F. Q. Shao

F. Q. Shao
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F. Q. Shao

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High Energy Physics - Phenomenology (22)
Nuclear Theory (15)
Physics - Biological Physics (2)
Physics - Plasma Physics (2)
High Energy Physics - Experiment (1)
Nuclear Experiment (1)
Quantitative Biology - Biomolecules (1)

Publications Authored By F. Q. Shao

Yield ratios of identified hadrons observed in high multiplicity p+p and p+Pb collisions at LHC show remarkable similarity with those in Pb+Pb collisions, indicating some important and universal underlying dynamics in hadron production for different quark gluon final states. We use the quark combination model to explain the data of yield ratios in these three collision systems. The observed $p/\pi$ and $\Lambda/K_s^0$ can be reproduced simultaneously by quark combination, and these two ratios reflect the rate of baryon production at hadronization which is the same in light sector and strange sector and is roughly constant in p+p, p+Pb and Pb+Pb collision systems over three orders of magnitude in charged particle multiplicity. Read More

It is shown by particle-in-cell simulation that intense circularly polarized (CP) laser light can be contained in the cavity of a solid-density circular Al-plasma shell for hundreds of light-wave periods before it is dissipated by laser-plasma interaction. A right-hand CP laser pulse can propagate almost without reflection into the cavity through a highly magnetized overdense H-plasma slab filling the entrance hole. The entrapped laser light is then multiply reflected at the inner surfaces of the slab and shell plasmas, gradually losing energy to the latter. Read More

Generation of relativistic electron (RE) beams during ultraintense laser pulse interaction with plasma targets is studied by collisional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. Strong magnetic field with transverse scale length of several local plasma skin depths, associated with RE currents propagation in the target, is generated by filamentation instability (FI) in collisional plasmas, inducing a great enhancement of the divergence of REs compared to that of collisionless cases. Such effect is increased with laser intensity and target charge state, suggesting that the RE divergence might be improved by using low-Z materials under appropriate laser intensities in future fast ignition experiments and in other applications of laser-driven electron beams. Read More

The dynamical fluctuation and correlation of multiplicity distributions of identified baryons and antibaryons produced by the hadronization of the bulk quark system are systematically studied in quark combination model. Starting from the most basic dynamics of quark combination which are necessary for multiplicity study, we analyze moments (variance, skewness and kurtosis) of inclusive multiplicity distribution of identified baryons, two-baryon multiplicity correlations, and baryon-antibaryon multiplicity correlations after the hadronization of quark system with given quark number and antiquark number. We obtain a series of interesting findings, e. Read More

The production of hadronic resonances $K^{*}(892)$, $\phi(1020)$, $\Sigma^{*}(1385)$, and $\Xi^{*}(1530)$ in central AA collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}=$ 17.3, 200, and 2760 GeV are systematically studied. The direct production of these resonances at system hadronization are described by the quark combination model and the effects of hadron multiple-scattering stage are dealt with by a ultra-relativistic quantum molecular dynamics model (UrQMD). Read More

In this work, we investigate the production of $X_b$ in the process $\Upsilon(5S,6S)\to \gamma X_b$, where $X_b$ is assumed to be the counterpart of $X(3872)$ in the bottomonium sector as a $B {\bar B}^*$ molecular state. We use the effective Lagrangian based on the heavy quark symmetry to explore the rescattering mechanism and calculate their production ratios. Our results have shown that the production ratios for the $\Upsilon(5S,6S) \to \gamma X_b$ are orders of $10^{-5}$ with reasonable cutoff parameter range $\alpha \simeq 2\sim 3$. Read More

In the framework of the quark combination, we derive the yield formulas and study the yield ratios of the hidden-charm pentaquark states in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions. We propose some interesting yield ratios which clearly exhibit the production relationships between different hidden-charm pentaquark states. We show how to employ a specific quark combination model to evaluate the yields of exotic $P_c^+(4380)$, $P_c^+(4450)$ and their partners on the basis of reproducing the yields of normal identified hadrons, and execute the calculations in central Pb+Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}= 2. Read More

Because of DNA appealing features as perfect material, including minuscule size, defined structural repeat and rigidity, programmable DNA-mediated processing is a promising computing paradigm, which employs DNAs as information storing and processing substrates to tackle the computational problems. The massive parallelism of DNA hybridization exhibits transcendent potential to improve multitasking capabilities and yield a tremendous speed-up over the conventional electronic processors with stepwise signal cascade. As an example of multitasking capability, we present an in vitro programmable DNA-mediated optimal route planning processor as a functional unit embedded in contemporary navigation systems. Read More

Exaggerate radical-induced DNA damage under magnetic fields is of great concerns to medical biosafety and to bio-molecular device based upon DNA electronic conductivity. In this report, the effect of applying an external magnetic field (MF) on DNA-mediated charge transport (CT) was investigated by studying guanine oxidation by a kinetics trap (8CPG) via photoirradiation of anthraquinone (AQ) in the presence of an external MF. Positive enhancement in CT efficiencies was observed in both the proximal and distal 8CPG after applying a static MF of 300 mT. Read More

The baryon-strangeness correlation in the hadronization of the quark matter is studied within the quark combination mechanism. We calculate the correlation coefficient $C_{BS} = -3\big(\langle B S \rangle -\langle B\rangle \langle S\rangle\big)/\big( \langle S^2 \rangle-\langle S \rangle^2 \big)$ of initial hadrons produced from the deconfined free quark system with $C^{(q)}_{BS}=1$. The competition of the production of baryons against that of mesons is the key dynamics that is most relevant to the change of baryon-strangeness correlation during system hadronization. Read More

We propose a new kind of two-particle correlation of identified hadrons in longitudinal rapidity space, called $G_{\alpha\beta}(y_{\alpha},y_{\beta})$, which can reflect clearly the charge correlations of hot quark system produced in AA collisions at LHC energies. It is derived from the basic scenario of quark combination mechanism of hadron production. Like the elliptic flow of identified hadrons at intermediate transverse momentum, this correlation is independent of the absolute hadronic yields but dependent only on the flavor compositions of hadrons, and thus exhibits interesting properties for different kinds of hadron species. Read More

We extend the study of hadron yield correlation in combination models in a recent publication to baryon-anti-baryon flavor correlations in heavy ion collisions. We show that the universal behaviors of the anti-baryon to baryon yield ratios as functions of that of $K^-$ to $K^+$ are naturally explained. We study also the "mixed ratios" and propose other measurements that might be sensitive to the hadronization mechanism. Read More

Recently the ALICE Collaboration has published a few data of charm hadrons in Pb + Pb collisions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). We extend the quark combination to the charm sector and point out that the measurement of charm hadron yields can provide important insights into charm quark hadronization mechanism and properties of the hot and dense matter produced in high energy reactions. We propose several types of yield ratios, e. Read More

Experimental data at RHIC and SPS energies suggest a systematic correlation between yield ratio $\bar{p}/p$ and $K^{-}/K^{+}$, which reveal some universality of hadron production in relativistic heavy ion collisions. We propose an explanation based on the quark combination mechanism in which the production asymmetry between baryons and antibaryons is focused on especially. We start from the basic ideas of quark combination to carry out a general analysis of the properties of the global production of baryons and mesons and obtain the yields of baryons, antibaryons and mesons as functions of the number of constituent quarks and antiquarks just before hadronization. Read More

With the recent measurement of $Z_b(10610)$ and $Z_b(10650)\to B\bar{B}^*+c.c.$ and $B^*\bar{B}^*$, we investigate the transitions from the $Z_b(10610)$ and $Z_b(10650)$ to bottomonium states with emission of a pion via intermediate $B \ {B}^*$ meson loops. Read More

We study the hadron yield correlation in the combination models in high energy heavy ion collisions. We derive the relationship between the average yields of different hadrons produced in the combination of a system consisting of equal number of quarks and antiquarks. We present the results for the directly produced hadrons as well as those for the final hadrons including the strong and electromagnetic decay contributions. Read More

We calculate the charge balance function of the bulk quark system before hadronization and those for the directly produced and the final hadron system in high energy heavy ion collisions. We use the covariance coefficient to describe the strength of the correlation between the momentum of the quark and that of the anti-quark if they are produced in a pair and fix the parameter by comparing the results for hadrons with the available data. We study the hadronization effects and decay contributions by comparing the results for hadrons with those for the bulk quark system. Read More

Applying a quark combination model for the hadronization of Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP) and A Relativistic Transport (ART) model for the subsequent hadronic rescattering process, we investigate the production of $K^{*0}$ and $\Sigma^*$ resonances in central Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}=$ 200 GeV and 62.4 GeV. The initial $K^{*0}$ produced via hadronization is higher than the experimental data in the low $p_T$ region and is close to the data at 2-3 GeV/c. Read More

The quark combination mechanism of hadron production is applied to nucleus-nucleus collisions at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) and BNL Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS). The rapidity spectra of identified hadrons and their spectrum widths are studied. The data of $\pi^{-}$, $K^{\pm}$, $\phi$, $\Lambda$, $\bar{\Lambda}$, $\Xi^{-}$, and $\bar{\Xi}^{+}$ at 80 and 40 AGeV, in particular at 30 and 20 AGeV where the onset of deconfinement is suggested to happen, are consistently described by the quark combination model. Read More

Under the assignment of $D_s(3040)$ as a radially excited p-wave $\bar cs$ state with $J^P=1^+$, we compute the $B_s\to D_s (3040)$ form factors within the covariant light-front quark model. Two classification schemes for the p-wave $\bar cs$ meson are adopted. We also use our results to predict the branching ratios (BRs), polarization fractions and angular asymmetries in semileptonic $B_s\to D_s(3040)\ell\bar\nu(\ell=e,\mu,\tau)$. Read More

Based on the assumption of the production of deconfined quark matter, we use a quark combination model to systematically investigate hadron yields in heavy ion collisions from RHIC $\sqrt{s_{NN}}=200, 130, 62.4$ GeV to SPS $E_{beam}=158, 80, 40, 30, 20 $ AGeV. We find that as the collision energy is greater than or equal to 30 AGeV the yields of various hadrons, their correlations, in particular, the observables $A=\frac{\bar{\Lambda} k^{-} p}{\Lambda k^{+} \bar{p}}$ and $B=\frac{\Lambda k^{-}\bar{\Xi}^{+}}{\bar{\Lambda} k^{+}\Xi^{-}}$, are all reproduced; however, as the collision energy drops to 20 AGeV quark combination fails. Read More

We use two available methods, the Duhem-Gibbs relation and the entropy formula in terms of particle phase space distributions, to calculate the entropy in a quark combination model. The entropy of the system extracted from the Duhem-Gibbs relation is found to increase in hadronization if the average temperature of the hadronic phase is lower than that of the quark phase. The increase of the entropy can also be confirmed from the entropy formula if the volume of the hadronic phase is larger than 2. Read More

The philosophy on production of exotic hadrons (multi-quark states) in the framework of quark combination model is investigated, taking $f_0(980)$ as an example. The production rate and $p_T$ spectra of $f_0(980)$ considered as $(s\bar s)$ or $(s\bar q\bar s q)$ respectively, are calculated and compared in Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}=200GeV$. The unitarity of various combination models, when open for exotic hadron production, is addressed. Read More

The quark combination mechanism of QGP hadronization is applied to nucleus-nucleus collisions at top SPS energy. The yields, rapidity and transverse momentum distributions of identified hadrons in most central Pb+Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}= 17.3$ GeV are systematically studied. Read More

Utilizing the three-fireball picture within the quark combination model, we study systematically the charged particle pseudorapidity distributions in both Au+Au and Cu+Cu collision systems as a function of collision centrality and energy, $\sqrt{s_{NN}}=$ 19.6, 62.4, 130 and 200 GeV, in full pseudorapidity range. Read More

The centrality dependence of transverse momentum spectra for identified hadrons at midrapidity in Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}= 200$ GeV is systematically studied in a quark combination model. The $\mathrm{{p}_{T}}$ spectra of $\pi^{\pm}$, $K^{\pm}$, $p(\bar{p})$ and $\Lambda(\bar{\Lambda})$ in different centrality bins and the nuclear modification factors ($R_{CP}$) for these hadrons are calculated. The centrality dependence of the average collective transverse velocity $<\beta (r)>$ for the hot and dense quark matter is obtained in Au+Au collisions, and it is applied to a relative smaller Cu+Cu collision system. Read More

Within a quark combination model, we study systematically the yields and rapidity spectra of various hadrons in central Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}= 200$ GeV. We find that considering the difference in rapidity between net-quarks and newborn quarks, the data of multiplicities, rapidity distributions for $\pi^{\pm}$, $K^{\pm}$, $p(\bar{p})$ and, in particular the ratios of charged antihadron to hadron as a function of rapidity, can be well described. The effect of net-quarks on various hadrons is analysed, and the rapidity distributions for $K^{0}_{s}$, $\Lambda(\bar{\Lambda})$, $\Sigma^{+}(\bar{\Sigma}^{_-})$, $\mathrm{\Xi^{-}}$ ($\mathrm{\bar{\Xi}^{_+}}$) and $\mathrm{\Omega^{-}}(\mathrm{\bar{\Omega}}^{_+})$ are predicted. Read More

The rapidity and transverse momentum spectra for identified hadrons in central Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}= 200$ GeV are computed in a quark combination model. The data of rapidity distributions for $\pi^{\pm}$, $K^{\pm}$, $p(\bar{p})$ and net protons $(p-\bar{p})$ are well described. We also predict rapidity distributions for $K^{0}_{s}$, $\Lambda(\bar{\Lambda})$, $\mathrm{\Xi^{-}}$ ($\mathrm{\bar{\Xi}^{_+}}$) and $\mathrm{\Omega^{-}}+\mathrm{\bar{\Omega}}^{_+}$. Read More

Rapidity/seudorapidity densities for charged particles and their centrality, rapidity and energy dependence in Au+Au collisions at RHIC are studied in a quark combination model. Using a Gaussian-type rapidity distribution for constituent quarks as a result of Landau hydrodynamic evolution, the data at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}=130, 200$ GeV at various centralities in full pseudorapidity range are well described, and the charged particle multiplicity are reproduced as functions of the number of participants. The energy dependence of the shape of the $dN_{ch}/d\eta$ distribution is also described at various collision energies $\sqrt{s_{NN}}=200, 130, 62. Read More

We carry out a detail study of elliptic flows in Au-Au collisions at 200 AGeV in a quark combination model. We find that elliptic flow data for a variety of hadrons can be well reproduced except pions if constituent quarks with equal parallel transverse momenta combine into initially produced hadrons. In a combination mechanism where initial hadrons are formed by quarks with unequal parallel transverse momenta, theoretical predictions agree with data for all available hadrons including pions. Read More

The hadron production in relativistic heavy ion collisions is well described by the quark combination model. The mixed ratios for various hadrons and the transverse momentum spectra for long-life hadrons are predicted and agree with recent RHIC data. The production rates for the pentaquarks $\Theta ^+$, $\Theta ^{*++}$ and the di-baryon $(\Omega\Omega)_{0^{+}}$ are estimated, neglecting the effect from the transition amplitude for constituent quarks to form an exotic state. Read More

We replace in the event generator JETSET the color singlet chain connection with the color separate state one as the interface between the hard and soft sectors of hadronic processes. The modified generator is applied to produce the hadronic events in $e^+ e^-$ annihilation. It describes the experimental data at the same level as the original JETSET with default parameters. Read More

Hadronic events in $e^+ e^- \to Z^0$ are generated by a Monte-Carlo model including the production of colour separate states. These events are compared with those produced by the JETSET with default set of parameters where the colour connections are colour singlet chains. By selecting two-jet-like events and a sensitive observable, we find that these two kinds of colour connections lead to significant differences in the hadronic states. Read More