the X-ray luminosities around $\sim 65,000$ candidate clusters with masses $\ga 10^{13}\msunh$ based on an Optical to X-ray (OTX) code we develop. We obtain a catalogue with X-ray luminosity for each cluster. This catalog contains 817 clusters (473 at redshift $z\le 0. Read More

We select satellite galaxies from the galaxy group catalog constructed with the SDSS spectroscopic galaxies and measure the tangential shear around these galaxies with source catalog extracted from CFHT/MegaCam Stripe-82 Survey to constrain the mass of subhalos associated with them. The lensing signal is measured around satellites in groups with masses in the range [10^{13}, 5x10^{14}]h^{-1}M_{sun}, and is found to agree well with theoretical expectation. Fitting the data with a truncated NFW profile, we obtain an average subhalo mass of log M_{sub}= 11. Read More

Halo merger trees describe the hierarchical mass assembly of dark matter haloes, and are the backbone for modeling galaxy formation and evolution. Merger trees constructed using Monte Carlo algorithms based on the extended Press-Schechter (EPS) formalism are complementary to those extracted from N-body simulations, and have the advantage that they are not trammeled by limited numerical resolution and uncertainties in identifying (sub)haloes and linking them between snapshots. This paper compares multiple EPS-based merger tree algorithms to simulation results using four diagnostics: progenitor mass function (PMF), mass assembly history (MAH), merger rate per descendant halo, and the unevolved subhalo mass function (USMF). Read More

It is common practice for methods that use galaxy clustering to constrain the galaxy-halo relationship, such as the halo occupation distribution (HOD) and/or conditional luminosity function (CLF), to assume that halo mass alone suffices to determine a halo's resident galaxy population. Yet, the clustering strength of cold dark matter halos depends upon halo properties in addition to mass, such as formation time, an effect referred to as assembly bias. If galaxy characteristics are correlated with any of these auxiliary halo properties, the basic assumption of HOD/CLF methods is violated. Read More

Using a sample of galaxy groups selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 (SDSS DR7), we examine the alignment between the orientation of galaxies and their surrounding large scale structure in the context of the cosmic web. The latter is quantified using the large-scale tidal field, reconstructed from the data using galaxy groups above a certain mass threshold. We find that the major axes of galaxies in filaments tend to be preferentially aligned with the directions of the filaments, while galaxies in sheets have their major axes preferentially aligned parallel to the plane of the sheets. Read More

Affiliations: 1U. Missouri-Kansas City, 2U. Missouri-Kansas City, 3U. Missouri-Kansas City, 4U. Michigan, 5U. California-San Diego, 6Yale University, 7INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, 8U. Missouri-Kansas City, 9U. Missouri-Kansas City, 10U. Heidelberg, 11Massachusetts Institute of Technology

We use the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to investigate the properties of massive elliptical galaxies in the local Universe (z\leq0.08) that have unusually blue optical colors. Through careful inspection, we distinguish elliptical from non-elliptical morphologies among a large sample of similarly blue galaxies with high central light concentrations (c_r\geq2. Read More

We examine the statistical properties of the brightest group galaxies (BGGs) using a complete spectroscopic sample of groups/clusters of galaxies selected from the Data Release 7 of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We test whether BGGs and other bright members of groups are consistent with an ordered population among the total population of group galaxies. We find that the luminosity distributions of BGGs do not follow the predictions from the order statistics (OS). Read More

We develop an empirical approach to infer the star formation rate in dark matter halos from the galaxy stellar mass function (SMF) at different redshifts and the local cluster galaxy luminosity function (CGLF), which has a steeper faint end relative to the SMF of local galaxies. As satellites are typically old galaxies which have been accreted earlier, this feature can cast important constraint on the formation of low-mass galaxies at high-redshift. The evolution of the SMFs suggests the star formation in high mass halos ($>10^{12}M_{\odot}h^{-1}$) has to be boosted at high redshift beyond what is expected from a simple scaling of the dynamical time. Read More

Galaxies that are several virial radii beyond groups/clusters show preferentially quiescent star formation rates. Using a galaxy group/cluster catalog from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, together with a cosmological N-body simulation, we examine the origin of this environmental quenching beyond the virial radius. Accounting for the clustering of groups/clusters, we show that central galaxies show enhanced SFR quenching out to 2. Read More

Using the self-consistent modeling of the conditional stellar mass functions across cosmic time by Yang et al. (2012), we make model predictions for the star formation histories (SFHs) of {\it central} galaxies in halos of different masses. The model requires the following two key ingredients: (i) mass assembly histories of central and satellite galaxies, and (ii) local observational constraints of the star formation rates of central galaxies as function of halo mass. Read More

Recent Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations have revealed that a majority of active galactic nuclei (AGN) at z ~ 1-3 are resident in isolated disk galaxies, contrary to the usual expectation that AGN are triggered by mergers. Here we develop a new test of the cosmic evolution of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) in disk galaxies by considering the local population of SMBHs. We show that substantial SMBH growth in spiral galaxies is required as disks assemble. Read More

Our research objective in this paper is to reconstruct an initial linear density field, which follows the multivariate Gaussian distribution with variances given by the linear power spectrum of the current CDM model and evolves through gravitational instability to the present-day density field in the local Universe. For this purpose, we develop a Hamiltonian Markov Chain Monte Carlo method to obtain the linear density field from a posterior probability function that consists of two components: a prior of a Gaussian density field with a given linear spectrum, and a likelihood term that is given by the current density field. The present-day density field can be reconstructed from galaxy groups using the method developed in Wang et al. Read More

With galaxy groups constructed from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), we analyze the expected galaxy-galaxy lensing signals around satellite galaxies residing in different host haloes and located at different halo-centric distances. We use Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method to explore the potential constraints on the mass and density profile of subhaloes associated with satellite galaxies from SDSS-like surveys and surveys similar to the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST). Our results show that for SDSS-like surveys, we can only set a loose constraint on the mean mass of subhaloes. Read More

We simultaneously constrain cosmology and galaxy bias using measurements of galaxy abundances, galaxy clustering and galaxy-galaxy lensing taken from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We use the conditional luminosity function (which describes the halo occupation statistics as function of galaxy luminosity) combined with the halo model (which describes the non-linear matter field in terms of its halo building blocks) to describe the galaxy-dark matter connection. We explicitly account for residual redshift space distortions in the projected galaxy-galaxy correlation functions, and marginalize over uncertainties in the scale dependence of the halo bias and the detailed structure of dark matter haloes. Read More

We quantify the accuracy with which the cosmological parameters characterizing the energy density of matter (\Omega_m), the amplitude of the power spectrum of matter fluctuations (\sigma_8), the energy density of neutrinos (\Omega_{\nu}) and the dark energy equation of state (w_0) can be constrained using data from large galaxy redshift surveys. We advocate a joint analysis of the abundance of galaxies, galaxy clustering, and the galaxy-galaxy weak lensing signal in order to simultaneously constrain the halo occupation statistics (i.e. Read More

We present a new method that simultaneously solves for cosmology and galaxy bias on non-linear scales. The method uses the halo model to analytically describe the (non-linear) matter distribution, and the conditional luminosity function (CLF) to specify the halo occupation statistics. For a given choice of cosmological parameters, this model can be used to predict the galaxy luminosity function, as well as the two-point correlation functions of galaxies, and the galaxy-galaxy lensing signal, both as function of scale and luminosity. Read More

We exploit the SDSS galaxy groups catalogue of Yang et al. to study how the gas-phase metallicities of star-forming galaxies depend on environment. We find that satellite and central galaxies follow a qualitatively similar stellar mass (M_*) - gas-phase metallicity relation. Read More

We present measurements of the velocity dispersion profile (VDP) for galaxy groups in the final data release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). For groups of given mass we estimate the redshift-space cross-correlation function (CCF) with respect to a reference galaxy sample, xi(r_p, pi), the projected CCF, w_p(r_p), and the real-space CCF, xi(r). The VDP is then extracted from the redshift distortion in xi(r_p, pi), by comparing xi(r_p, pi) with xi(r). Read More

Satellite galaxies in groups and clusters are more likely to have low star formation rates (SFR) and lie on the red-sequence than central (field) galaxies. Using galaxy group/cluster catalogs from SDSS DR7, together with a cosmological N-body simulation to track satellite orbits, we examine the star formation histories and quenching timescales of satellites of M_star > 5 x 10^9 M_sun at z=0. We first explore satellite infall histories: group preprocessing and ejected orbits are critical aspects of satellite evolution, and properly accounting for these, satellite infall typically occurred at z~0. Read More

We present a method that uses observations of galaxies to simultaneously constrain cosmological parameters and the galaxy-dark matter connection (aka halo occupation statistics). The latter describes how galaxies are distributed over dark matter haloes, and is an imprint of the poorly understood physics of galaxy formation. A generic problem of using galaxies to constrain cosmology is that galaxies are a biased tracer of the mass distribution, and this bias is generally unknown. Read More

We formulate the concept of non-linear and stochastic galaxy biasing in the framework of halo occupation statistics. Using two-point statistics in projection, we define the galaxy bias function, b_g(r_p), and the galaxy-dark matter cross-correlation function, R_{gm}(r_p), where r_p is the projected distance. We use the analytical halo model to predict how the scale dependence of b_g and R_{gm}, over the range 0. Read More

We use the ROSAT all sky survey X-ray cluster catalogs and the optical SDSS DR7 galaxy and group catalogs to cross-identify X-ray clusters with their optical counterparts, resulting in a sample of 201 X-ray clusters in the sky coverage of SDSS DR7. We investigate various correlations between the optical and X-ray properties of these X-ray clusters, and find that the following optical properties are correlated with the X-ray luminosity: the central galaxy luminosity, the central galaxy mass, the characteristic group luminosity ($\propto \Lx^{0.43}$), the group stellar mass ($\propto \Lx^{0. Read More

We present a new model to describe the galaxy-dark matter connection across cosmic time, which unlike the popular subhalo abundance matching technique is self-consistent in that it takes account of the facts that (i) subhalos are accreted at different times, and (ii) the properties of satellite galaxies may evolve after accretion. Using observations of galaxy stellar mass functions out to $z \sim 4$, the conditional stellar mass function at $z\sim 0.1$ obtained from SDSS galaxy group catalogues, and the two-point correlation function (2PCF) of galaxies at $z \sim 0. Read More