Fan Guo - Los Alamos National Lab

Fan Guo
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Fan Guo
Los Alamos National Lab
United States

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Pub Categories

Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (18)
Physics - Space Physics (16)
High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (16)
Physics - Plasma Physics (13)
Astrophysics of Galaxies (1)

Publications Authored By Fan Guo

Affiliations: 1University of New Mexico, 2Los Alamos National Lab, 3Los Alamos National Lab, 4University of New Mexico

Kink instabilities are likely to occur in the current-carrying magnetized plasma jets. Recent observations of the blazar radiation and polarization signatures suggest that the blazar emission region may be considerably magnetized. While the kink instability has been studied with first-principle magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations, the corresponding time-dependent radiation and polarization signatures have not been investigated. Read More

We simulate decaying turbulence in electron-positron pair plasmas using a fully- kinetic particle-in-cell (PIC) code. We run two simulations with moderate-to-low plasma beta. The energy decay rate is found to be similar in both the cases. Read More

Type III and type-III-like radio bursts are produced by energetic electron beams guided along coronal magnetic fields. As a variant of type III bursts, Type N bursts appear as the letter "N" in the radio dynamic spectrum and reveal a magnetic mirror effect in coronal loops. Here, we report a well-observed N-shaped burst consisting of three successive branches at metric wavelength with both fundamental and harmonic components and a high brightness temperature ($>$10$^9$ K). Read More

A model of global magnetic reconnection rate in relativistic collisionless plasmas is developed and validated by the fully kinetic simulation. Through considering the force balance at the upstream and downstream of the diffusion region, we show that the global rate is bounded by a value $\sim 0.3$ even when the local rate goes up to $\sim O(1)$ and the local inflow speed approaches the speed of light in strongly magnetized plasmas. Read More

Plasma energization through magnetic reconnection in the magnetically-dominated regime featured by low plasma beta ($\beta = 8 \pi nkT_0/B^2 \ll 1$) and/or high magnetization ($\sigma = B^2/(4 \pi nmc^2) \gg 1$) is important in a series of astrophysical systems such as solar flares, pulsar wind nebula, and relativistic jets from black holes, etc. In this paper, we review the recent progress on kinetic simulations of this process and further discuss plasma dynamics and particle acceleration in a low-$\beta$ reconnection layer that consists of electron-positron pairs. We also examine the effect of different initial thermal temperatures on the resulting particle energy spectra. Read More

With a test-particle simulation, we investigate the effect of large-scale coronal magnetic fields on electron acceleration at an outward-propagating coronal shock with a circular front. The coronal field is approximated by an analytical solution with a streamer-like magnetic field featured by partially open magnetic field and a current sheet at the equator atop the closed region. We show that the large-scale shock-field configuration, especially the relative curvature of the shock and the magnetic field line across which the shock is sweeping, plays an important role in the efficiency of electron acceleration. Read More

Magnetic reconnection is a leading mechanism for dissipating magnetic energy and accelerating nonthermal particles in Poynting-flux dominated flows. In this letter, we investigate nonthermal particle acceleration during magnetic reconnection in a magnetically-dominated ion-electron plasma using fully kinetic simulations. For an ion-electron plasma with the total magnetization $\sigma_0=B^2/(4\pi n(m_i+m_e)c^2)$, the magnetization for each species is $\sigma_i \sim \sigma_0$ and $\sigma_e \sim (m_i/m_e) \sigma_0$, respectively. Read More

By means of fully kinetic simulations, we investigate electron acceleration during magnetic reconnection in a nonrelativistic proton--electron plasma with conditions similar to solar corona and flares. We demonstrate that reconnection leads to a nonthermally dominated electron acceleration with a power-law energy distribution in the nonrelativistic low-$\beta$ regime but not in the high-$\beta$ regime, where $\beta$ is the ratio of the plasma thermal pressure and the magnetic pressure. The accelerated electrons contain most of the dissipated magnetic energy in the low-$\beta$ regime. Read More

Magnetic reconnection is thought to be the driver for many explosive phenomena in the universe. The energy release and particle acceleration during reconnection have been proposed as a mechanism for producing high-energy emissions and cosmic rays. We carry out two- and three-dimensional kinetic simulations to investigate relativistic magnetic reconnection and the associated particle acceleration. Read More

Affiliations: 1Ohio University, 2University of Potsdam, Germany, 3North-West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa, 4Los Alamos National Lab, 5Los Alamos National Lab

The polarization signatures of the blazar emissions are known to be highly variable. In addition to small fluctuations of the polarization angle around a mean value, sometimes large (> 180^o) polarization angle swings are observed. We suggest that such p henomena can be interpreted as arising from light-travel-time effects within an underlying axisymmetric emission region. Read More

Magnetic reconnection is believed to be the dominant energy release mechanism in solar flares. The standard flare model predicts both downward and upward outflow plasmas with speeds close to the coronal Alfv\'{e}n speed. Yet, spectroscopic observations of such outflows, especially the downflows, are extremely rare. Read More

Two solar type II radio bursts, separated by ~24 hours in time, are examined together. Both events are associated with coronal mass ejections (CMEs) erupting from the same active region (NOAA 11176) beneath a well-observed helmet streamer. We find that the type II emissions in both events ended once the CME/shock fronts passed the white-light streamer tip, which is presumably the magnetic cusp of the streamer. Read More

Using fully kinetic simulations, we study the scaling of the inflow speed of collisionless magnetic reconnection from the non-relativistic to ultra-relativistic limit. In the anti-parallel configuration, the inflow speed increases with the upstream magnetization parameter $\sigma$ and approaches the light speed when $\sigma > O(100)$, leading to an enhanced reconnection rate. In all regimes, the divergence of pressure tensor is the dominant term responsible for breaking the frozen-in condition at the x-line. Read More

We perform a numerical-simulation study of the acceleration of electrons at shocks that propagate through a prespecified, kinematically defined turbulent magnetic field. The turbulence consists of broadband magnetic fluctuations that are embedded in the plasma and cover a range of wavelengths, the smallest of which is larger than the gyroadii of electrons that are initially injected into the system. We find that when the variance of the turbulent component of the upstream magnetic field is sufficiently large -- $\sigma^2 \sim$ 10 $B_0^2$, where $B_0$ is the strength of the background magnetic field -- electrons can be efficiently accelerated at a collisionless shock regardless of the orientation of the mean upstream magnetic field relative to the shock-normal direction. Read More

Using fully kinetic simulations, we demonstrate that magnetic reconnection in relativistic plasmas is highly efficient at accelerating particles through a first-order Fermi process resulting from the curvature drift of particles in the direction of the electric field induced by the relativistic flows. This mechanism gives rise to the formation of hard power-law spectra in parameter regimes where the energy density in the reconnecting field exceeds the rest mass energy density $\sigma \equiv B^2/(4 \pi n m_ec^2) > 1$ and when the system size is sufficiently large. In the limit $\sigma \gg 1$, the spectral index approaches $p=1$ and most of the available energy is converted into non-thermal particles. Read More

Simultaneous radio and extreme ultraviolet (EUV)/white-light imaging data are examined for a solar type II radio burst occurring on 2010 March 18 to deduce its source location. Using a bow-shock model, we reconstruct the 3-dimensional EUV wave front (presumably the type-II emitting shock) based on the imaging data of the two STEREO spacecraft. It is then combined with the Nan\c{c}ay radio imaging data to infer the 3-dimensional position of the type II source. Read More

Using numerical simulations of charged-particles propagating in the heliospheric magnetic field, we study small-scale gradients, or "dropouts", in the intensity of solar energetic particles seen at 1 AU. We use two turbulence models, the foot-point random motion model (Jokipii & Parker 1969; Giacalone et al. 2006) and two-component model (Matthaeus et al. Read More

We present three-dimensional hybrid simulations of collisionless shocks that propagate parallel to the background magnetic field to study the acceleration of protons that forms a high-energy tail on the distribution. We focus on the initial acceleration of thermal protons and compare it with results from one-dimensional simulations. We find that for both one- and three-dimensional simulations, particles that end up in the high-energy tail of the distribution later in the simulation gained their initial energy right at the shock. Read More

After introduction we focus on: the transport of charged particles, the acceleration of ions at shocks, and the acceleration of electrons at shocks. Chapter 2 studies the propagation of solar energetic particles(SEPs) in turbulent magnetic fields. Particle trajectories in turbulent magnetic fields are numerically integrated. Read More

We present a study of the acceleration of electrons at a perpendicular shock that propagates through a turbulent magnetic field. The energization process of electrons is investigated by utilizing a combination of hybrid (kinetic ions and fluid electron) simulations and test-particle electron simulations. In this method, the motions of the test-particle electrons are numerically integrated in the time-dependent electric and magnetic fields generated by two-dimensional hybrid simulations. Read More

We investigate the acceleration of charged particles (both electrons and protons) at collisionless shocks predicted to exist in the vicinity of solar flares. The existence of standing termination shocks has been examined by flare models and numerical simulations e.g. Read More

We discuss an intriguing type II radio burst that occurred on 2011 March 27. The dynamic spectrum was featured by a sudden break at about 43 MHz on the well-observed harmonic branch. Before the break, the spectrum drifted gradually with a mean rate of about -0. Read More

We have performed extensive two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations to study the amplification of magnetic fields when a supernova blast wave propagates into a turbulent interstellar plasma. The blast wave is driven by injecting high pressure in the simulation domain. The interstellar magnetic field can be amplified by two different processes, occurring in different regions. Read More

We study the physics of electron acceleration at collisionless shocks that move through a plasma containing large-scale magnetic fluctuations. We numerically integrate the trajectories of a large number of electrons, which are treated as test particles moving in the time dependent electric and magnetic fields determined from 2-D hybrid simulations (kinetic ions, fluid electron). The large-scale magnetic fluctuations effect the electrons in a number of ways and lead to efficient and rapid energization at the shock front. Read More